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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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CIS 07-1241 Nakata A., Ikeda T., Takahashi M., Haratani T., Hojou M., Fujioka Y., Swanson N.G., Araki S.
Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises
This study examined the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Subjects included 1049 men and 721 women from 244 SMEs. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last one-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio (OR) 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women) and low job satisfaction (OR 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.658-669. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 07-1246 Légeron P., Cristofini R.
Survey on occupational stress - Full report
Enquête sur le stress professionnel - Rapport complet [in French]
A survey on occupational stress among the working population was carried out in Luxembourg in 2005. This document, jointly published by the Luxembourg league for mental hygiene (Ligue Luxembourgeoise d'Hygiène Mentale) and the independent confederation of Luxembourg trade unions (Confédération indépendante des syndicats du Luxembourg) is the full report of the survey. Data were collected by means of questionnaires addressed to a representative sample of 1230 gainfully employed persons. The survey revealed that occupational stress is perceived as being high or very high by one out of four respondents, whereas non-occupational stress is perceived as being high or very high by slightly less than one respondent in seven. Women were twice as likely to be affected by stress as were men. Important differences were also observed according to occupation (blue-collar workers were much more at risk) and sector of activity.
Stimulus, 205 rue Saint-Honoré, 75001 Paris, France, 2006. 132p. Illus. [in French]

CIS 07-1232 Job pressure in the construction industry
Pression du travail dans la construction [in French]
This article presents the summary of a study on job pressure and stress in the construction industry, according to which "sustainable work" depends on four factors: occupational stress, motivation, learning possibilities and work-life balance.
Prevent Focus, Dec. 2006. p.14-16. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 07-1236 Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vinet A., Vézina M., Abdous B., Gaudet M.
Effectiveness of a participative intervention on psychosocial work factors to prevent mental health problems in a hospital setting
This article describes the evaluation of a workplace intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and effort-reward imbalance) and mental health problems among care providers of a Quebec hospital. Participants were interviewed by phone before and one year after the intervention. One year after the intervention, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors in the experimental group, whereas no such reduction was found in the control group. Results suggest positive effects of the intervention. See CIS 07-1235 for details of the development and implementation phases of the study.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.335-342. 34 ref.

CIS 07-1235 Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vinet A., Vézina M., Lower A.
Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital
This article describes the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors and their mental health effects among 500 care providers in a Quebec hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed and showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a reference population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR)=2.27), low social support from supervisors and co-workers (PR=1.35), low reward (PR=2.92), and effort-reward imbalance (PR=2.65). Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions. It was decided to target interventions towards team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organization, training, communication, and ergonomics. See CIS 07-1236 for an assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.326-334. 40 ref.

CIS 07-1234 Wieclaw J., Agerbo E., Mortensen P.B., Bonde J.P.
Risk of affective and stress-related disorders among employees in human service professions
The objective of this case-control study was to examine the risk of affective and stress related disorders in human service occupations. 28,971 cases were identified among all hospitalized patients and outpatients in Denmark aged 18-65 who received a first time ever diagnosis of affective or stress-related disorder between 1995 and 1998. Each case was assigned five never-admitted referents of the same sex and age, randomly drawn from the Danish population. Health care, education, social work, and customer services were defined as human service occupations and constituted 21% of all those in the study. The relative risk of depression in human service professions was 1.35 for women and 1.49 for men. The risk of stress was 1.18 for women and 1.49 for men. Specific occupations contributed differentially to the magnitude of risk, with education and social services displaying the highest risks. No increase in risks was found in customer service occupations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.314-319. 37 ref.

CIS 07-982 Lusa S., Punakallio A., Luukkonen R., Louhevaara V.
Factors associated with changes in perceived strain at work among fire-fighters: A 3-year follow-up study
This study investigated individual and work-related psychosocial factors associated with perceived physical and mental strain among fire-fighters. It was carried out in the form of a 3-year follow-up questionnaire of 632 fire-fighters. The associations were investigated by logistic regression modelling. Accidents were associated with increased perceived physical as well as mental strain (odds ratio (OR) 1.4-2.6). Unfair distribution of work tasks was associated with increased perceived physical strain (OR 8.5). Frequent differences of opinion disturbing work (OR 2.7) and the lack of possibilities for career advancement (OR 4.6) were associated with perceived increased mental strain at work. These results suggest that a variety of measures are needed to reduce the perceived physical and mental strain of fire-fighters.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2006, Vol.79, No.5, p.419-426. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-970 Toulouse G., St-Arnaud L., Bourbonnais R., Damasse J., Chicoine D., Delisle A.
Study of the prevalence of musculoskeletal and psychological disorders, physical and psychosocial factors in 9-1-1 emergency call centre dispatchers
Etude de la prévalence des troubles musculo-squelettiques et psychologiques, des facteurs physiques et psychosociaux chez les préposés des centres d'urgence 9-1-1 [in French]
This study examined musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and physical and psychosocial stress among emergency call centre operators in Quebec. It was carried out in the form of a self-administered questionnaire survey addressed to the operators of five emergency call centres. 96% of the respondents declared having suffered from musculoskeletal pain in at least one body region in the previous year. Furthermore, half of the operators of these centres were found to present a high level of psychological distress. The study describes the characteristics of the work of these operators, documents the links between risk factors and MSDs and mental health symptoms and proposes several leads for preventive measures.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. viii, 75p. Illus. 82 ref. Price: CAD 10.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 07-998 Harvey S., Courcy F., Petit A., Hudon J., Teed M., Loiselle O., Morin A.
Organizational interventions and mental health in the workplace: A synthesis of international approaches
This report summarizes knowledge relating to organizational intervention programmes and strategies to improve mental health in the workplace. Frameworks for the understanding of stress interventions at work are described and an evidence-based framework is proposed. This requires the establishment of proof as to the presence of sources of stress and a clear description of the sources, symptoms and consequences of this stress in order to design and evaluate appropriate interventions. Evidence of the effectiveness of organizational interventions is reviewed and recommendations for future research and methodology are proposed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 48p. Illus. 94 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French] [in English]

CIS 07-997 Stuart H.
Suicide prevention: A resource at the workplace
Workers' suicide and suicide attempts are a result of complex interactions between individual vulnerabilities (such as mental health problems) and stressful working conditions. This paper argues in favour of preventive actions that can be undertaken at the workplace against the risk of suicide among workers. Contents: general suicide facts; occupation, mental disorders and stress as risk factors; productivity and cost aspects of mental health problems; medical and social support to workers with mental health disorders; creating a workplace conducive to good mental health; helping suicidal employees.
Queen's University, 99 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6, [ca 2006]. 16p. 10 ref.

CIS 07-749 Schmidt K.H., Neubach B.
Main and moderating effects of self-control demands and control deficits on indicators of job strain
Haupt- und Interaktionseffekte von Selbstkontrollanforderungen und Kontrolldefiziten auf Indikatoren der Arbeitsbeanspruchung [in German]
A survey of office workers was conducted to examine the relationships between job-related demands of self-control and indicators of job strain. The extent of job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization was determined among 630 employees of a municipal administration department in Germany. In addition, the tendency towards making mistakes (cognitive control deficits) was determined by questionnaire. Results showed a significant increase in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and a significant decrease in job satisfaction with increasing job-related demands for self-control. The tendency towards cognitive control deficits rose significantly with increasing job-related demands for self-control.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2006, Vol.60, No.1, p.37-46. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-747 Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., David S., Barouhiel L., Barrandon G.
Psychosocial work environment and mental health: Job-strain and effort-reward imbalance models in a context of major organizational changes
This cross-sectional study explored the association between the two job-stress models, job-strain and effort-reward imbalance, and mental health outcomes in a working population exposed to major organizational changes. It involved 680 subjects, 504 men and 176 women. Psychosocial factors at work included psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, effort, reward, and overcommitment. Mental health outcomes were depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Job strain, low decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and especially job instability were found to be associated with depressive symptoms and/or psychiatric disorders among men. Overcommitment at work was a risk factor for both men and women. Social support at work played a role in reducing depressive symptoms for women. These findings emphasize the deleterious effects of the psychosocial work environment on mental health during major organizational changes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.111-119. 40 ref.

CIS 07-746 Ritvanen T., Louhevaara V., Helin P., Väisänen S., Hänninen O.
Responses of the autonomic nervous system during periods of perceived high and low work stress in younger and older female teachers
The aim of this study was to examine the response of the autonomic nervous system in younger and older healthy female teachers during work periods of perceived high and low stress. There were 14 participants in each group. In the younger group (average age 31 years), heart rate, cortisol excretion rate and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly higher during the high work stress period. The older participants (average age 54) experienced no decrease in their heart rate and cortisol excretion during the low stress period and they exhibited no significant decrease in blood pressure after the work in the evening during both periods. Recovery from stress among the older teachers was insufficient particularly in view of their elevated diastolic blood pressure during the low work stress period. Ergonomic and individually tailored measures in terms of work time control, specific relaxation techniques and a part-time retirement may improve the stress management of older teachers.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2006, Vol.37, No.3, p.311-318. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 07-742 Glasscock D.J., Rasmussen K., Carstensen O., Hansen O.N.
Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming
Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study examined psychosocial predictors of farm injuries, while controlling for exposure-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of farms in Denmark, 393 farmers completed weekly accident registration over 12 months; 310 of these also completed questionnaires on psychosocial factors. Results indicated that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms, and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational accidents. Higher levels of stressors and stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour were all associated with an elevated risk of injury. In the case of stress symptoms, the relation with accidents occurred via an interaction with safety behaviour. The combination of high levels of stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour was associated with a particularly high accident risk.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.20, No.2, p.173-189. 60 ref.

CIS 07-745 Holman G.T., Carnahan B.J., Thomas R.E.
Using surveys to identify stressors in generalized jobs: A direct clustering method
The objective of this study was to develop a method for identifying the physiological and psychological stress factors associated with various work tasks. The resulting method consisted of a three-section survey followed by a short interview. The first two sections of the survey provide descriptive information concerning both employee demographics and the physiological burden being placed on the employees, in terms of stress exhibited on specific body parts and the severity of that stress. The third survey section and interview then focuses on identifying correlations between job task and perceived stressors. This method was tested in a fisheries operation, considered as a pilot study. It identified eight high-risk tasks. Subsequent on-site analysis quantitatively verified that each of these tasks had been correctly classified by the presented method.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2006, Vol.36, No.7, p.671-677. 14 ref.

CIS 07-744 St-Vincent M., Denis D., Imbeau D., Trudeau R.
Symptoms of stress related to the characteristics of customer service in warehouse superstores
The stress symptoms of 91 sales clerks and 28 managers in six warehouse superstores of a large chain specializing in office supplies were documented with the Karasek and Maslach questionnaires. The results show different stress symptoms in the two populations. In managers, stress appears to be a result of an overinvestment in work. Stress in sales clerks is related to customer service characteristics, which were studied through work observation, interviews and the analysis of a daily journal. It was found that the time that can be allotted to each customer service intervention is less than one minute. In more than a third of such interventions, sales clerks must serve more than one customer at a time. On average, they cannot work continuously on the same task more than 1.5 min. Sales clerks are also stressed by difficult customers. Solutions are proposed mainly to reduce interruptions that lead to mistakes, stress, degraded performance and increased workload.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 2006, Vol.36, No.4, p.313-321. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 07-741 Glasscock D.J., Rasmussen K., Carstensen O., Hansen O.N.
Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming
Stress may be a cause of occupational accidents. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of 794 farms in Denmark, 393 farmers provided weekly reports of accidents over 12 months and completed a questionnaire on various psychosocial factors. Results indicated that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational accidents.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.20, No.2, p.173-189. 60 ref.

CIS 07-499 François M., Liévin D.
Approach for the prevention of stress at work - Development of an organizational diagnosis
Démarche de prévention du stress au travail - La réalisation d'un diagnostic organisationnel [in French]
In response to requests from safety and health professionals and occupational physicians for advice on stress management within the enterprise, the INRS developed a method for the identification of groups of persons exposed to stress and the main factors likely to be the cause of stress. This article describes the development of the diagnostic method and its trial implementation in three establishments. The four stages of the method involve: project implementation, analysis of the structure and function of the enterprise, questionnaire survey of workers and presentation of results of the project. The diagnosis should be followed by the development and implementation of a plan of action.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.309-319. Illus. 22 ref.$File/TF150.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-495 Martinussen M., Richardsen A.M.
Air traffic controller burnout: Survey responses regarding job demands, job resources, and health
There are currently many changes taking place in the aviation sector that affect the work of air traffic controllers (ATCOs), and thus it was considered important to assess work-related demands and stress responses among ATCOs. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of burnout among ATCOs compared to workers in other occupations, to examine the relationship between job demands, job resources and burnout, and to examine if burnout could predict both work and health-related outcomes. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 209 Norwegian ATCOs. The overall level of burnout was lower than among journalists and police officers, and similar to that of construction workers. This could be related to selection procedures for the profession. Burnout was related to important outcome variables such as psychosomatic complaints and attitudes toward work.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.77, No.4, p.422-428. 33 ref.

CIS 07-498 Chouanière D.
Stress and psychosocial risk factors: Concepts and prevention
Stress et risques psychosociaux: concepts et prévention [in French]
The first part of this review article describes the current understanding of stress and psychosocial risk factors, in particular external violence (from persons external to the enterprise), internal violence (from persons within the enterprise) including bullying, suffering and ill-being at work. Chronic stress is the cause of adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, mental health disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The second part of the article is devoted to stress prevention measures and more broadly to the prevention of psychosocial risk factors. This needs to be undertaken within the broader context of hazard evaluation (compilation of the single document) and the definition of prevention plans.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.169-186. Illus. 44 ref.$File/TC108.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-496 Leroux I., Brissson C., Montreuil S.
Job strain and neck-shoulder symptoms: A prevalence study of women and men white-collar workers
The objective of this cross sectional study of 1543 white-collar workers was to examine the association between psychosocial factors at work and the prevalence of neck and shoulder symptoms. Psychological demands and decision latitude at work were measured with Karasek's questionnaire. Workers exposed to high job strain had a higher prevalence of neck and shoulder symptoms (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.54). No effect of gender was observed in this association. The effect of job strain was stronger in workers with low social support (PR 1.84). These results suggest that primary prevention of neck and shoulder symptoms among white-collar workers should consider job strain, especially when workers have low social support at work.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.56, No.2, p.102-109. 37 ref.

CIS 07-474 Feuerstein M., Nicholas R.A.
Development of a short form of the workstyle measure
"Workstyle" or how workers respond behaviourally, cognitively and physiologically to increased or stressful work demands, has been proposed to help explain the link between ergonomic and psychosocial factors in work related upper limb disorders (WRULD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the original workstyle measure. It was reduced from 91 to 32 items and tested on a sample of 282 office workers by means of a questionnaire that also included measures of socio-demographics, work history, upper limb symptoms, ergonomic exposures, work stress and upper limb pain. Workstyle scores were significantly associated with pain, functional limitations and adverse mental and physical health. The short form demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, confirming its potential utility in research on WRULD.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.56, No.2, p.94-99. 26 ref.

CIS 07-232 Kopp Viglino Y., Bruttin F.
Burnout? It's time to act! - Burnout among teachers
Burn-out? Il est temps d'agir! - Le burn-out de l'enseignant [in French]
These two articles address the problem of burnout. The first covers general aspects (definition, proportion of workers affected, societal costs, responsibilities of employers, preventive measures), while the second covers more specifically the issue of burnout among teachers, summarizing the findings of a survey that was part of a master's thesis on the topic. Proposed preventive measures aimed at employers are also listed.
Focus, June 2006, No.27, p.12-16. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 07-222 D'hertefelt H.
Limits on workload capacity
Les limites de la capacité de charge [in French]
This article examines statistics on occupational accidents and diseases in Belgium and argues that prolonged absenteeism is often the consequence of excessive physical or psychological workload. It recommends that preventive measures take greater account of workload aspects.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2006, No.4, p.10-14. Illus.

CIS 07-236 Artazcoz L., Benach J., Cortès E., Borrell C., Leka S., Burton J., Shain M., Cox T., Elo A.L., Fichera G.P T., Gilioli R.
Psychosocial factors and mental health at work
Topics covered by this issue dedicated to psychosocial factors and mental health at work: impact of flexible employment on mental health and choice of living arrangements; development of a psychosocial risk management toolkit (PRIMAT); Canadian perspective of psychosocial factors and mental health at work; occupational health psychology education and training; managing mental health at Finnish workplaces; study of work-related post-traumatic stress disorder among Italian bank employee victims of robbery.
GOHNET Newsletter, 2006, No.10, p.2-12. Illus. 83 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-230 Kondo K., Kobayashi Y., Hirokawa K., Tsutsumi A., Kobayashi F., Haratani T., Araki S., Kawakami N.
Job strain and sick leave among Japanese employees: A longitudinal study
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between job stress and sickness absenteeism among Japanese workers. Subjects included 448 men and 81 women who had taken no sick leave in the year preceding the baseline (1997). All were observed until 1999. Data on socio-demographic variables, occupations, health-related behaviour, job content and the number of absences due to sickness were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Compared to the lowest tertile of the ratio of demand to control (job strain), the highest tertile was significantly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence of five days or more per year (odds ratio 3.02) at follow-up. A dose-response relationship also was found. However, individual variables of job demand, job control, and worksite social support were not significantly associated with the risk of sickness absenteeism.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.213-219. 27 ref.

CIS 07-228 Bauer J., Stamm A., Virnich K., Wissing K., Müller U., Wirsching M., Schaarschmidt U.
Correlation between burnout syndrome and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms among teachers
Burnout is the main cause of the increasing rates of premature retirement among schoolteachers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational burden and the psychological strain of teachers who are still in work. A sample of 408 teachers at ten German high schools was evaluated. Modes of coping with occupational burden were determined using the coping capacity questionnaire (MECCA). Psychopathological and psychosomatic symptoms were determined using the SCL90R questionnaire. Findings are discussed. Burnout was significantly correlated with psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Burnout was significantly higher among women, divorced teachers and teachers working part-time. Besides high numbers of pupils per class, teachers regarded the destructive and aggressive behaviour of pupils as the primary stress factor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.199-204. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 07-227 Barzilai-Pesach V., Sheiner E.K., Sheiner E., Potashnik G., Shoham-Vardi I.
The effect of women's occupational psychologic stress on outcome of fertility treatments
The objective of this study was to examine the association between women's occupational stress and the outcome of fertility treatments. A prospective cohort study was performed, involving a group of 75 working women who had attended fertility clinics in 1999 and 2000. Data on burnout, job strain and job satisfaction were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Workload was assessed by the number of working hours and the existence of shift work. Women who perceived their job as more demanding were less likely to conceive (relative risk (RR) 0.6). Among women who conceived after receiving a fertility treatment, the actual workload measured in terms of hours worked per week was found to be significantly associated with a lower likelihood to successfully complete a pregnancy (RR 0.3).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.48, No.1, p.56-61. 29 ref.

CIS 06-1494 Work-related mental disorders in Australia
This report explores what is understood by work-related mental disorders and examines the causes and consequences of stress. Topics covered: general overview of work-related mental disorders; occupational stress; health and performance effects of stress; magnitude and severity of work-related mental disorders; OHS management of stress; evaluation of prevention approaches; national prevention activity.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council,, 2006. 27p. Illus. 34 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1500 And what if there were stress within your enterprise?
Et s'il y avait du stress dans votre entreprise? [in French]
This booklet is aimed at managers of small enterprises. It explains the causes and signs of occupational stress, the effects of stress on the health of employees and on the enterprise, warning signs that should alert employers to stress and ways to address the issue.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2006. 19p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: EUR 4.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed973.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1250 Fidalgo Vega M.
Burnout syndrome (II): Consequences, assessment and prevention
Síndrome de estar quemado por el trabajo o "burnout" (II): consecuencias, evaluación y prevención [in Spanish]
This information note examines the consequences of burnout for the individual and the organization, describes methods for its evaluation and sets out preventive measures at the level of the organization, and the individual. See NTP 704 (CIS 06-1249) for information on the development of the condition.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p. Illus. 10 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1249 Fidalgo Vega M.
Burnout syndrome (I): Definition and generation process
Síndrome de estar quemado por el trabajo o "burnout" (I): definición y proceso de generación [in Spanish]
This information note examines definitions of burnout, discusses how the condition develops and identifies risk factors related to work organization, personal characteristics and organizational change. See NTP 705 (CIS 06-1250) for information on the consequences, evaluation and prevention of burnout.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p. Illus. 9 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 08-1233 Büssing A., Glaser J., Höge T
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Evaluation of the TAA workload - Ambulatory care: Manual and materials
Das Belastungsscreening TAA - Ambulante Pflege: Manual und Materialien [in German]
This manual presents two instruments in the form of questionnaires for analyzing and evaluating the physical workload and psychological stress of ambulatory health care workers, together with the prevention measures implemented: Belastungscreening TAA (screening for workload and stress) and its associated module AuG-Schutz (prevention). It then explains how to use these tools to carry out an evaluation and interpret the findings. Because of their user-friendliness, they can also be applied by persons who are not specialized in workload research (management of health services, safety and health or quality control specialists in health care services).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 65p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.

CIS 07-1218 Otmani S., Rogé J., Muzet A.
Sleepiness in professional drivers: Effect of age and time of day
The effects of age and time of day on objective and subjective sleepiness in professional drivers were investigated during a simulated driving task. Thirty-six young and middle-aged professional male drivers, free from any sleep disorder, took part in two simulated driving sessions; one carried out in the afternoon, the other at night. Half of each age group drove in light traffic conditions while the other half drove in heavy traffic. Throughout the driving task, subjects' electroencephalogram and Karolinska sleepiness scale scores were recorded. Visual analogue scales measuring alertness and sleepiness levels were also completed before and after the driving. After each session, subjects filled out the NASA-TLX questionnaire and were asked if they had felt sleepy during the driving. The young drivers presented a significant decrease in alertness in the low traffic condition and a strong propensity to sleep during the night test in contrast to middle-aged drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.930-937. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 07-1217 Bunn T.L., Slavova S., Struttmann T.W., Browning S.R.
Sleepiness/fatigue and distraction/inattention as factors for fatal versus nonfatal commercial motor vehicle driver injuries
A retrospective population-based case-control study was conducted to determine whether driver sleepiness/fatigue and inattention/distraction increase the likelihood that a commercial motor vehicle collision will be fatal. Based on the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic database, 1998-2002, cases were identified as commercial vehicle drivers who died following a collision accident and controls were drivers who survived an injury collision. Cases and controls were matched by vehicle and roadway type. Conditional logistic regression was performed. Driver sleepiness/fatigue, distraction/inattention, 51 years of age and older, and non-use of safety belts increased the odds of fatal commercial vehicle collision accidents. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.862-869. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 07-748 Work, stress and mental health
This special issue includes articles on: occupational stress; assessment of the physiological effects of work-related stress; depression and work; prevention and management of work-related stress; discontinuous employment and health risk; work engagement (positive occupational wellbeing); mental work strain of farmers; and the mental health of journalists following changes in the work environment.
Työterveiset - Newsletter of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 2005, Special Issue 1, p.1-27. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-743 Work in North-Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) in 2004
Arbeitswelt NRW 2004 [in German]
A survey of working conditions was carried out in 2004 in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. 2000 workers were questioned by phone on their physical and mental workload and its effects on health, their means of coping with stress, their degree of work satisfaction and the preventive measures adopted within their enterprise. One worker in two mentioned a high mental workload (too much responsibility, time pressures, high workload or anxiety concerning job security). More than 40% declared that they had had the impression of being exhausted. Physical loads affecting workers included strenuous postures, noise and work environments. Close to a third of surveyed participants mentioned suffering from backache or articular pain. Older workers were generally more adept at coping with stress than younger workers. A comparison of the results of this survey with those of previous surveys conducted in 1994 and 1999 shows a sharp increase in the percentage of workers reporting problems at work.
Basi Infoprint, Summer 2005, No.2, p.17-19. Illus. 2 ref. [in German]

CIS 07-250 Brun C.
Psychosocial hazards. Stress, malaise, suffering...A collective challenge to occupational health and the quality of working life
Risques psychosociaux. Stress, mal-être, souffrance...Un enjeu collectif de la santé et de la qualité de vie au travail [in French]
Following a brief explanation of what constitutes psychosocial disorders, this guide presents a four-step multidisciplinary approach to the prevention of occupational stress: developing a collective approach; identifying indicators; understanding disequilibria; acting at several levels and implementing a monitoring system.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Dec. 2005. 23p. Illus. [in French]

CIS 07-248 Bertin J., Fraix N., Paljkovic G., Sasso M.O.
Workload, absenteeism and occupational weariness
Charge, absentéisme et usure au travail [in French]
This information sheet presents examples of methods adopted by enterprises for addressing issues of absenteeism, excessive workload, stress, violence and burnout. Sectors covered include a call centre, a vocational training centre, health care institutions and a local government administration.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Mar. 2005. 6p. Illus. 17 ref. [in French]

CIS 07-244
International Stress Management Association (ISMA) UK
Working together to reduce stress at work: A guide for employees
This leaflet describes the Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards for work-related stress (see CIS 07-242) and explains the role of employees in their implementation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. 6p. [in English]

CIS 07-243
International Stress Management Association (ISMA) UK
Making the stress Management Standards work: How to apply the standards in your workplace
This leaflet outlines the Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards approach to work-related stress (see CIS 07-242) and gives practical advice on how to implement them. The standards are based on the HSE's "Five steps to risk assessment" (see CIS 07-10): identify the hazards; decide who may be harmed and how; evaluate the risk; record the findings; monitor and review. Although the risk assessment process takes a collective, proactive approach, it also takes account of individual differences and problems.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. 8p. [in English]

CIS 07-242
Health and Safety Executive
Tackling stress: The Management Standards approach
This leaflet describes the Management Standards approach, developed by the HSE to reduce levels of work-related stress. The Standards and supporting processes are designed to help simplify risk assessment for stress, encourage employers and employees to work in partnership to address work-related stress and provide a benchmark for assessing performance in tackling the causes of stress. They cover six primary sources of stress at work: demands, control, support, relationships, role and change.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. 4p. [in English]

CIS 06-1497 Update: The SOLVE approach to addressing psychosocial problems at work
SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policies and actions to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco, all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, diseases and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This document summarizes the SOLVE concept, its methodology and its implementation at the place of work. Includes a list of SOLVE training courses for managers, workers and counsellors.
Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Feb. 2005. 9p. Illus.

CIS 06-998 Kristensen T.S., Hannerz H., Høgh A., Borg V.
The Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire - A tool for the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial work environment
This article presents the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) developed for assessing psychosocial factors at work, stress, the well-being of employees and certain personality traits. The purpose of the COPSOQ is to facilitate research and practical interventions at workplaces. The development of the questionnaire was based on a survey of a representative sample of 1858 Danish employees aged 20-59 years. Questions were tested with factor analyses, analyses of internal reliability, and analyses of response patterns. The analyses resulted in a long research version of the questionnaire, a medium-length version for work environment professionals and a short version for workplaces. The questionnaire is considered to be comprehensive and to include most of the dimensions relevant to psychosocial factors at work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 2005, Vol.31, No.6, p.438-449. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 06-997 Wieclaw J., Agerbo E., Mortensen P.B., Bonde J.P.
Occupational risk of affective and stress-related disorders in the Danish workforce
This nested case-control study was carried out to quantify the risk of affective and stress-related disorders according to occupation. All 28,971 incident hospital patients and outpatients aged 18-65 years who received a first-time-ever diagnosis of an affective disorder or stress-related condition in Denmark from 1995 to 1998 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for 25 occupational categories with clerical staff as the reference were calculated. Eight occupations were associated with significantly elevated risks (RR range 1.20-1.58) among the women, while eight occupations were associated with a significantly reduced risk (RR range 0.50-0.76) among the men. The risks were highest for the teaching (RR 1.58) and health (RR 1.53) professions. Both male and female social workers and professionals caring for disabled person faced an elevated risk (women RR 1.72, men RR 2.09).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.31, No.5, p.343-351. 51 ref.

CIS 06-851 Boulanger G., Grabiaud M.H., Sauvagère J., Vilaine C.
Call centre operator
L'opérateur de centres d'appels [in French]
Contents of this occupational information sheet on the job of call centre operator: definition; characteristics of the job; description of the tasks carried out; exposures and constraints; health effects; collective and individual protective measures; regulations; medical supervision.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2005, Vol.45, No.4, 2p. Insert.

CIS 06-806 Palliser C.R., Firth H.M., Feyer A.M., Paulin S.M.
Musculoskeletal discomfort and work-related stress in New Zealand dentists
This cross-sectional questionnaire survey on stressors, psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms was carried out among a random sample of 413 New Zealand dentists. The average age of the dentists was 43 years, with 74% being male. The annual prevalence of symptoms was 63% for both the lower back and the neck and 49% for the shoulders. Older dentists were no more likely to suffer musculoskeletal discomfort than younger dentists. The most cited dentistry-specific stressor was "patients having a medical emergency", while "mental demands" was the most cited general work-related stressor. One-fifth of the dentists scored highly for psychological disturbance, which was very similar to the general population. Dentists with high scores for dentistry-specific work-related stressors were more likely to have evidence of psychological disturbance.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2005, Vol.19, No.4, p.351-359. 49 ref.

CIS 06-996 Berg A.M., Hem E., Lau B., Håseth K., Ekeberg Ø.
Stress in the Norwegian police service
The objectives of this study were to develop a new instrument to measure job stress in the police; to assess the most severe and frequent police stressors; to compare levels of stress according to demographic and organizational factors; and to study stress in relation to personality traits, work locus of control and coping strategies. It was carried out in the form of a comprehensive questionnaire survey of 3272 Norwegian police at all hierarchical levels. Work injuries were appraised as the most stressful but least frequent stressor and job pressure was reported the least severe but most frequent stressor. Women experienced job stressors less frequently, but appraised them as more severe than men did. Older police officers reported more job pressure severity and fewer work injuries. The police in districts with more than 50,000 inhabitants perceived the lack of support more severely than others.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.55, No.2, p.113-120. 21 ref.

CIS 06-992 Grosjean V., Ribert-Van de Weerdt C.
Towards an ergonomic psychology of well-being and emotions: Effects of supervision in call centres
Vers une psychologie ergonomique du bien-être et des émotions: les effets du contrôle dans les centres d'appels [in French]
This study investigated the effects on workers' well-being of the emotionally-intensive work required in call centres and the reactions of operators to the constant supervision made possible by information technology. Information was collected by observation of emotions expressed during work, interviews and an analysis of the reactions and values emerging from workers. Findings highlight the need to adapt supervision to the nature of the task. They confirm that workers suffer more from the management and supervision systems perceived to be intrusive and from the difficulty in planning their work than from relations with customers, which at first sight appear to carry a high emotional load.
Travail humain, Dec. 2005, Vol. 68, No.4, p.355-378. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 06-736 Wright N., Powell D., McGown A., Broadbent E., Loft P.
Avoiding involuntary sleep during civil air operations: Validation of a wrist-worn alertness device
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an alertness device based on wrist inactivity to detect the onset of sleep among airline pilots during flight. The device was worn by 21 pilots during a long (9h) flight. The presence of sleepiness and sleep was determined by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings during the entire flight. The alertness device was found to be an effective method for preventing accidental sleep.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.76, No.9, p.847-856. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 06-746 Gardner B., Rose J., Mason O., Tyler P., Cushway D.
Cognitive therapy and behavioural coping in the management of work-related stress: An intervention study
This research seeks to determine the effectiveness of stress management training in the treatment of the effects of work-related stress by comparing the modification of dysfunctional cognitions with appropriate behavioural coping strategies. Participants were allocated to one of two intervention groups or to a control group. Those in the intervention groups received stress management training with the focus on cognitive therapy techniques or on behavioural coping skills. Measures of general health were taken at the beginning and end of intervention and at three-month follow-up. Participants in the cognitive therapy groups who were reporting symptoms of general ill health at the start of the intervention showed a significant improvement at follow-up. Those in the behavioural group showed a smaller but still clinically effective improvement. Results are discussed in terms of methodological issues and implications for future research.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2005, Vol.19, No.2, p.137-152. Illus. 45 ref.

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