Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found
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Mital A., Ghahramani B.
The injury profile of a large telecommunication company: A statistical summary
Over the years, over-exertion injuries have continued to increase despite ergonomic interventions to control their frequency of occurrence. Occupational injury and illness data from a large US telecommunications company (297,548 employees), collected over a seven-year period, suggest that: (1) better record-keeping may be a reason behind the reported increase in injuries; workday losses decline as a result of improved ergonomic and occupational health interventions; (2) serious injuries are not just limited to heavy manufacturing industries; and (3) reduction in workday losses may not translate in injury cost savings.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.37, No.10, Special Issue, p.1591-1601. 8 ref.
Lerner D.J., Levine S., Malspeis S., D'Agostino R.B.
Job strain and health-related quality of life in a national sample
The study examined the relationship of job strain to comprehensive health status measures that encompass health-related quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey, 1319 working men and women, aged 18 through 64, completed a questionnaire that classified jobs into four categories: high strain, passive, low strain, and active. Subjects also completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey and a health distress scale. Logistic regression analyses were employed that controlled for age, race/ethnicity, gender and education. Both work and nonwork variables were included. It was found that job strain was significantly associated with five of nine components of health-related quality of life: physical functioning, role functioning related to physical health, vitality, social functioning and mental health. Job strain made a modest yet statistically significant contribution beyond the effects of chronic illness and psychosocial variables.
American Journal of Public Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.84, No.10, p.1580-1585. 27 ref.
Casanueva Urcullu B., Di Martino V.
For the prevention of stress at the workplace
Por la prevención del estrés en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Based on the ILO publication Conditions of Work Digest on Preventing stress at work (see CIS 93-1748), this article gives an overview of the prevention of stress at the workplace. First, it discusses the extent and costs of the problem as reasons for its prevention. Then, it describes consecutive steps which are useful in order to understand stress, recognize its existence, identify its causes and decide on the measures to take. It also outlines various enterprise programmes that might be adopted to combat stress. Finally, several legislative measures dealing with occupational stress at the national and international level are surveyed.
Salud y trabajo, 1994, No.102, p.17-23. Illus.
Callan V.J., Terry D.J., Schweitzer R.
Coping resources, coping strategies and adjustment to organizational change: Direct or buffering effects?
Two models for examining the effects of personal and social resources, coping strategies and stress on levels of anxiety and depression were tested: the main effects model proposes that, irrespective of the level of stress, coping resources and strategies have direct effects on well-being; the buffering model predicts that the buffering effects of coping resources and strategies are only evident at high levels of stress. A survey of 100 lawyers revealed strong support for the main effects model in the prediction of levels of anxiety and depression. Lower levels of anxiety and depression were linked to judgments of lower levels of organizational change.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.8, No.4, p.372-383. 35 ref.
Johnson G.D., Thomas J.S., Riordan C.A.
Job stress, social support and health amongst shrimp fishermen
A survey was carried out among 211 shrimp fishermen and 99 land-based workers in a US Gulf Coast fishing community. The fishermen reported greater exposure to occupational stressors, greater amounts of social support and greater amounts of non-clinical depression and psychosomatic symptoms. A model of the stress process indicated that workers who were exposed to high levels of occupational stress, such as migration and safety factors, experienced higher levels of depression and somatic symptoms. However, no evidence was found of an indirect effect of social support on health outcomes.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.8, No.4, p.343-354. 20 ref.
Bunce D., West M.
Changing work environments: Innovative coping responses to occupational stress
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 333 health care professionals to investigate the extent to which individuals adapt their work environment in response to occupational stress. Approximately 32% reported innovative responses to occupational stress. Paramedics and community nurses reported the highest frequency; clerical and hospital nurses reported the lowest incidence. The majority of the innovative responses involved some change in working procedures. Overwork, procedural difficulties and dealing with others elicited most innovative coping responses. The study shows that such responses were perceived as an effective and important means of dealing with occupational stress.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.8, No.4, p.319-331. 44 ref.
Kompier M., De Gier E., Smulders P., Draaisma D.
Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress in five European countries
A comparison is presented of regulations, policies and practices concerning the prevention of work stress in the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France. While Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom recognize stress as an important health and safety topic, less attention is paid to psychosocial work characteristics than to traditional health and safety issues such as noise, machine safety and toxic agents. France and Germany do not yet recognize stress as an important policy issue. There is a lack of well-documented examples of good preventive practice. A number of recommendations are put forward.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.8, No.4, p.296-318. 27 ref.
Earnshaw J., Cooper C.L.
Employee stress litigation: The UK experience
The extent to which stress-induced illness can be regarded as a personal injury that could give rise to civil action for damages against employers in the United Kingdom is examined. Results of a brief survey of personal injury solicitors indicates that claims are already being initiated by employees who allege that they have suffered a stress-induced illness. Consideration is given to the hurdles that litigants will have to surmount, such as proving that their condition is work-related and that their employer was at fault, and what employers can do to protect themselves from such claims or to defend them successfully.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.8, No.4, p.287-295. 16 ref.
Stress at work: A GMB guide
Training brochure on mental stress at work, prepared by a trade union. Contents: scale of the problem; definition and symptoms of stress; causes of stress; remedies; case studies. In annex: a check list of stress factors and symptoms.
GMB, 22-24 Worple Road, London SW19 4DD, United Kingdom, 1994. 35p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 5.00 (non-members).
Bullying at work: Combating offensive behaviour in the workplace
Training package designed to teach workers how to identify and combat bullying in the workplace. The effects of bullying on the mental and physical health of employees are discussed in detail. Check-lists, handouts and role playing exercises form an integral part of the training package.
BBC Enterprises Ltd 1994, BBC for Business, Woodlands, 80 Wood Lane, London W12 0TT, United Kingdom, 1994. 2 videotapes + facilitator's guide (90p., 13 ref.).
Murphy S.A., Beaton R.D., Cain K., Pike K.
Gender differences in fire fighter job stressors and symptoms of stress
In a questionnaire survey of 670 male and 41 female fire fighters, males and females reported similar patterns of job stress and symptoms of stress. The job stressors ranked the most 'bothersome' during the last ten shifts worked were sleep disturbance, wage/benefit concerns, job skill concerns, substandard equipment and safety concerns; female fire fighters reported higher scores than males on job skill concerns. Among other stress factors, females reported higher scores on job discrimination and higher rates of depression.
Women and Health, 1994, Vol.22, No.2, p.55-69. 28 ref.
Siegrist J., Peter R.
Job stressors and coping characteristics in work-related disease: Issues of validity
A theoretical model of effort-reward imbalance is described and tested. The model assumes that high effort spent at work (work pressure, cumulative workload, need for control) in combination with low reward obtained (status control, esteem, monetary reward) trigger sustained neuro-hormonal activation. In a study of 416 male blue-collar workers, components of effort-reward imbalance were strongly related to new coronary events and to elevated levels of established coronary risk factors as well as to reduced cardiovascular responsiveness. It is concluded that effort-reward imbalance may be an important predictor of coronary risk and disease.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.8, No.2, p.130-140. Illus. 27 ref.
How to cope well with stress
Comment devenir un bon stressé [in French]
This book on stress management at work is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 - Human beings and their "stress capital": definition of stress; the stressed employee: from the passive victim to the active manager (understanding stress at work; occupational stress factors; excessive workload; psychological conditions and representations, etc.); occupational pathopsychology. Part 2 - The enterprise and its "human capital": new stressors in the workplace; how do people stress themselves: urgent tasks, perfectionism, hypercontrol; stress audit: aggressivity, introversion and avoidance; diagnosis: physical strain, general health status. Part 3 - Managing one's stress capital: living with stress (better health and life habits, relaxation, time management, etc.); optimizing the stress capital of employees: managing stress at work, contents of training (emotional control, improving life habits, self-assertion techniques, communication techniques), identifying problem situations and cognitive and behavioural change; assessing stress management programmes.
Editions Odile Jacob, 15 rue Soufflot, 75005 Paris, France, Oct. 1994. 200p. Price: FRF 95.00.
A pilot study of the contribution of empathy to burnout in Salvation Army Officers
Human service professionals engaged in counselling emotionally distressed clients may be at risk of developing negative emotional reactions including burnout and stress disorders. This study examined the relationship between empathy and burnout with a sample population of 71 Salvation Army officers. It was hypothesized that emotional rather than cognitive empathy was predictive of burnout. Personal distress could be predicted by personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion whereas empathic concern was predicted by personal accomplishment and depersonalization. Regression analysis supported the hypothesis. Effective functioning was associated positively and negatively with empathic concern and personal distress respectively. Human service professionals engaged in counselling distressed clients may be able to manage their emotional reactions if they have a multidimensional approach to empathy.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.8, No.1, p.68-74. 18 ref.
Investigation into the subjectively perceived significance of various strain dimensions for informational load
Information processing technology-oriented jobs require absorption, processing and conversion of information. Such activities involve psychological load and strain. Uni- or multidimensional strain measurement methods allow the recording of psychological strain according to a particular aspect. Motor, visual, temporal, mental and memory strain dimensions were preselected, and repeated assessments of these strain dimensions using the paired comparison method were made. Two subgroups, homogeneous in terms of their assessments of the significance of strain dimension, were identified. They differed in terms of the importance they attached to temporal strain. Thus, specific causes of strain can be determined by assessment of strain dimensions.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.8, No.1, p.47-59. Illus. 34 ref.
Jaraiedi M., Iskander W.H., Myers W.R., Martin R. G.
The effects of respirator use on workers' productivity in a mentally stressing task
The effect of wearing half-facepiece respirators on the performance of ten subjects in a task simulating the inspection of printed circuit boards was investigated. Several experimental factors were considered, including product complexity, product quality and respirator use. Accuracy and mean reaction times were tested automatically. Speed and accuracy were generally not affected by wearing the respirator for less complex products, but a difference was found in both accuracy and time for more complex products.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.418-424. Illus. 9 ref.
Burnished or burnt out - The delights and dangers of working in health
This editorial briefly discusses stress-related illness in health professionals. While some people thrive under pressure, others suffer "burn-out" and become dull and ineffective. Factors predisposing to burn-out include uncertainty over one's role and loss of control over the achievement of effectiveness. The need for control over one's work is discussed along with adverse effects on staff morale following recent National Health Service reforms in the United Kingdom and the role of management in promoting staff effectiveness.
Lancet, 10 Dec. 1994, Vol.344, No.8937, p.1583-1584. 11 ref.
Chavalitsakulchai P., Ohkubo T., Shahnavaz H.
A model of ergonomics intervention in industry - Case study in Japan
Psycho-social problems of female workers in four different workplaces in Japan were investigated by means of questionnaire survey and simple clinical tests. Results indicated that workers suffered from musculoskeletal disorders and stress. An investigation of the attitudes of workers, management and government representatives towards ergonomics intervention practices indicated a general desire for cooperation and participation. A practical programme for ergonomics intervention is suggested, to be based on: cooperation between management, workers and government officers; worker participation; appropriate training in ergonomics education and awareness; management support.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.7-26. Illus. 14 ref.
Chambers R., Belcher J.
Predicting mental health problems in general practitioners
In a questionnaire survey of 704 general practitioners in the United Kingdom, excessive anxiety was reported by 31.1%, troublesome depression by 13.4%, exhaustion or stress by 60.7% and sleep difficulties by 47.6%. Those aged 40-49 were most likely to report anxiety, exhaustion or stress, sexual and sleep difficulties. Retired doctors reported mental health problems markedly less often. Predictive factors for anxiety were depression, one or more nights on call per week, and exhaustion or stress. Predictive factors for exhaustion or stress were anxiety, depression, no hobbies, excessive paperwork and sleep difficulties.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.44, No.4, p.212-216. Illus. 23 ref.
Stressful jobs and non-stressful jobs: A cluster analysis of office jobs
A questionnaire survey of 262 office workers was carried out to provide data on job stressors and indicators of psychological strain. Appendix: list of questionnaire items included in the factor analysis. Using cluster analysis on nine stressors, office jobs were classified into three clusters which were related to job-title information. The cluster highest on a range of psychological strain indicators included jobs with high demands and future ambiguity and low skill utilization, task clarity, job control and social support. The study showed that office jobs could be characterized by a small number of combinations of stressors that were related to job-title information and psychological strain. Appendix: list of questionnaire items included in the factor analysis.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37, No.2, p.311-323. Illus. 26 ref.
Schleifer L.M., Ley R.
End-tidal PCO2 as an index of psychophysiological activity during VDT data-entry work and relaxation
Eleven data-entry operators were monitored during a self-relaxation baseline period, a progressive muscle relaxation period and a period of computer-based data-entry work. End-tidal PCO2 (peak concentration of carbon dioxide in a single breath of exhaled air) was significantly higher during progressive muscle relaxation than during baseline relaxation and significantly lower during data-entry work than during either type of relaxation. End-tidal PCO2 was the only physiological indicator to discriminate among all three test conditions. Findings indicate that end-tidal PCO2 may be useful in indexing the stress-health effects of human-computer interactions.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37. No.2, p.245-254. Illus. 29 ref.
Hard labour. Stress, ill-health and hazardous employment practices
This book describes the causes and health effects of stress at work and suggests practical remedies for workplace improvements. Contents: introductory chapter on changes in the nature of work, flexibility and intensity of labour, job insecurity; stress and health (symptoms and effects of work-related stress, mental health, psychosocial effects, stress factors, excessive working hours, night and shift work, violence as a source of stress); tackling stress at work (stress management, stress prevention policies, avoiding excessive work time, tackling violence at work, legal aspects).
London Hazards Centre, Headland House, 308 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8DS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. ii, 112p. Index. 84 ref. Price: GBP 6.95.
Hartley L.R., El Hassani J.
Stress, violations and accidents
Sources of stress among Western Australian car and truck drivers were investigated using a previously-developed Driver Behaviour Inventory. Associations between reported stress and drivers' accidents or violation records were also examined. Factor analyses related truck drivers' stress more to occupational demands and to imperturbability, whereas car drivers' stress was related more to psychological health, age, experience and aggression. The results are discussed and recommendations made for improvements in road safety.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.25, No.4, p.221-230. 14 ref.
Stress in the workplace - An occupational health nursing update
This document contains material presented at a training course on the occurrence and management of stress in the workplace. Topics covered: violence in the workplace; traumatic stress in the workplace; theoretical perspectives on occupational stress; environmental factors; preventive strategies; workplace mistreatment; employee assistance programmes; critical incident stress debriefing.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, SC-34 Seattle, Washington 98195, USA, 1994. 156p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Dell'Erba G., Venturi P., Rizzo F., Porcù S., Pancheri P.
Burnout and health status in Italian air traffic controllers
Results of a questionnaire survey of 109 air traffic controllers are presented. Data indicate that burnout syndrome, defined as emotional-mental exhaustion, is closely and positively related to age, years spent in air traffic control, professional dissatisfaction and to work stressors, but not to nonwork stressors. Burnout was negatively correlated with social support provided by friends and family.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.65, No.4, p.315-322. Illus. 33 ref.
Workload and psychophysiological stress reactions in air traffic controllers
Interactions between workload and psychophysiological stress symptoms were investigated in a population of 205 air traffic controllers (ATCs) from Zurich and Geneva. Results of a questionnaire survey showed that about 10 to 15% of the ATCs showed elevated values in psychological stress symptoms to an extent indicating that they might have serious stress problems. Results of investigated working sessions showed that subjective ratings corresponded clearly to cortisol response and the objective workload. Results confirm the idea that the job of an ATC is demanding but not necessarily more stressful than jobs of similar demands; complaints about excessive workload should be taken seriously.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1994, Vol.37, No.3, p.525-539. Illus. 45 ref.
Martín Daza F.
Stress: Process of generation in the workplace environment
El estrés: proceso de generación en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
Topics: conditions of work; data sheet; mental stress; Spain; stress evaluation; stress factors; work organization.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 7p. 7 ref.
Nakagawa K., et al.
Difference in perceived health between blue- and white-collar workers of a manufacturing factory by a self-administered questionnaire
Jikishiki ankēto ni yoru seizōgyō jūjisha ni okeru kenkō ishiki no shokushu ni yoru sa-i [in Japanese]
A survey using self-administered questionnaire was conducted. The subjects were 1,428 male workers in a tire manufacturing factory, consisting of 1,185 blue-collar workers and 243 white-collar workers. Most of the blue-collar workers were engaged in shift work consisting of three shifts per day. The questionnaire included 32 items concerning health habits, life and job satisfaction, mental stress, and "type A" [stress-prone] behaviour. Older workers had better health habits than younger ones both in white- and blue-collar categories. The white-collar workers were more satisfied with their life and jobs, and also showed type A behaviour at a higher rate. As for fatigue and dissatisfaction associated with shift work, the workers' complaints increased in the order day shift, evening shift, midnight shift. Older workers had fewer complaints than younger ones. These results suggest that health management and education will be more effective if the working conditions and the background of each worker are taken into consideration.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.188-197. Illus. 16 ref.
Edwards J.R., Van Harrison R.
Job demands and worker health: Three-dimensional reexamination of the relationship between person-environment fit and strain
The person-environment fit approach to stress states that misfit between the person and the environment may produce psychological, physiological and behavioural strains that ultimately increase morbidity and mortality. Data from a 1982 study are reanalyzed using a procedure that captures the underlying three-dimensional relationship between the environment, the person and strain. Results resolve ambiguities in the previous findings and identify relationships between the environment, the person and strain which are consistent with person-environment fit theory. Implications for person-environment fit research are discussed.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 1993, Vol.78, No.4, p.630-648. Illus. 43 ref.
Toivanen H., et al.
Impact of regular relaxation training on the cardiac autonomic nervous system of hospital cleaners and bank employees
The work-related strain of 50 female hospital cleaners and 48 female bank employees was recorded during a period of rationalization in the workplace and the effect of daily relaxation to help the workers cope was tested. The intervention period lasted six months. The relaxation method was brief and easily introduced as an alternative break in the workplace. Cardiac reflexes indicated that occupational stress (especially of a mental nature) caused the functioning of the autonomic nervous system to deteriorate. Regular deep relaxation normalized the function and improved the ability to cope.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1993, Vol.19, No.5, p.319-325. Illus. 31 ref.
Theorell T., et al.
Influence of job strain and emotion on blood pressure in female hospital personnel during workhours
A homogeneous sample of 56 women between the ages of 20 and 59 years and working in acute emergency care, child psychiatric or a paediatric outpatient clinic was studied in order to determine the relationship between job strain and blood pressure. Significant interrelationships occurred among perceived job strain, plasma prolactin and diastolic blood pressure during working hours. Thus job strain of female care-givers was associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure during working hours and also with diastolic blood pressure at rest, but not with blood pressure during leisure time.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1993, Vol.19, No.5, p.313-318. Illus. 19 ref.
Cox T., Cox S.
Psychosocial and organizational hazards at work: Control and monitoring
This monograph discusses limitations of the traditional approach to occupational health and explores the effects of psychosocial and organizational hazards and their monitoring as an essential part of a new model. Three main groups of concepts are covered: hazard, risk and harm (with special discussion of the effects of stress, vulnerability and estimation of scale and severity of harm); risk management and control (the control cycle and risk management; control of psychosocial and organizational hazards; agencies and targets); inspection, monitoring and auditing (monitoring systems; factors that promote monitoring; measurement in relation to psychosocial and organizational hazards; standards and legislation).
Occupational Health Programme, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, 1993. 57p. Illus. 108 ref.
Tarumi K., Hagihara A., Morimoto K.
An inquiry into the relationship between job strain and blood pressure in male white-collar workers
Published studies of the relationship of psychosocial factors at work with hypertension show both positive and negative correlations. A cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between psychological load and blood pressure was conducted among white-collar employees of a company in Japan in June 1991. Eligible male subjects (386 normotensives and 75 hypertensives) were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The correlation was negative: in the case of high job strain, the prevalence of hypertension was low. Those having family history of hypertension tended to have a non-complaining attitude (a fact observed in studies elsewhere) and this seemed to be the reason for the present results.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 20 July, 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.269-276. 28 ref.
Galinsky T.L., Rosa R.R., Warm J.S., Dember W.N.
Psychophysical determinants of stress in sustained attention
The effects of the sensory modality of signals (audition and vision) and the background event rate (5 and 40 events/min) on task-induced stress were examined for a group of 40 subjects. Restlessness and subjective fatigue increased dramatically across a 50-min watch in all conditions. Stress effects were most notable in the case of visual monitoring but were unrelated to variations in the event rate. Hence, from a psychophysical perspective, the stress of sustained attention seems to be identified more specifically with the sensory modality of signals rather than with the event rate context in which they appear.
Human Factors, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.603-614. 48 ref.
Imbernon E., Warret G., Roitg C., Chastang J.F., Goldberg M.
Effects on health and social well-being of on-call shifts - An epidemiologic study in the French national electricity and gas supply company
An investigation of the effects on health and social well-being of on-call shift work to cover emergencies outside working hours has been carried out by EDF-GDF, the French national company that supplies gas and electricity. A "weekly report form", completed for three consecutive weeks randomly selected using a sampling plan covering the entire year to take into account seasonal variations, was subsequently filled in by 115 of the group exposed to on-call shift work and 167 of those who were not, in order to investigate events occurring outside working hours and sleep. The findings show that the main demands of being on-call were telephone calls, accompanied by a shorter sleeping time, and more frequent tiredness on waking up. No particular disorder was found more frequently in the exposed group, but the psychological equilibrium and family and social life of the workers in the on-call shift group were disturbed: some variables in the questionnaire and indices calculated from some items revealed adverse effects. Analysis of the frequency of on-call shifts showed that these effects were greater the more frequently the subject was on call.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1131-1137. 17 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances des 13 octobre, 10 novembre, 8 décembre 1992 et 12 janvier 1993 [in French]
Themes of papers presented at the meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France): the clothing industry in the centre of Paris (recommendation to include arthrosis of the navicular bone of the hand in the French Schedule as an occupational disease among garment-cutters); protection of garbage workers against risks due to medical refuse present in domestic waste; occupational lead poisoning in connection with the renovation of an older building; cholinesterases: value of isolated variations of their levels; one case of thallium poisoning in a mineralogy laboratory; a case of chronic transfusion hepatitis affecting a nurse; occupational stress: in-plant experimental approach; sleep apnoea and aptitude to work in fire brigades; comments on the Decree of 29 May 1992 pertaining to the prohibition of smoking at work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.587-606.
Cail F., Mouzé-Amady M.
Assessment of operator stress in a simulated process control task
Evaluation du stress des opérateurs d'un contrôle de processus simulé [in French]
This study involving six subjects assessed operator stress during computer simulated process control operations by quantifying psychophysiological and hormonal changes before, during and after the task, without outside stress factors and with a combination of physical stressors (poor lighting and noise). Electroencephalograph and electrocardiograph readings were recorded continuously for 30 minutes before the task, during the task and for 30 minutes after the end of the task to assess the stress caused by the task and the environment. Saliva samples were taken at regular intervals for determination of cortisol as a measure of stress. After a complex screen task, functional recovery takes longer if rest is taken in a noisy environment and with bright front-on lighting. Recommendations are therefore proposed for the organization of break periods and rest areas for video display workers in industry.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.152, Note No.1939-152-93, p.477-482. Illus. 26 ref.
The role of psychological stress and prior experience in the use of personal protective equipment
Effective personal protective equipment (PPE) use was assessed by behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS). Participants, consisting of 141 emergency response team members of a chemical manufacturing organization, were evaluated in a series of field simulations where PPE was used. Subjects completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires measuring anxiety, type A behaviour, anger expression, and a knowledge test concerning chemical emergency response. Self-estimates of PPE skill were better predictors of observed BARS performance than knowledge scores, the amount of formal training, or emergency response experience. Effective performance scores were related to knowledge and experience in PPE use and negatively related to the outward expression of anger. Discomfort in using PPE was significantly correlated with experience using protective gear, positive teamwork-effectiveness ratings, and lower levels of anxiety symptoms.
Journal of Safety Research, 1993, Vol.24, No.3, p.181-187. 11 ref.
Czaja S.J., Sharit J.
Stress reactions to computer-interactive tasks as a function of task structure and individual differences
The development of a methodology to evaluate stress for computer-interactive tasks as a function of the mental workload of the tasks and the age of the individual is described. Physiological, subjective and performance measures were evaluated for 65 women ranging in age from 25 to 70 years performing a variety of computer-interactive tasks. Results indicated differences in sensitivity among the measures as a function of task and age. The data also indicated age differences in stress reactions and performance. The findings are discussed in terms of the suitability of computer tasks for older people.
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.5, No.1, p.1-22. Illus. 34 ref.
Effect of electronic performance monitoring on job design and worker stress: Review of the literature and conceptual model
Electronic monitoring of worker performance (for example, the counting of keystrokes performed by clerical staff) can contribute to occupational stress both directly and indirectly, via job design. It is proposed that monitoring systems be evaluated in terms of the nature of the information gathered, the method for gathering it and the use to which it will be put, and that their effects on job design be analyzed in terms of demands on the worker, worker control over the job and the social support that the worker enjoys in the workplace. Published studies are discussed within this framework.
Human Factors, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.385-395. Illus. 33 ref.
Holmström E.B., Lindell J., Moritz U.
Healthy lower backs in the construction industry in Sweden
This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between healthy lower backs (HLBs) and psychosocial and physical factors in a random sample of 1773 male construction workers. Information on lower back status, lifestyle habits, stress, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, psychosocial demands and resources and physical workload were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. A total of 216 workers (12%) reported HLB. The prevalence rate decreased significantly with increasing age. The prevalence rate of HLB was 6% among workers reporting high stress levels. Psychological factors contribute significantly to the prevalence of HLB as well.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.7, No.3, p.259-271. Illus. 29 ref.
Travers C.J., Cooper C.L.
Mental health, job satisfaction and occupational stress among UK teachers
The findings of a large-scale nationwide investigation into stress among teachers in the UK are presented. Data were collected by questionnaire from a random sample of 1790 teachers drawn from a cross-section of school types, sectors and teaching grades. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that teachers, when compared with other highly stressed occupational groups, experience lower job satisfaction and poorer mental health. Mental ill-health was predicted by a variety of job pressure and personal factors, but predominantly linked to job pressure from 'ambiguity of the teacher's role'. Intention to leave was found to be most highly related to mental ill-health in teachers.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.7, No.3, p.203-219. 28 ref.
Kerr J.H., Vos M.C.H.
Employee fitness programmes, absenteeism and general well-being
Increasingly, European organizations are developing employee fitness programmes (EFPs) on the assumption that doing so will improve the health, well-being and work performance of employees. Although rigorous evaluation is not common practice among these organizations, this study represents an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of an EFP at the headquarters of the ING bank in Amsterdam. The study focused on possible changes in absenteeism, general well-being, self-confidence and perceived physical condition among EFP participants and on-participants over a 12-month period. Data were collected from 152 white-collar employees subdivided into four groups on the basis of participation or non-participation in the bank's EFP. The results indicated that taking part in an EFP could lead to a significant decrease in absenteeism amongst both regular and irregular participants. With respect to employee general well-being, scores on the factor 'work out' did not differ significantly among the four groups. No significant differences in self-confidence between the groups were obtained, but significant differences in perceived physical fitness were apparent.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.7, No.2, p.179-190. 36 ref.
De Geus E.J.C., Van Doornen L.J.P.
The effects of fitness training on the physiological stress response
Review of several well-controlled laboratory studies that have directly examined the effect of fitness training programmes on the physiological responses to a set of standardized stressors. It was generally expected that fitness training would enhance psychological stress resistance and thus mitigate the physiological response to stress. The results of most studies belie these expectations. Intensive training programmes of up to eight months do not change stress reactivity, even if the subjects participating in the study were in bad physical condition initially with high stress reactivity. The failure to find a training effect on the intensity of the stress reactions in laboratory studies does not rule out possible psychosocial effects of regular exercise on the frequency and duration of the stress reactions in real-life situations. Furthermore, although the dynamics of the physiological response to stress are not changed, there is a clear downward shift in the overall level of heart rate and blood pressure in stressful situations. Several possible mechanisms are suggested by which these training effects may help to deal with work stress without causing health problems.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.7, No.2, p.141-159. 66 ref.
Van Doornen L.J.P., De Geus E.J.C.
Stress, physical activity and coronary heart disease
Recent years have witnessed an increasing popularity of corporate fitness programmes. Regular physical activity and, in particular, high aerobic fitness are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease. Apart from its beneficial effects on resting levels of blood pressure and cholesterol, fitness is believed to reduce the impact of psychological stress. This hypothesis has been put to the test in 33 studies examining the physiological stress response of groups selected to differ in their fitness level. Although some evidence was found for a reduced response to stress in highly fit subjects, the effects were not very strong. During 54 confrontations with a stressful task, significantly lower heart rate reactions in highly fit subjects were seen in only nine tasks (17%). With nine out of 36 stressors (28%), fit subjects showed a lower diastolic blood pressure response. However, in combination with a frequently found reduction in basal levels, the high fit showed a consistently favourable cardiovascular profile under stress.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.7, No.2, p.121-139. 95 ref.
Long B.C., Flood K.R.
Coping with work stress: Psychological benefits of exercise
Although the health-enhancing effects of physical exercise have been well documented, less is known about how exercise benefits stressed employees psychologically. This article examines exercise as a coping response, and identifies changes in self-schemata (a person's underlying belief systems about him- or herself) as the means by which exercise affects coping resources. In addition, by drawing on schema theory and the exercise literature, the active components of an exercise programme and the individuals who might enhance their ability to cope with stress through such a programme are identified.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.7, No.2, p.109-119. 68 ref.
Exercise, stress and health
The author of this editorial presents his view regarding employee exercise programmes. In recent years an apparently growing number of both public and private organizations in North America and somewhat later in Europe have implemented these programmes. Such employee health and fitness programmes improve worker morale, decrease absenteeism and increase productivity. However, even though improvements in physical fitness indices have been found among regular participants, few organizations have made an attempt to objectively evaluate tangible benefits of health and fitness programmes by using well-established scientific research methods. Different aspects of the implementation of these programmes are discussed.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.7, No.2, p.105-107. 1 ref.
Genaidy A.M., Karwowski W.
The effects of neutral posture deviations on perceived joint discomfort ratings in sitting and standing postures
Results of this study indicate that: upper extremity postures in which the arms are outstretched in the standing position lead to high levels of perceived shoulder discomfort ratings; supination of the forearm produces most joint stressfulness, followed by pronation and then both elbow flexion and extension; lateral bending of the neck appears to be more stressful than its flexion, extension and rotation; in the standing position, extension of the back should be given the highest ranking for back movements, followed by lateral bending and rotation, then flexion; hip movements are very stressful; ankle flexion is more stressful than ankle extension.
Ergonomics, July 1993, Vol.36, No.7, p.785-792. 13 ref.
Job design and job stress in office workers
A model to look at various job components that affect individual well-being and health was developed and tested in a population of government office employees in various clerical, professional and managerial jobs all of which involve the use of computers. Results indicated that job control was not a primary determinant of the stress outcomes, that job demand and career/future concerns were consistent determinants of the stress outcomes, and that job content, demands and career/future concerns did not influence the stress outcomes through job control as described by the proposed model.
Ergonomics, May 1993, Vol.36, No.5, p.463-477. Illus. 34 ref.
Liévin D., François M.
Perceptual workload and visual fatigue in quality control tasks - Study in a bottling plant
Charge perceptive et fatigue visuelle dans le contrôle-qualité - Etude dans un atelier d'embouteillage [in French]
This study, conducted in a bottle-label inspection workshop, was designed to assess the visual fatigue of operators and their perceptual workload by various methods: analysis of operator activity (recording of eye movements with the Nac Eye Mark Recorder), inventory and quantification of the different parameters of the work situation, assessment of visual fatigue, (interviews and accommodation near point measurement). An increase in visual fatigue increased in two groups of operators during the week. Its extent depended on the functional and organisational working conditions on their respective production lines. There were no periods of overload, but there was strong interaction between visual strategies and work requirements. Methodological details are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1912-150-93, p.63-77. Illus. 26 ref.
Coping with stress at work
Articles in this special issue cover: work stress and coping - common pathways for future research; review of individual strategies for coping with stress at work; the measurement of coping with stress - construct validity of the Ways of Coping Checklist and the Cybernetic Coping Scale; the three functions of self-control behaviour - redressive, reformative and experimental; coping with daily work problems - contributions of problem content, appraisals and person factors; individual and organisational strategies for coping with organisational change; review of organisational-level interventions to reduce occupational stressors; stress and coping in US organisations and the role of the Employee Assistance Programme.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-102. Illus. Bibl.ref.
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