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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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  • Mental stress and burnout

2007

CIS 08-1479 Rřvik J.O., Tyssen R., Hem E., Gude T., Ekeberg Ř., Moum T., Vaglum P.
Job stress in young physicians with an emphasis on the work-home interface: A nine-year, nationwide and longitudinal study of its course and predictors
This longitudinal study explored the risk factors and outcomes of early career job-stress among physicians in Norway by means of mail surveys. Physicians graduating from Norwegian universities in 1993-94 responded during their final year of medical school, during their internship, in their fourth postgraduate year and in their tenth postgraduate year. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during the observation period, whereas stress relating to emotional pressure, time pressure and fear of complaints and criticism decreased. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during their early career, mainly due to long work hours and an increased number of children. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and lack of support from partners and colleagues appeared to be predictive of this stress.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.662-671. Illus. 46 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_662.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1239 Muto S., Muto T., Seo A., Yoshida T., Taoda K., Watanabe M.
Job stressors and job stress among teachers engaged in nursing activity
This study evaluated job stressors and job stress among nursing activity in schools for handicapped children using a cross-sectional study design. The subjects were all 1461 teachers from all 19 schools for handicapped children in a Japanese Prefecture. It was carried out the form of a postal questionnaire survey, competed by 831 subjects. Job stressors among teachers engaged in nursing activity were compared with those among teachers not engaged in nursing activity. Job stress among such teachers was estimated by the score for total health risk, and was compared with the score in the Japanese general population. It was found that teachers engaged in nursing activity had a significantly higher level of stressors for workload and job control compared with those not engaged in nursing activity. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.45, No.1, p.44-48. 21 ref.

CIS 08-1246 Yarker J., Lewis R., Donaldson-Feilder E.
Health and Safety Executive
Management competencies for preventing and reducing stress at work: Identifying and developing the management behaviours necessary to implement the HSE Management Standards Research
This report presents the findings of the first phase of a research project which aimed to identify the specific management behaviours associated with the effective management of stress at work and to build a competency framework for preventing and reducing stress at work. A qualitative multi-method approach was taken for collecting data of 216 employees, 166 line managers and 54 human resources managers in five sectors (education, finance, local government, central government and healthcare). Nineteen competencies relating to the management of stress in employees were identified. Conclusions are discussed in light of implications for researchers, policy makers, employers and line managers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. xii, 111p. Approx. 100 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr553.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1041 Gaskell L., Hickling N., Stephens P.
Health and Safety Executive
The suitability of HSE's risk assessment process and management standards for use in SMEs
This study evaluated the applicability in SMEs of HSE's Five-Step Risk Assessment Process and supporting information, developed for tackling high levels of work-related stress in large organizations. Ten SMEs applied the guidance in a longitudinal study over at least seven months, after which a respondent from each SME answered an interview-administered questionnaire. Overall ratings of usefulness and acceptability of the process were favourable. It is concluded that SMEs can successfully apply the method unaided to conduct a structured risk assessment process and identify improvements that reduce stress and benefit their business.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 131p. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr537.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1237 Rowland B., Wishart D., Davey J., Freeman J.
The influence of occupational driver stress on work-related road safety: An exploratory review
Prior research has identified a number of stressors that impact on drivers by increasing stress levels, causing adverse behaviour and leading to effects such as aggressive behaviour, fatigue, inattention and substance abuse. For safety professionals and employers, one way to reduce the effects of occupational driver stress is to change perceptions so that work-related driving is recognized as being as important as other work-related tasks. This article explores relevant literature in relation to driver stress and suggests improvements to risk management and safety procedures, including assigning sufficient resources to target occupational stress and in particular driver stress.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.459-468. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 08-1244 Beswick J., Rogers K., Corbett E., Binch S., Jackson K.
Health and Safety Executive
An analysis of the prevalence and distribution of stress in the construction industry
Although when compared with other industries, the construction sector has relatively low levels of reported work-related stress, it is still a topic of concern. This research was undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the level, causes and extent of work-related stress within the construction industry. A postal survey was conducted among a sample of construction industry workers to investigate work-related stress. The survey findings were also discussed with industry stakeholders on completion of the survey. In total, 1732 questionnaires were returned (response rate 35%), with an over-representation of large companies and certain job types. However, the results provide an interesting insight into the level and extent of reported work-related stress within the industry. Approximately 23.2% reported that they have suffered from an illness caused by or made worse by stress on their job or during work done in the past. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 81p. Illus. 47 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr518.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1238 Hayasaka Y., Nakamura K., Yamamoto M., Sasaki S.
Work environment and mental health status assessed by the general health questionnaire in female Japanese doctors
This study aimed to determine factors in the work environment influencing mental health status among female doctors in Japan. An anonymous survey questionnaire was mailed to 587 female doctors, and 367 (62.5%) responded. The survey included questions on their age and marital status, together with work-related information on their speciality, affiliated medical facility, position, type of employment, work schedule and night duty. The thirty-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) was used to examine psychological distress. A total of 169 (46.1%) subjects met criteria for having psychological distress. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, medical facility, position, working time and working at night were associated with the GHQ-30 score. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.781-786. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 08-995 Brun E., Milczarek M.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This report presents the findings of an expert group on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts. A summary of the report is also available as a factsheet (CIS 08-250).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007.127p. Illus. 277 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/7807118 [in English]

CIS 08-991 Ahola K.
Occupational burnout and health
In a study carried out in 1997, the prevalence of severe burnout cases in Finland was found to be 7%. Burnout is often accompanied by other health problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the current prevalence of burnout, the socio-demographic and occupational risk factors of burnout, relationships between burnout and psychiatric symptoms (mood and anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and somatic illnesses), work ability, sickness absenteeism and the use of health care services and medical treatment. It was carried out in the form of a population-based cross-sectional study, in which data on a representative sample 8028 persons was collected through interviews, questionnaires and health examinations. Findings are discussed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
https://oa.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/28153/occupati.pdf?sequence=1 [in English]

CIS 08-733 Bauer J., Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Seibt R., Scheuch K., Wirsching M.
Working conditions, adverse events and mental health problems in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore the workload of teachers, to analyse the extent of negative or threatening school-related events teachers are confronted with and to evaluate mental health strain. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying a questionnaire covering different aspects of the occupational burden and threatening events, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 42% had faced verbal insults, almost 7% deliberate damage to personal property and 4.4% threats of violence by pupils during the past 12 months. When applying the GHQ-12, 29.8% reported significant mental health problems. Teachers in middle schools indicated more of such problems than those of high schools. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.442-449. 37 ref.

CIS 08-732 Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Scheuch K., Seibt R., Wirsching M., Bauer J.
Burnout and effort-reward imbalance in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore teacher burnout and the relationship between their efforts and their rewards. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Inventory (ERI). Compared with studies investigating burnout in other occupations, high rates of symptoms such as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment were found. Male teachers showed significantly lower personal accomplishment and more depersonalization than female teachers. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.433-441. 42 ref.

CIS 08-749 Houtman I., Jettinghoff K., Cedillo L.
Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries
In developing countries, the focus of occupational safety and health initiatives has until now essentially been on chemical, biological and physical exposures, while the psychosocial risks at work are still largely neglected. This booklet aims at raising awareness among employers and worker representatives of work-related stress in developing countries. Topics addressed: effects of globalization and the changing nature of work; definition of work-related stress; step-by-step approach to managing work-related stress; role of employers' and workers' representatives.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 2007. 44p. Illus. 42 ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/raisingawarenessofstress.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-743 Pantry S.
Managing stress and conflict in libraries
Tackling conflict and stress effectively is a legal responsibility for management. This book defines what constitutes a healthy and safe library working environment. It describes the reporting procedures leading to conflict resolution, enabling both the employee and the manager to decide whether or not there is a case for making a risk assessment that may lead to formal mediation. Topics addressed: current safety and health concerns; risk assessment procedure; the business case; taking action to solve interpersonal conflict; communication skills and training; support to be expected from the organization. Also included are case studies, a glossary of health and safety terms, and sources of further information, including relevant United Kingdom legislation.
Facet Publishing, 7 Ridgemount Street, London WC1E 7AE, United Kingdom, 2007. vii, 140p. 129 ref. Index. Price: GBP 29.95.

CIS 08-738 Cox T., Karanika M., Griffiths A., Houdmont J.
Evaluating organizational-level work stress interventions: Beyond traditional methods
This literature survey considers some of the philosophical and methodological issues in relation to enterprise-level interventions for work-related stress. Starting from the complex and continually changing realities of work organization, the authors argue in favour of a more broadly conceived framework for evaluation that acknowledges the limitations of traditional approaches. The study concludes by offering an outline framework for this broader approach to the evaluation of interventions.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.348-362. 60 ref.

CIS 08-737 Sun J., Wang S., Zhang J.Q., Li W.
Assessing the cumulative effects of stress: The association between job stress and allostatic load in a large sample of Chinese employees
Allostatic load (AL) is an index that is derived from a set of biological measures for assessing chronic stress. In this study, a 13-parameter index was used to examine the relationship between job strain and AL. Participants were 1219 healthy Chinese employees. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, and AL was assessed by various stress responses, including blood pressure, cholesterol, indicators of glucose metabolism, and hormone and inflammation markers. AL in the high job strain group differed sharply from that in the low job strain group. AL was positively associated with age and educational level. Analyses indicated that decision latitude and job demands were significantly related to AL. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.333-347. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 08-736 Behrendt S.U.
"Your stress manager" - An interactive medium for better handling of personal stress
"Ihr Stressmanager" - Ein interactives Medium zum besseren Umgang mit persönlichem Stress [in German]
Within the European Union, 28% of workers claim to suffer from stress-related health problems and a United Kingdom study has shown that 54% of absenteeism is due to stress-related impairment. This article describes an interactive DVD on stress management aimed at enterprises, which can be used on a single PC or installed for multi-user access through the enterprise Intranet. It consists of several modules: definition of stress; stress inventory; relaxation techniques; problem-solving methods; time management; hobbies, pleasurable pastimes, sports and nutrition; stress management objectives and action plan; quality control; addresses and contacts. This concept aims to achieve stress prevention by acting at three levels: primary (preserving mental health); secondary (early recognition of problems and effective intervention); tertiary (improving health and well-being after an illness or rehabilitation measures).
Kompass, Sep.-Oct. 2007, Vol.117, No.9/10, p.4-9. Illus.

CIS 08-721 Petereit-Haack G., Bolm-Audorff U., Ditchen D., Ellegast R., Elsner G., Grifka J., Haerting J., Hofmann F., Jäger M., Linhardt O., Luttmann A., Michaelis M., Schumann B., Seidler A.
Relationship between occupational psychosocial strain and disc-related diseases of the lumbar spine - Results of the German spine study
Zusammenhang zwischen beruflichen psychosozialen Belastungen und bandscheibenbedingten Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule - Ergebnisse der Deutschen Wirbelsäulenstudie [in German]
The aim of this case-control study carried out within the framework of a multi-centric study on occupational spinal column disorders in Germany was to examine the relationship between psychosocial strain at work and lumbar prolapse and chondrosis. Data on psychosocial strain were collected during computer-assisted structured interviews, while that concerning their spinal loads were obtained through biomechanical simulations using ten dose models. Findings show a relationship between psychosocial strain at work and the development of a lumbar prolapse or a chondrosis, both in men and women. Among women, the relationship with lumbar chondrosis was statistically significant. See also CIS 08-718/720.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2007, Vol.57, No.10, p.328-336. 25 ref.

CIS 08-750 Chouaničre D., Langevin V., Guibert A.
Occupational stress - Steps of a prevention approach
Stress au travail - Les étapes d'une démarche de prévention [in French]
This guide on stress in occupational settings is aimed at all persons responsible for occupational safety and health within the enterprise. It proposes a six-step prevention approach: pre-diagnosis; putting together a project team; comprehensive diagnosis; communication of the findings; developing and implementing an action plan; follow-up. For each of the steps, it includes examples and comments from users.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 2007. 31p. Illus. Price: EUR 6.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/20A95EE4C784D534C125732300436E60/$FILE/ed6011.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-484 François M., Liévin D., Mouzé-Amady M.
Tasks, workload and stress among airline flight staff
Activité, charge de travail et stress du personnel navigant des compagnies aériennes [in French]
This article presents the findings of a study carried out between 2000 and 2004 on the relationships between job requirements and the physical, mental and emotional workload of airline flight staff in France. The scope focussed on short- and medium-haul flights. The method used was based on ergonomic and psychosocial approaches, and involved a literature survey, interviews, questionnaires and job observations. Findings are centred on three main areas: physical environment, workload and stress. Practical prevention proposals are presented.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.111, p.307-333. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20115/$File/TC115.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-499 Brun J.P., Biron C., Ivers H.
Strategic approach to the prevention of occupational mental health problems
Démarche stratégique de prévention des problčmes de santé mentale au travail [in French]
The growing number of injuries related to stress, burnout or other psychological factors result from the rapid increase in occupational mental health problems in the last few years. However, most organizations lack a strategic risk prevention tool to address this important issue. This report presents the results of a research project involving the evaluation of organizational interventions for the prevention of work-related stress, for the purpose of developing a diagnostic tool for use by enterprises. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and observations in three organizations: an educational institution, a hospital and a forestry enterprise.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. viii, 65p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-514.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-496 Dollard M., Skinner N., Tuckey M.R., Bailey T.
National surveillance of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace: An international overview
The national surveillance of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace is useful for recording the changing work environment, developing policies and programmes to prevent stress and promoting mental and physical health and well-being at work. This article reviews, from an Australian perspective, 35 national surveillance systems across 20 different countries in Europe and North America, together with an additional four multi-country systems for psychosocial risks. It describes the scope and sampling methodology of each system, for which it also provides an overall evaluation. Findings are discussed, with emphasis on subject areas likely to be of increasing concern in the future: additional psychosocial risks; emotional labour; workplace bullying; acute vs. chronic exposure to workplace stressors; organizational justice; organizational change; positive psychological states and well-being.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2007, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-29. 106 ref.

CIS 08-495 Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Ganem Y., Lafon D., Siano B., Bijaoui A., Krivochiev M., Peltre-Fleuriet B.
Stress at work, a reality - What kind of prevention, which participants and what tools?
Le stress au travail, une réalité - Quelle prévention, quels acteurs et quels outils? [in French]
Report on a conference on the prevention of occupational stress held in Nancy, France, 1-2 February 2007. The many papers presented described and illustrated the approaches, the participants and the tools involved in the prevention of occupational stress. The objectives of the conference were to refine the definitions of stress, and more broadly of psychosocial hazards, to distinguish between sources of stress (constraints and organizational factors), effects on health (state of chronic stress, proven health problems) and effects on the enterprise. The need for a preventive approach and concerted actions was emphasized.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.97-116. Illus.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_CR%2012/$File/cr12.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-493 Jolly H.
Stress at work: Lower the pressure!
Stress au travail: faites baisser la pression! [in French]
Topics addressed in this review article on occupational stress: definition of stress; stress factors; main prevention approaches; low level of consciousness regarding stress in the French construction sector; interview of the human resources manager of a large construction enterprise on the action plan adopted for fighting against stress.
Prévention BTP, Mar. 2007, No.94, p.48-51. Illus.

CIS 08-489 Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Bijaoui A., Ganem Y., Krivochiev M., Lafon D., Peltre-Fleuriet B., Siano B.
Stress at work, a fact - What preventive measures, which participants and what tools?
Le stress au travail, une réalité - Quelle prévention, quels acteurs et quels outils? [in French]
Review article on a symposium on occupational stress held in Nancy, France, on 1-2 February 2007. Papers were presented on the following topics: highlighting stress problems within the enterprise; convincing management to act; putting together a specific group of persons assigned with the task of following-up stress prevention programmes; carrying out a group diagnosis and defining an action plan for reducing the sources of stress; evaluating the effectiveness of the actions implemented; institutional resources available for implementing an occupational stress prevention programme; views of an enterprise manager and an expert in this field.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.199-223. Illus.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TD%20155/$File/TD155.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-488 Lafleur J.
Five steps for eliminating unhealthy stress at the workplace
Cinq étapes pour réduire le mauvais stress au travail [in French]
The world of work has witnessed profound changes during the last two decades. Some of these changes have proven to be relatively detrimental to occupational health, as can be observed by the dramatic increases in morbidity related to mental health and absenteeism. This article presents a five-step approach that can be adopted when faced with risk factors of occupational stress: defining one's work-life balance; setting objectives; ensuring that the objectives are met by one's self and respected by others; working with dedication and efficiency; knowing when to rest and recover.
Travail et santé, June 2007, Vol.23, No.2, p.10-13. Illus.

CIS 08-231 Hermoso de Mendoza Urrizoa J.
Absenteeism associated with burnout syndrome - Economic costs of occupational stress among health care staff in a hospital
Ausentismo asociado al síndrome de burnout - Costo económico del estrés laboral asistencial en un hospital [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between burnout and sickness absenteeism among health care staff in a Spanish hospital. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) addressed to 582 women workers employed in various units of a 410-bed hospital. A total of 402 valid responses were analysed. Results indicate an association between the level of emotional exhaustion and absenteeism. Other findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 2nd Quarter, 2007, Vol.14, No.52, p.14-20. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-240 Rodríguez I., González-Morales M.G., Carbonell S.
The AMIGO model and the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL methodology - Contributions and challenges in the prevention of psychosocial hazards
El modelo AMIGO y la metodología PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL - Aportaciones y retos en la prevención de los riesgos psicosociales [in Spanish]
Changes taking place in the world of work are causing the emergence of new psychosocial hazards and psychosomatic diseases. To address these risks, it is necessary to intervene at the organizational level. In turn, this implies being able to rely on a theoretical model such as the AMIGO model, which contrary to existing models, considers the various components of the organizational system as facets of a system which can only be approached holistically. The model served as the basis for the development of the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL diagnosis methodology, which is described in this article.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Apr. 2007, No.42, p.18-25. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-248 Terelak J. F.
Occupational stress: Psychological characteristics of selected stressful occupations
Stres zawodowy: charakterystyka psychologiczna wybranych zawodów stresowych [in Polish]
The findings of several empirical studies aimed at identifying the causes of occupational stress and psychological determinants of effective coping with stress are presented. The following occupations were studied: local government administration, theatre actors, customs officers, brokers, computer scientists, call centre operators, air traffic controllers, physicians, sailors, managers, teachers, nurses, military pilots, policemen, stewardesses, firemen and military men. For each of these occupations, the psychological characteristics of the job and the sources of stress are discussed.
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, ul. Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warszawa, Poland, 2007. 637p. Illus. Approx 1000 ref.

CIS 08-235 Tominaga M., Asakura T., Akiyama T.
The effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment of computer professionals' subjective health status and productive behavior in Japan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behaviour of computer professionals in Japan. It was carried out in the form of a web-based questionnaire survey. Respondents included 871 computer engineers. The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed the micro stressor "quantitative and qualitative work overload" had the strongest influence on both the subjective health status and intentions to leave. The macro stressor "career and future ambiguity" was the most important predictor of the subjective health status, and "insufficient evaluation systems" and "poor supervisor's support" were important predictors of poor productive behaviour. These findings suggest that improving not only micro stressors but also macro stressors can enhance the subjective health status and increase the productive behaviour of computer professionals.
Industrial Health, June 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.474-486. 34 ref.

CIS 08-250 Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health (OSH)
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite psihosocialni riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZR) [in Bulgarian]
Expertprognos om nya arbetsrelaterade psykosociala risker [in Swedish]
Ekpertvarsling om psykosociale risici i fremvćkst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljř [in Danish]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden psychosozialen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous psuhokoinōnikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [in Greek]
Previsiones de los expertos sobre la aparición de riesgos psicosociales en relación con la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Eksperdiprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiuga seotud psühhosotsiaalsete riskide kohta [in Estonian]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat esiin nousevia työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä psykososiaalisia riskejä [in Finnish]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques psychosociaux émergents liés ŕ la sécurité et la santé au travail (SST) [in French]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló pszichoszociális kockázatokról [in Hungarian]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi psicosociali emergenti relativi alla sicurezza e alla salute sul lavoro [in Italian]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujų kylančių psichosocialinės rizikos veiksnių darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [in Lithuanian]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem psihosociāliem riskiem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [in Latvian]
Previżjoni ta' l-esperti fuq ir-riskji psikosoċjali emerġenti relatati mas-saħħa u s-sigurtŕ fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [in Maltese]
Prognoses van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde psychosociale risicożs in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca powstających zagrożeń psychospołecznych związanych z bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy (BHP) [in Polish]
Previsăo dos peritos sobre os riscos psicossociais emergentes relacionados com a segurança e saúde no trabalho (SST) [in Portuguese]
Previziunile experţilor privind riscurile psihosociale emergente legate de securitatea @si sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [in Romanian]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich psychosociálnych rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia pri práci [in Slovak]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih psihosocialnih tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [in Slovenian]
Odborná prognóza o vznikajících psychosociálních rizicích souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [in Czech]
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This fact sheet summarizes the results of the expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/et/publications/factsheets/74 [in Estonian]
http://osha.europa.eu/es/publications/factsheets/74 [in Spanish]
http://osha.europa.eu/fr/publications/factsheets/74 [in French]
http://osha.europa.eu/hu/publications/factsheets/74 [in Hungarian]
http://osha.europa.eu/it/publications/factsheets/74 [in Italian]
http://osha.europa.eu/lt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Lithuanian]
http://osha.europa.eu/lv/publications/factsheets/74 [in Latvian]
http://osha.europa.eu/mt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Maltese]
http://osha.europa.eu/nl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Dutch]
http://osha.europa.eu/pl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Polish]
http://osha.europa.eu/pt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Portuguese]
http://osha.europa.eu/ro/publications/factsheets/74 [in Romanian]
http://osha.europa.eu/sk/publications/factsheets/74 [in Slovak]
http://osha.europa.eu/sl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Slovenian]
http://osha.europa.eu/sv/publications/factsheets/74 [in Swedish]
http://osha.europa.eu/bg/publications/factsheets/74 [in Bulgarian]
http://osha.europa.eu/cs/publications/factsheets/74 [in Czech]
http://osha.europa.eu/da/publications/factsheets/74 [in Danish]
http://osha.europa.eu/de/publications/factsheets/74 [in German]
http://osha.europa.eu/el/publications/factsheets/74 [in Greek]
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/factsheets/74 [in English]
http://osha.europa.eu/fi/publications/factsheets/74 [in Finnish]

CIS 07-1498 Kouvonen A., Kivimäki M., Väänänen A., Heponiemi T., Elovainio M., Ala-Mursula L., Virtanen M., Pentti J., Linna A., Vahtera J.
Job strain and adverse health behaviors: The Finnish public sector study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between job strain and smoking, heavy drinking, obesity and physical inactivity. Subjects included 34,058 female and 8154 male public sector employees in Finland. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. Regression models showed that high job strain and passive jobs were associated with 1.3 to 1.4 times higher odds of having three or more adverse health behaviours. Among men, low job control was associated with a 1.3-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse health behaviours, while among women active jobs were associated with a 1.2-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse behaviours. High demands were associated with a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of one to two adverse behaviours among women. It is concluded that adverse job conditions may increase the likelihood of co-occurring health risk behaviours. Reducing work stress by increasing job control and decreasing psychological demands might help efforts to promote healthy lifestyles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.49, No.1, p.68-74. 31 ref.

CIS 07-1347 Lu J.L.
Multiple interactions of hazard exposures, role stressors and situational factors, and burnout among nurses
This cross-sectional study investigated the interaction between situational factors, role stressors, hazard exposure and personal factors among 135 nurses in a hospital in the Philippines. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents reported being ill due to work in the past year, and 59.3% missed work because of an illness. Regression analysis showed that factors associated with burnout were role stress, hazard exposure, self-efficacy, age, number of working years, illness in the past 12 months, migraine, dizziness, sleep disorder, cough and colds, and diarrhoea. After multiple regression analysis, organizational role stress, migraine, age and illness in the past 12 months were found to be significant predictors of burnout.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.73-82. 34 ref.

CIS 07-1322 Alcouffe J., Bouchet H., Chaney C., Le Pache J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Effects of external violence on musculoskeletal disorders among cashiers in stores selling mainly food in Ile-de France
Effets des violences externes sur les troubles musculosquelettiques chez les hôtes et hôtesses de caisse dans la distribution ŕ prédominance alimentaire en Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external violence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among supermarket cashiers, and to identify the factors that could possibly reduce this impact. It was carried out in 2006 in the form of a cross-sectional survey of supermarket cashiers in the Ile-de-France region of France by means of a questionnaire. 818 responses were received from 111 shops employing 2425 cashiers. The majority (86.4%) of the respondents were women. Nearly all respondants (95.5%) reported suffering from MSDs. Regression analysis showed that stress is a key risk factor of MSDs. External violence was also found to be an important risk factor of stress. Correlations between various locations of MSDs and the frequency of unpleasant or violent incidents with customers were observed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.129-138. 5 ref.

2006

CIS 09-616 Blass K.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Healthy health care practices in pensioners' homes
Gesund Pflegen in der Altenpflege [in German]
This report presents an analysis of work organization and workload among workers of two pensioners' homes. A survey of the workers subsequently enabled implementing measures aimed at reducing their workload.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 96p. 55 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/TIKs/Gesund-Pflegen/PDF/inqa-bericht-16-iso,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-615 Klein B,, Gaugisch P.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Good work organization in pensioners' homes
Gute Arbeitsgestaltung in der Altenpflege [in German]
This booklet presents the results of a project aimed at using a self-appraisal system for improving working conditions in the sector of care to the elderly. It also shows how it is possible to obtain workers' participation in improving their working conditions.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 70p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/Projekt-Datenbank/PDF/selbstbewertung-als-partizipationsorientierte-und-nachhaltige-methode-abschlussbericht,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-747 Metz A.M., Neuhaus K., Kunze D.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Healthy health care practices in hospitals
Gesund Pflegen im Krankenhaus [in German]
This booklet presents the results of a project aimed at reducing the psychological load among health care workers in a German clinic. A questionnaire for evaluating the occupational mental workload and work constraints was submitted to workers of six departments of the clinic. Analysis of the data allowed identifying and implementing measures aimed at promoting workers' health in these departments. The intervention was subsequently broadened to the whole clinic.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 84p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/Zentralredaktion/PDF/Publikationen/inqa-12-gesund-pflegen-im-krankenhaus,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-749 Dieckhoff K., Freigang-Bauer I., Hentrich J., Hoffmann T.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Improving the quality of work - Avoiding psychological load within the enterprise
Qualität der Arbeit verbessern - Psychische Fehlbelastung im Betrieb vermeiden [in German]
This booklet on psychological load and its negative consequences is primarily aimed at heads of small and medium enterprises. It explains how to organize work and to identify and avoid psychological load among front-line workers. A second part presents practical tools (checklists) aimed at improving working conditions.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 52p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/Zentralredaktion/PDF/Publikationen/inqa-11-qualitaet-der-arbeit-verbessern,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-748 Dieckhoff K., Hoffmann T.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Good management of subordinates - Avoiding psychological loads
Gute Mitarbeiterführung - Psychische Fehlbelastung vermeiden [in German]
This booklet on psychological load and its negative consequences is primarily aimed at heads of small and medium enterprises. It explains how to organize work, and to identify and avoid psychological loads, both among front-line workers and among supervisors and managers.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 36p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/Zentralredaktion/PDF/Publikationen/inqa-10-gute-mitarbeiterfuehrung,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 08-1247 Hecker D., Galais N., Moser K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Unusual career paths and false perceptions of stress
Atypische Erwerbsverläufe und wahrgenommene Fehlbelastungen [in German]
The aim of this project was to develop a tool for the evaluation of stress factors among workers with unusual career paths (discontinuities, frequent changes of employers, occupations or locations). A questionnaire comprising six scales was developed for evaluating stress in these atypical employees. The tool was evaluated in a preliminary qualitative study involving 45 workers and was pre-tested on 167 subjects. The validation of the questionnaire was next carried out during a survey of 384 subjects. The reliability was found to be high. Overall, high stress levels were found among groups of short-term and temporary workers, while it was low among fixed employees. Among workers where there was a discrepancy between their effective and desired employment status, stress levels were higher. Other findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 85p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.

CIS 08-1102 Gebhardt H., Klußmann A., Maßbeck P., Topp S., Steinberg U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Safety and health in emergency services
Sicherheit und gesundheit im Rettungsdienst [in German]
A survey was carried out during 2004 in the 22 emergency services of the German Red Cross to evaluate the physical workload and psychological stress among emergency services workers. A standardized questionnaire was addressed to 382 workers, among whom 202 responded (163 men and 39 women). In addition, a subgroup of 98 subjects was followed during 48 working days. Despite a high level of job satisfaction, a low average age (33 years for men and 25 years for women) and a good work capacity index, subjects reported neck and shoulder pain, as well as low back and knee pain. Cardiofrequency measurements during work showed more rapid increases during emergency interventions than during simple patient handling. Salivary cortisol levels also showed similar differences. However no significant differences were found as a function of gender and age. Other findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 114p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.

CIS 08-1108 Venco S.
Call centres: A 19th century factory in 21st century services
Centrais de atendimento: a fábrica do século XIX nos serviços do século XXI [in Portuguese]
This article discusses productivity and social relations issues in an occupation that has grown strongly in recent years, namely telemarketing. The drive to ensure high productivity requires work rhythms and hierarchical pressures that can cause deleterious working conditions. The article analyses not only the use of technology for improving work control and the role of management in increasing productivity, but also workers' responses towards these pressures.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2nd half 2006, Vol.31, No.114, p.7-18. 33 ref.

CIS 08-847 Ferguson E., Cassaday H.J., Ward J., Weyman A.
Health and Safety Executive
Triggers for non-specific symptoms in the workplace: Individual differences, stress and environmental (odour and sound) factors
Non-specific symptoms are not related to any given disease and include fatigue, weakness, sleep difficulties, headache and muscle aches. They have a high reported incidence and result in high rates of sickness absenteeism. The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the work environment, characteristics of individual workers, external factors and physiological factors that contribute to reporting non-specific symptoms. It was carried out in the form of a survey of a cross-sectional sample of 711 volunteer participants, who answered questionnaires on their symptoms and work environment. A sub-group of volunteers furthermore submitted daily diary entries and saliva samples, which were analysed for cortisol and immunoglobulin-A secretion. Key findings are that non-specific symptoms are related to odour perceptions, the time of day, individual differences, particularly with respect to anxiety, perceived stress and job demand/control imbalance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 110p. Illus. Approx 120 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr501.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-987 Amati C.A., Scaife R.
Health and Safety Executive
Investigation of the links between psychological ill-health, stress and safety
Investigating the causes of accidents, incidents and unsafe behaviour, including understanding the possible influence of psychological ill-health, has become a priority. This understanding should address both whether experiencing psychological ill-health or stress at work can impact on individuals' safety behaviour and also how the presence of potential sources of psychological ill-health or stress at work may affect safety performance. This report presents evidence to contribute to this understanding, focusing on the relationship between psychological ill-health, stress and safety in a work context. It is based on a literature review, and divided into sections addressing the following topics: prevalence of psychological ill-health and stress; impact of psychological ill-health and stress on behaviour; evidence from accidents; stress and causes of accidents and errors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 99p. Illus. 50 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr488.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-989 Cormack H., Cross S., Whittington C.
Health and Safety Executive
Identifying and evaluating the social and psychological impact of workplace accidents and ill-health incidents on employees
This study examined the impact of serious workplace-related injury and ill health on individuals in two work sectors identified as priority areas, namely the construction sector and the healthcare sector. It involved telephone interviews with a sample of employees who had experienced a serious workplace accident or suffered from a reportable illness, followed by personal home interviews with a limited subset of the more serious cases and their family members. The study shows that serious work-related accidents and illnesses can have a widespread impact on individuals and their families. Many may be unable to return to work, need a change of job or role to accommodate new restrictions, or approach their work with a level of caution not previously in evidence. Many also experience physical problems and economic consequences, both in terms of loss of income and the need for extra expenditure associated with the accident or illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 363p. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr464.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-747 Cox T., Griffiths A., Houdmont J.
Health and Safety Executive
Defining a case of work-related stress
This research on work-related stress involved two parallel studies. The first concerned case definitions already applied within epidemiological surveys in the United Kingdom. The second study involved identifying key stakeholders and collecting from them information on the case definitions employed in their various fields and on their views concerning the feasibility of developing a single case definition that could span all domains while remaining consistent with epidemiological case definitions. No simple and universal case definition was found to be possible, largely because of the complex nature of work-related stress. However, a case definition and associated assessment framework was arrived at by consensus and acknowledged across stakeholder groups suitable for application within the occupational health domain.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 117p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr449.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-746 Bond F.W., Flaxman P.E., Loivette S.
Health and Safety Executive
A business case for the Management Standards for stress
This aim of this literature survey was to determine the extent to which the effective management of some or all of the six key factors of occupational stress is associated with beneficial business outcomes. These six stressors are demands, control, support, relationships, role and change. Findings lead to the conclusion that there is evidence of a business case for each stressor area, greatest for control and weakest for demands. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 37p. 77 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr431.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-237 Ahola K., Honkonen T., Kivimäki M., Virtanen M., Isometsä E., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression: The Health 2000 study
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression. A representative sample of 3270 Finnish employees aged 30 to 64 years responded to the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey and the Beck Depression Inventory and participated in an interview based on the Composite International Diagnostic Questionnaire. High strain compared with low strain was associated with 7.4 times higher odds of burnout, 3.8 times higher odds of depressive symptoms and 1.7 times higher odds of depressive disorders. The risk for depressive symptoms and for depressive disorders of high strain was reduced by 69% or more after adjusting for burnout. Burnout is strongly related to job strain and may in part mediate the association between job strain and depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.48, No.10, p.1023-1030. 57 ref.

CIS 07-1497 Cherry N.M., Chen Y., McDonald J.C.
Reported incidence and precipitating factors of work-related stress and mental ill-health in the United Kingdom (1996-2001)
The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of work-related stress and mental illness reported by occupational physicians and psychiatrists in the United Kingdom. Annual average incidence rates were calculated by sex, occupation and industry against appropriate populations at risk. For the period between 1996 and 2001, annual averages of 3624 new cases were reported by psychiatrists, and 2718 by occupational physicians. The rates were higher for men in reports based on the former and for women on the latter. Most diagnoses were of anxiety and depression or work-related stress, with post-traumatic stress accounting for around 10% of cases reported by psychiatrists. High rates of mental ill-health are observed among professional and associated workers and in those in personal and protective services. Factors (such as work overload) intrinsic to the job and issues with interpersonal relations were the most common causes overall.
Occupational Medicine, 2006, No.56, p.414-421. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 07-1243 Notelaers G., Einarsen S., De Witte H., Vermunt J.K.
Measuring exposure to bullying at work: The validity and advantages of the latent class cluster approach
Although bullying is a complex phenomenon, the dominant method used in bullying surveys only distinguishes two groups: victims versus non-victims. Hence, the complex nature of workplace bullying may not be accounted for. A latent class cluster approach is suggested to model data obtained from the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) administered to 6175 employees in Belgium. In this study, six latent classes emerged: "not bullied," "limited work criticism," "limited negative encounters," "sometimes bullied," "work related bullied," and "victims." The results show that compared to the traditional operational classification method, the latent class cluster approach shows higher construct and higher predictive validity with respect to self-assessments and indicators of strain and well-being at work.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.20, No.4, p.289-302. 31 ref.

CIS 07-1242 Roesler U., Jacobi F., Rau R.
Work and mental disorders in a German national representative sample
This study on occupational risk factors of mental disorders involved 2329 German employees (aged 18-65 years) who took part in a structured, computer-assisted clinical interview. Further, they specified whether their job was characterized by physical workload, overtime or stress, and evaluated whether they felt impaired by each job characteristic. Results show that substance abuse/dependence (including nicotine dependence) was the highest prevalent mental disorder (12 month prevalence: 14.4%) followed by anxiety (12.0%) somatoform (9.7%), and affective (9.3%) disorders. Sequential logistic regression analyses showed significant associations between the presence of stress at work and affective and somatoform disorders. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.20, No.3, p.234-244. 38 ref.

CIS 07-1241 Nakata A., Ikeda T., Takahashi M., Haratani T., Hojou M., Fujioka Y., Swanson N.G., Araki S.
Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises
This study examined the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Subjects included 1049 men and 721 women from 244 SMEs. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last one-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio (OR) 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women) and low job satisfaction (OR 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.658-669. Illus. 44 ref.

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