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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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CIS 09-983 Otsuka Y., Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Mori I.
Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers
This study examined the relationships between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly-selected sample of 2000 workers, among whom 1821 responded (a response rate of 91.1%). Data were subjected to covariance analyses. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration levels. High levels of social support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue and concentration difficulty levels. These findings suggest that improving coping skills such as using social support or positive reframing may mitigate the adverse health effects of long working hours.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 31 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-674 Morghen I., Turola M.C., Forini E., Di Pasquale P., Zanatta P., Matarazzo T.
Ill-lighting syndrome: Prevalence in shift-work personnel in the anaesthesiology and intensive care department of three Italian hospitals
In order to identify any signs and symptoms of the so-called "ill-lighting syndrome", this study was carried out on a sample of anaesthetists and nurses employed in the operating theatres and intensive care departments of three Italian hospitals. Data on the subjective emotional discomfort (stress) experienced by these subjects were collected by means of questionnaires. Workplace illumination levels were measured and correlations between discomfort and illumination were analysed using logistic regression. It was found that the percentage of high stress was reduced as the exposure to luminance was increased, although this finding was not statistically significant. The stress levels were found to be more heavily influenced by non-occupational factors and working conditions than by ambient lighting.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Mar. 2009, Vol.4, No.6, 6p. Illus. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-732 Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-488 Martín-Fernández S., de los Ríos I., Cazorla A., Martínez-Falero E.
Pilot study on the influence of stress caused by the need to combine work and family on occupational accidents in working women
This study analyzes the influence of work-family conflict on minor occupational accidents suffered by working women. A survey was done on working women in the region of Madrid, Spain, who had suffered a minor occupational accident in 2004. The main finding was that nearly half of the women with children considered that the stress and fatigue caused by trying to combine work and family played a part in the accident; furthermore, 21% of the respondents whose accidents took place while traveling to or from work and 11% of the respondents who suffered the accident in the workplace said that family reasons played a part. 50% of the women suffered after-effects as a result of the accident; children had to change their routine in almost one in four cases; nearly a quarter of the respondents said their work situation had been temporarily modified. These findings point to a need for polices that encourage men and employers to contribute more to solve work-family conflicts.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.192-198. 52 ref.

CIS 09-232 Collet C., Averty P., Dittmar A.
Autonomic nervous system and subjective ratings of strain in air-traffic control
The objective of this study was to evaluate the perceived mental strain among air-traffic controllers by means of self-evaluation and five physiological indicators from the autonomic nervous system, namely: skin potential, skin conductance, skin blood flow, skin temperature and heart rate. Each physiological variable was averaged to match the times spent monitoring a given number of aircraft. After the session, participants rated their stress using the NASA-TLX rating scale. Both subjective ratings and physiological values were closely correlated to the number of aircraft being monitored, which could evolve at random between one and ten. Results provide objective information to prevent air-traffic controllers from overloaded situations.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2009, Vol.40, No.1, p.23-32. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 11-0747
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Post-traumatic stress in occupational settings
El estrés postraumático en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
Report of a conference on post-traumatic stress in occupational settings, organized by the Argentinian public OSH institution (Superintendencia de riesgos del trabajo, SRT). Topics addressed: neurophysiology and post-traumatic stress treatment; post-traumatic stress in the context of Argentinian Law No.24.557; symptoms associated with the post-traumatic stress syndrome among train drivers; post-traumatic stress syndrome following an explosion having occurred in an Argentinian university.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, no date. 32p. pdf document.
El_estrés_postraumático.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0746
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Psychological problems arising from working conditions
Cuestiones psicológicas emergentes de la situación laboral [in Spanish]
Report of a conference on psychological problems in occupational settings, organized by the Argentinian public OSH institution (Superintendencia de riesgos del trabajo, SRT). Topics addressed: case of a call centre; violence at work in the health care sector; emerging psychological hazards in occupational settings; presentation of a case of psychological harassment.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, no date. 29p. pdf document.

CIS 10-0593 West D.
Present but not accounted for
Discussion of presenteeism in Australia. The phenomenon, which may be due to illness, depression, personal problems or financial stress, is estimated to have cost AUD 25.7 billion to the Australian economy in 2005-2006, about four times the cost of absenteeism.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, Sep. 2008, Vol.3, No.8, p.42-46. Illus.

CIS 09-1264 Hintsa T., Kivimäki M., Elovainio M., Vahtera J., Hintsanen M., Viikari J.S.A., Raitakari O.T., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Is the association between job strain and carotid intima-media thickness attributable to pre-employment environmental and dispositional factors? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
This study examined whether pre-employment family factors and participants' own dispositional factors contributed to the relationship between job strain and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). It involved 494 male employees in Finland. Parental socioeconomic position and parental life dissatisfaction were assessed at 9-21 years of age and personal behavioural components were assessed at 12-24 years of age before the participants had entered the labour market. Job strain, education and CIMT were assessed at 27-39 years of age when all participants were employed. Certain behavioural components were found to have an effect on the association between job strain and CIMT, but not pre-employment family factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.676-682. 45 ref.

CIS 09-1404 Stansfeld S.A,, Clark C., Caldwell T., Rodgers B., Power C.
Psychosocial work characteristics and anxiety and depressive disorders in midlife: The effects of prior psychological distress
This study examines the extent to which the association between work stressors and adult psychiatric diagnoses is explained by earlier psychological distress. It involved the follow-up at 45 years of age of 8243 participants in paid employment from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. It was found that childhood and early adulthood psychological distress predict work characteristics in mid-adulthood but do not explain the associations of work characteristics with depressive episode and generalised anxiety disorder in midlife.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.634-642. 42 ref.

CIS 09-1189 Ertel K.A., Koenen K.C., Berkman L.F.
Incorporating home demands into models of job strain: Findings from the work, family, and health network
The purpose of this study was to integrate home demands into the demand-control-support model to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child younger than 18 years in the household signified home demands. The presence of depressive symptoms was determined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household. There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Job strain may therefore be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1244-1252. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 09-1188 Billings D.W., Cook R.F., Hendrickson A., Dove D.C.
A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia health promotion programme for the workplace, designed to help reduce stress and the risk of depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 309 working adults were randomly assigned to the web-based intervention group or to a control group. All participants were assessed on multiple self-reported outcomes before and after the intervention. Relative to controls, the web-based group reduced their stress, increased their knowledge of depression and anxiety, developed more positive attitudes toward stress treatment and adopted a more controlled approach to alcohol consumption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.960-968. 44 ref.

CIS 09-1171 Croidieu S., Charbotel B., Vohito M., Renaud L., Jaussaud J., Bourboul C., Ardiet D., Imbard I., Guerin A.C., Bergeret A.
Call-handlers' working conditions and their subjective experience at work: A transversal study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe call-centre working conditions and call-handlers' subjective experience of their work. It was carried out by means of interviewer-administered questionnaires by 47 occupational physicians during routine occupational medicine examinations. Psychosocial risk factors were explored by three dimensions of the Karasek questionnaire, decision latitude, psychological demands and social support. The sample consisted of 2,130 call-handlers from around 100 different companies. The population was 71.9% female, with a mean age of 32.4 years. Findings are discussed. This study confirmed the high rate of psychosocial constraints for call-handlers and identified work situations that may lead to risk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.67-77. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1185 Cho J.J., Kim J.Y., Chang S.J., Fiedler N., Koh S.B., Crabtree B.F., Kang D.M., Kim Y.K., Choi Y.H.
Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine which components of occupational stress or job characteristics were associated with depression among Korean workers. It involved a nationwide sample of 8522 workers, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographics, job characteristics, depressive symptoms and occupational stress. Multivariate analyses show that inadequate social support (odds ratio (OR) 1.58) and discomfort in occupational climate (OR 1.25) were more important risk factors for depression than organizational injustice, job demand and job control. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.47-57. 63 ref.

CIS 09-1174 Buddeberg-Fischer B., Klaghofer R., Stamm M., Siegrist J., Buddeberg C.
Work stress and reduced health in young physicians: Prospective evidence from Swiss residents
This study on young physicians investigated their perceived job stress, its association with the amount of working hours and its impact on self-reported health and overall satisfaction during residency. A cohort of Swiss medical school graduates was followed up from 2001. In their second and fourth years of residency, 433 physicians assessed their effort-reward balance, overcommitment, physical and mental well-being and overall satisfaction. Findings are discussed. Stress at work in young physicians, especially when being experienced over a longer period in postgraduate training, has to be a matter of concern because of its negative impact on health and overall satisfaction and the risk of developing symptoms of burnout in the long run.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.31-38. 47 ref.

CIS 09-1184 Tabanelli M.C., Depolo M., Cooke R.M.T., Sarchielli G., Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S., Violante F.S.
Available instruments for measurement of psychosocial factors in the work environment
The objective of this literature survey was to provide an overview of the variety of instruments available for the evaluation of work-related psychosocial factors. A total of 33 instruments were identified (26 questionnaires, 7 observational), many (11 questionnaires, 5 observational) linked to national institutions or initiatives. The accessibility of relevant information (on the internet or elsewhere) regarding the instruments varied widely.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.1-12. 55 ref.

CIS 09-973 Barron S.
Occupational stress: The emerging threat to police officers
Historically, stress has been seen as a major contributor to the many psychosocial problems faced by police officers. Traditional views have often held that the street duties of police officers were the main factor in the development of psychological distress. More recent views indicate that the police organization may be an increasing factor in police stress, leading to a range of mental health issues and, in some cases, suicide. Poor management and administrative practices, routine workplace events and workplace conflict are all major concerns for police officers, their families and, ultimately, the community that they serve. This article discusses human, financial and legal considerations of stress among police officers in Australia.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.553-561. 54 ref.

CIS 09-972 Maguire P., Raphael B., Martinek N.
Health workforce: Challenges for occupational mental health
Nursing personnel, which constitutes the bulk of the health workforce, is exposed to many risk factors for their mental health and wellbeing. These include burnout, long hours, violence, feelings of helplessness, stress associated with increasing and new demands, an ageing workforce and high expectations from the public. A range of issues also confront medical practitioners, both in general practice and hospital-based care sectors. This article proposes key principles for protecting the mental health of health workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.519-530. 61 ref.

CIS 09-735 Ayers K.M.S., Thomson W.M., Newton J.T., Rich A.M.
Job stressors of New Zealand dentists and their coping strategies
The aim of this study was to investigate job stressors and coping strategies among New Zealand dentists by means of a nationwide postal survey of a representative sample of 700 dentists. The response rate was 65%. The most commonly-reported stressors were treating difficult children (52%), constant time pressure (48%) and maintaining high levels of concentration (43%). The strategies most utilized for managing work-related stress included interactions with people (78%), sports (64%) and forgetting about work (59%). There were differences in the strategies used by male and female practitioners. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.275-281. 25 ref.

CIS 09-741 Brousse G., Fontana L., Ouchchane L., Boisson C., Gerbaud L., Bourguet D., Perrier A., Schmitt A., Llorca P.M., Chamoux A.
Psychopathological features of a patient population of targets of workplace bullying
The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of stress and anxiety-depression disorder developed by targets of workplace bullying and to characterize this population in terms of psychopathology and socio-demographic features. Forty-eight patients (36 women and 12 men) meeting Leymann criteria for bullying were included in a prospective study. Evaluations were performed at first consultation and at 12 months using a standard clinical interview and several tests for stress, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Stress at work and depression significantly influenced capacity to return to work. At 12-month assessments, subjects working showed a significantly better score on the HAD scale than those still not working. Over half the targets presented a neuroticism-related predominant personality trait. Workplace bullying can have severe mental health repercussions, triggering serious and persistent underlying disorders.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.122-128. 34 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-730 Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-538 Roelen C.A.M., Schreuder K.J., Koopmans P.C., Groothoff J.W.
Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether perceived (physical and mental) workload and specific job demands are associated with self-reported health complaints. A random sample of 983 male employees working in manufacturing industry in the Netherlands responded to the Basic Occupational Health Questionnaire. The main findings were that perceived physical job demands matched with self-reported musculoskeletal complaints, whereas perceived mental job demands were unrelated to specific complaints. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.58-63. 27 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-738 Kang Y., Hahm H., Yang S., Kim T.
Application of the life change unit model for the prevention of accident proneness among small to medium sized industries in Korea
Behaviour models have provided an accident proneness concept based on life change unit (LCU) factors. This paper describes the development of a Korean Life Change Unit (KLCU) model for workers and managers in fatal accident areas, as well as an evaluation of its application. Results suggest that death of parents is the highest stress-giving factor for employees of small and medium sized industries, a rational finding the viewpoint of Korean culture. The next stress-giving factors were shown to be the death of a spouse, followed by the death of close family members, the death of close friends, problems of family members' health, unemployment, and jail terms. It turned out that these factors have a serious effect on industrial accidents and work-related diseases. The death of parents and close friends are ranked higher in the KLCU model than that of Western society.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.470-476. 19 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-485 Ahghar G.
The role of school organizational climate in occupational stress among secondary school teachers in Tehran
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of school organizational climate on the occupational stress of teachers. The study population consisted of a random sample of 220 secondary schools teachers in Tehran, Iran. Data on organizational climate and occupational stress were collected by means of questionnaires and subjected to statistical regression analysis. Moderate or high occupational stress was reported by 40% of the subjects. The rate of occupational stress among teachers could be predicted using the scores on the school organizational climate.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.319-329. 34 ref.

CIS 09-481 Lodde B., Jegaden D., Lucas D., Feraud M., Eusen Y., Dewitte J.D.
Stress in seamen and non seamen employed by the same company
The aim of this survey was to compare the level of occupational stress among 74 crew members working on French oceanographic vessels to that of 74 technicians and engineers from the oceanographic institute, who board the ships to operate special equipment during missions at sea. Both groups consisted of males of comparable age, who responded to questionnaires. The results showed that while there were no significant differences in strain at work and social support, there were significant differences in decision latitude which was much lower among seamen. The occupation of seaman was found to include specific elements regarded by Karasek as susceptible to lead to stress.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.53-60. 14 ref.

CIS 09-239 Bradley J.W.
Comparing the Job Strain and Job Demand-Control-Support models in direct-care disability workers: Support for support
This study evaluated the relationship of physiological indices of stress (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) to the job strain and the job demand-control-support models. A sample of 98 direct-care disability workers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Job Content Questionnaire. In addition, participants' morning saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol and immunoglobulin A concentration levels. The job strain and job demand-control-support models were tested using structural equation modelling. The job demand-control-support model successfully fitted with the data and was able to predict physiological outcomes; the job strain model did not. Salivary immunoglobulin A levels were predicted more successfully than the cortisol levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.316-323. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-247 Haruyama Y., Muto T., Ichimura K., Yan Y., Fukuda H.
Changes of subjective stress and stress-related symptoms after a merger announcement: A longitudinal study in a merger-planning company in Japan
To investigate the influences of a merger on employees in a major Japanese financial company, changes of subjective stress and stress-related symptoms after a merger announcement were explored among 71 employees using longitudinal study surveys. Questionnaire items concerned stress and symptoms, personal characteristics, lifestyle, medical examinations and work-related factors. After the merger announcement, the prevalence of subjective stress, anxiety and impatience increased significantly from 46.5% to 78.9%, 18.3% to 40.8% and 15.9% to 29.0%, respectively. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.183-187. 18 ref.

CIS 09-246 Trujillo Vargas C.M., Vargas E.
Psychosocial factors and psychosomatic and psychological reactions of stress
Factores psicosociales y reacciones psicosomáticas y psicológicas de estrés [in Spanish]
This article consists of a review of psychosocial factors and psychosomatic and psychological reactions of stress, together with the findings of a study carried out among employees of a technical university in Columbia. Main topics addressed: theoretical aspects of stress; consequences of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction; physiological, emotional and behavioural changes related to stress; disorders caused by reactions to stress; phases of stress (alertness, resistance, exhaustion); analysis of the findings of the study and evaluation of the impact of stress.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 2nd Quarter 2008, Vol.15, No.56, p.9-17. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-243 Kleppa E., Sanne B., Tell G.S.
Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: The Hordaland health study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine whether long work hours are associated with increased prevalences of anxiety and depression. A total of 1350 overtime workers was compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle and somatic health was included. Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.658-666. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-38 Hintsanen M., Elovainio M., Puttonen S., Kivimäki M., Lehtimäki T., Kähönen M., Juonala M., Rontu R., Viikari J.S.A., Raitakari O.T., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Val/met polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates the association between job strain and early atherosclerosis in young men
Several studies support job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Since the COMT gene influences dopamine transmission, dopaminergic activity might moderate effects of stress on CHD risk. This study examines whether COMT Val158Met polymorphism moderates the association between job strain and atherosclerosis. Participants were 347 women and 353 men from the population-based Young Finns study. Preclinical atherosclerosis was measured using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) ultrasound. The COMT polymorphism was found to moderate the job strain-IMT association in men. The findings support a general model in which the interaction between genotype and job strain is assumed to predispose to increased atherosclerotic processes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.649-657. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 09-235 Ruotsalainen J., Serra C., Marine A., Verbeek J.
Systematic review of interventions for reducing occupational stress in health care workers
This literature survey evaluated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing stress and burnout at work among health care workers. It is concluded that there is some evidence available for a reduction in stress levels from person-directed, person-work interface, and organizational interventions among health care workers. This finding should lead to a more active stress management policy in health care institutions.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2008, Vol.34, No.3, p.169-178. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 09-217 van Rhenen W., Schaufeli W.B., van Dijk F.J.H., Blonk R.W.B.
Coping and sickness absence
The aim of this study was to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. Based on the fact that, contrary to reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcome, the hypothesis was that such strategies are positively related to a low frequency of sickness absence and with short durations per spell. Data were collected from 3628 employees of a Dutch telecom company who were subsequently followed for one year for sickness absence. In accordance with the hypothesis, and after adjustment for potential confounders, employees with an active problem-solving coping strategy were less prone to sickness absence in terms of frequency and duration. The median time before the onset of a new episode of absenteeism is significantly extended for active problem-solving and reduced for avoidance and for a palliative response.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2008, Vol.81, No.4, p.461-472. 64 ref.

CIS 09-242 Stanton S.
Work, stress research update
This article summarizes the findings of two recent surveys on occupational stress among Canadian workers. Overall, workplace stress and related mental problems seem to be on the rise. However, executives seem to be in better health than in earlier surveys conducted in 1997 and 2002. Other findings are discussed.
Accident Prevention, Aug.-Sep. 2008, Vol.55, No.3, p.19-20.

CIS 08-1494 Bonde J.P.E.
Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence
Major depression is a leading cause of psychiatric morbidity. Psychosocial factors at the workplace may influence the occurrence of this disorder, but evidence so far remains circumstantial. This literature survey reviews studies addressing the risk of major depression and depressive symptoms relative to psychosocial stressors in the working environment. Sixteen company or population-based studies including some 63,000 employees were identified. Despite the methodological limitations of several studies, there are consistent findings indicating that perceived adverse psychosocial factors at the workplace are related to elevated risks of subsequent onset of depressive symptoms or a major depressive episode.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.438-445. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 08-1491 van Rhenen W., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B.
Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population
The objective of this study was to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the 50-item four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ), using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should allow a reliable evaluation of the risk of sickness absence in occupational health practice and be useful for future studies on distress and mental disorders. The questionnaire was given to workers with and without sickness absence due to distress. Sensitivity and specificity were compared for various potential cutoff points. A distress cutoff point of ≥11 appears reliably indicative of a distress level at which an employee is presumably at risk of sick leave on psychological grounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.3, 8p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 08-1489 Shirom A., Toker S., Berliner S., Shapira I.
The Job Demand-Control-Support model and stress-related low-grade inflammatory responses among healthy employees: A longitudinal study
This study investigated the direct (additive) and interactive effects of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDC-S) model's components on subsequent changes in three indicators of stress-induced inflammation in the body: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and white blood cell concentrations. Subject included 738 healthy male and 383 healthy female employees who underwent periodic health examinations twice at an 18-month interval. Few direct or indirect effects were found, and none were supportive of the JDC-S model. It is concluded that the physiological mechanism linking the JDC-S model with cardiovascular morbidity probably does not involve inflammatory processes.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.138-152. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 08-1484 Willis T.A., O'Connor D.B., Smith L.
Investigating effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflict in relation to morningness-eveningness and shift work
The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has been found to be a strong predictor of both psychological and physiological outcomes. A sample of 112 police employees in the United Kingdom completed a baseline questionnaire that contained the ERI model and a measure of "morningness or eveningness" (M-E) chronotype. Two months later, participants completed a second questionnaire, including this time measures of work-family conflict and burnout. Regression analyses confirmed that ERI was a significant predictor of psychological adjustment to shift work. Moreover, M-E was found to make a unique contribution to the prediction of work-family conflict, such that evening types reported greater levels of maladjustment. The results indicate that adjustment to shift work and attendant effects on work-family conflict can be affected by an individual's morning-evening typology. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.125-137. 45 ref.

CIS 08-1487 Edwards J.A., Webster S., Van Laar D., Easton S.
Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards work-related stress Indicator Tool
In the United Kingdom, the HSE's Management Standards Indicator Tool is increasingly used by enterprises to monitor working conditions that can lead to stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of this tool. Data were collected from 26,382 employees at 39 enterprises in the United Kingdom and used to perform a first-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the original 35-item seven-factor measurement scale. The results showed an acceptable fit to the data for the instrument. A second-order CFA was also performed to test if the tool contained a higher order one-dimensional measure of work-related stress. These findings also revealed an acceptable fit to the data, suggesting that it may be possible to derive a single measure of work-related stress. Normative data comprising tables of percentiles from the organizational data are provided to enable employers to compare their averages against national benchmarks.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 08-1250 Exposure to stress: Occupational hazards in hospitals
Various studies show that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors. The purpose of this booklet is to explain the sources of occupational stress, to identify the adverse health effects of occupational stress and to recommend work practices to reduce occupational stress. Short descriptions of two hospital stress prevention programmes are included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. iii, 13p. 28 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1235 Martínez Plaza C.A.
Occupational stress and cancer
Estrés laboral y cáncer [in Spanish]
Working conditions and work organization constitute psychosocial risk factors possibly leading to stress, in turn leading to somatic or psychic diseases. Stress has an incidence on the central nervous, immune and endocrine systems, resulting in higher susceptibility to carcinogens. This article discusses the relationship between occupational stress and cancer, together with the various mechanisms involved. Several models and studies on the stress/cancer relationship are reviewed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2008, No.46, p.28-47. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 08-1236 Edimansyah B.A., Rusli B.N., Naing L., Mohamed Rusli B.A., Winn T., Tengku Mohamed Ariff B.R.H.
Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychological job factors in male automotive assembly workers
This cross-sectional study explores the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors among automotive industry workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 workers, all male, responded to Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous working conditions were positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, while supervisor support was inversely associated with depression and stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.90-100. 40 ref.

CIS 08-994 Houtman I., Jettinghoff K., Cedillo L.
Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries - A modern hazard in a traditional working environment
Hatten-doshō-koku ni okeru rōdō sutoresu no ninshiki o kōjō saseru [in Japanese]
Sensibilisation au stress professionnel dans les pays en développement: Un risque actuel dans un environnement de travail traditionnel [in French]
Sensibilizando sobre el estrés laboral en los países en desarrollo - Un riesgo moderno en un ambiente de trabajo tradicional [in Spanish]
Work-related stress is an issue of growing concern in developing countries due to processes of globalization and the changing nature of work. In these countries, the focus of occupational safety and health initiatives has until now essentially been on chemical, biological and physical exposures, while the psychosocial risks at work are still largely neglected and their causes and consequences still insufficiently understood. This booklet raises awareness of the issue for employers and workers' representatives. Contents: introduction to the problem; effects of globalization and the changing nature of work; definition of work- related stress; model on work-related stress; managing work-related stress; acting at the local level; roles of employers' and workers' representatives.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008. 44p. Illus. 41 ref. [in Spanish] [in French] [in Japanese] [in English]

CIS 08-985 Hansson A.S., Vingård E., Arnetz B.B., Anderzén I.
Organizational change, health, and sick leave among health care employees: A longitudinal study measuring stress markers, individual, and work site factors
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of organizational changes in health care services on employees' self-reported health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion, stress and sick leave. The initial population consisted of 226 Swedish workers engaged in the care of older people, reduced to 198 one year later. They were divided between a study group affected by organizational changes and a reference group not affected by them. Self-rated health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion and hormones associated with stress were analyzed using a two-factor variance analysis design. Findings showed no significant differences in self-rated health, work satisfaction and work-related exhaustion. However, significant changes were found across time and between groups for the recovery hormone DHEA-S. Other findings are discussed. The study highlights the importance of considering the impact of organizational change on employee well-being from a number of perspectives, such as self-reported health parameters, registered sick-leave data and biological stress markers.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.69-80. 35 ref.

CIS 08-981 Saijo Y., Ueno T., Hashimoto Y.
Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between specific workload items and job stress among firefighters engaged in 24h shift work. The subjects were 1301 firefighters who answered a questionnaire covering age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, CES-D depression scale and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that workload, workload variance, conflicts, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2008, Vol.51, No.5, p.380-391. 53 ref.


CIS 09-1419 Dejours C.
Averting violence - Work, violence and health
Conjurer la violence - Travail, violence et santé [in French]
There is a worsening of violence in many settings, including within the enterprise. This document highlights the extent to which work organization is involved in the root causes of violence at the place of work and proposes pathways for preventive action, both inside and outside the enterprise.
Editions Payot & Rivages, 106, boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 2007. 316p. 71 ref. Price: EUR 23.00.

CIS 09-1181 Suominen S., Vahtera J., Korkeila K., Helenius H., Kivimäki M., Koskenvuo M.
Job strain, life events, and sickness absence: A longitudinal cohort study in a random population sample
To examine job strain, adverse life events, and their co-occurrence as predictors of sickness absence, data were collected by means of questionnaires in a random sample of 1806 Finns in gainful employment and linked to sickness absence records from national health registers. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and health behaviour, job strain (rate ratio RR 1.73), but not life events, independently predicted increased rate of sickness absence among men. The opposite was true for women (RR for life events 1.39). No statistically significant interaction between job strain and life events was detected.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.990-996. 26 ref.

CIS 09-965 Oramas Viera A., Almirall hernandez P., Fernández I.
Occupational stress and burnout syndrome among Venezuelan teachers
Estrés laboral y el síndrome de burnout en docentes venezolanos [in Spanish]
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of occupational stress and burnout among Venezuelan teachers, together with associated factors. A total of 885 teachers of 53 schools answered a Spanish-language version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Questionnaire for teachers, as well as a stress symptoms questionnaire. Emotional exhaustion was the most prevalent dimension of burnout. The best predictors of emotional exhaustion were age and perceived occupational stress. For depersonalisation, the best predictors were perceived stress and being of male gender. Occupational factors associated with increased stress were workload, student-related factors, low salary and inadequate materials and equipment. Other findings are discussed.
Salud de los Trabajadores, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.15, No.2, p.71-87. Illus. 35 ref

CIS 09-476 van Rhenen W., Blonk R.W.B., Schaufeli W. B, van Dijk F.J.H.
Can sickness absence be reduced by stress reduction programs: On the effectiveness of two approaches
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive stress reduction programmes - a cognitive focused programme and a combined intervention of physical exercise and relaxation - on sickness absence in stressed and non-stressed employees working in various jobs in a telecom company. Sickness absence data of 242 employees were analyzed with respect to spells of sickness (frequency, incidence rate), days (length, duration) and time between intervention and first subsequent absent spell. For stressed employees, this study suggests that the illness burden represented by absenteeism is not affected by the interventions. There is no substantial difference in effectiveness between the cognitive and physical interventions. However, in comparison with the physical intervention, the cognitive intervention decreases the period between the intervention and the first recurrence of a sick leave period.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2007, Vol.80, No.6, p.505-515. Illus. 74 ref.

CIS 09-500
Health and Safety Executive
Managing the causes of work-related stress - A step-by-step approach using the Management Standards
Work-related stress is a major cause of occupational ill health. This can result in sickness absence, high staff turnover and poor work performance. HSE Management Standards are aimed at helping employers, employees and their representatives manage the issue sensibly and minimize the impact of work-related stress on businesses. They represent a set of conditions that reflect high levels of health, well-being and organizational performance. Following the advice in this guide will help employers identify and close the gap between current performance levels and these conditions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Nov. 2007. iv, 56p. Illus. 13 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 10.95.

CIS 08-1496
Health and Safety Executive
Testing the effectiveness of the streamlined national well being programme at managing work-related stress in schools
The HSE have identified six main factors of work organization that, if not properly managed, are associated with poor health and wellbeing: demands, control, support, relationships, role and change. HSE's Management Standards for Work-Related Stress represent a set of conditions that reflect high levels of health, wellbeing and organisational performance in each of these areas. Following these standards helps employers to identify the gap between their current performance and these conditions, and to develop their own solutions to close this gap. This study evaluated the effectiveness of these standards in managing work-related stress in schools. It involved collecting data from participating local authorities and schools. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 81p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-1479 Røvik J.O., Tyssen R., Hem E., Gude T., Ekeberg Ø., Moum T., Vaglum P.
Job stress in young physicians with an emphasis on the work-home interface: A nine-year, nationwide and longitudinal study of its course and predictors
This longitudinal study explored the risk factors and outcomes of early career job-stress among physicians in Norway by means of mail surveys. Physicians graduating from Norwegian universities in 1993-94 responded during their final year of medical school, during their internship, in their fourth postgraduate year and in their tenth postgraduate year. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during the observation period, whereas stress relating to emotional pressure, time pressure and fear of complaints and criticism decreased. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during their early career, mainly due to long work hours and an increased number of children. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and lack of support from partners and colleagues appeared to be predictive of this stress.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.662-671. Illus. 46 ref. [in English]

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