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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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CIS 96-1521 Craig A., Hancock K.
The influence of a healthy lifestyle program in a work environment: A controlled long-term study
A group of university staff participated in a six-week health education programme designed to teach participants the skills needed to self-manage stress. Physical and psychological health assessments were carried out before the programme, on completion of the programme, and again two years later. Compared to a non-participating control group, the treatment group showed significant improvements immediately following the intervention. However, two years after, differences between the two groups were small. While direct intervention can be of great benefit to the individual in the short term, these benefits tend to disappear over time if contact is not maintained.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 1996, Vol.12, No.2, p.193-206. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 96-1526 Cooper C.L., Liukkonen P., Cartwright S.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Stress prevention in the workplace: Assessing the costs and benefits to organisations
This report presents case studies from three European organizations which illustrate how costs of stress may be identified, the implementation of different types of interventions, and the ways in which associated cost benefits may be demonstrated in relation to health, well-being, productivity and quality. Lessons to be learned from the studies are discussed and methodologies for assessing the potential costs and benefits of stress intervention programmes are evaluated. Current practices in the area of stress intervention are also described.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1996. viii, 110p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: ECU 11.50.

CIS 96-1523 Kompier M.A.J.
Bus drivers: Occupational stress and stress prevention
This paper presents the results of a number of studies on the work and health of bus drivers in various countries. Health problems and stress factors are identified and recommendations are made for prevention and intervention in the areas of ergonomics and workplace design, job rotation, work schedules, and the social work environment and management style. The importance of organizational commitment and cooperation in the reduction and prevention of stress is discussed and a systematic participatory approach is put forward.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. v, 39p. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 96-1524 Sutherland V.J., Cooper C.L.
Stress prevention in the offshore oil and gas exploration and production industry
This paper describes the use of a stress audit to identify sources of stress among workers in the offshore oil and gas exploration and production industry. Measures are outlined for the prevention of stress related to understimulation, work overload, helicopter travel, physical working conditions, safety and security offshore, unpredictability of work patterns, career development, organizational structure and climate, and the home/work interface. Individual strategies for stress control include counselling, relaxation techniques, cognitive reappraisal, and stress education programmes.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. vii, 38p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 96-1522 Costa G.
Occupational stress and stress prevention in air traffic control
This paper identifies the main sources of stress for air-traffic controllers and describes the consequences for health and well-being. Improvements are proposed in the areas of: legislation and social support; job planning and the reliability of work systems; arrangement of working times and rest pauses; arrangement of shift schedules according to psycho-physiological and social criteria; participation in decision making; the work environment and workplace design; individual responses and behaviour (coping with stress, selection and training, counselling); appropriate medical surveillance.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. vii, 36p. 37 ref.

CIS 96-1167 Harris R.A., Coleshaw S.R.K., MacKenzie I.G.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Analysing stress in offshore survival course trainees
Physiological and psychological measurements, chosen as indicators of stress, were made on individuals undergoing offshore survival training, concentrating on practical exercises. Their emotional reactions were assessed by various questionnaires filled in by the trainees themselves. Most of them were especially anxious at the start of the course: helicopter underwater escape training was perceived to be the most difficult exercise. Particular problems were found to be also associated with fire training. Possible means of alleviating these issues are discussed. Older refreshers were found to be less anxious, probably as a result of experience.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. xiv, 127p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 30.00

CIS 96-724 Arnetz B.B.
Techno-stress: A prospective psychophysiological study of the impact of a controlled stress-reduction program in advanced telecommunication systems design work
A group of advanced telecommunication systems design workers participated in one of three stress-reduction training programmes based on relaxation techniques. Psychophysiological assessments were carried out before and after the programme. Compared to a reference group, the intervention group showed a significant improvement with regard to circulating levels of the stress-sensitive hormone prolactin, an attenuation in mental strain, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and a decrease in circulating thrombocytes. The type of programme chosen did not affect the results. While the programmes alleviated some of the stress in these workers, more attention should be paid to the design of healthy work environments.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.53-65. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 96-1163 Mood S.D., Sauter S.L.
Beyond biomechanics - Psychosocial aspects of musculoskeletal disorders in office work
This book comprises a series of papers concerning the interaction between psychosocial and physical factors in the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases in office work. Theoretical models and mechanisms are presented and issues for management, prevention and further research are discussed. Papers include: an ecological model of musculoskeletal disorders in office work; work organization, stress and cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs); effects of psychological demand and stress on neuromuscular function; pathophysiology of CTDs; a psychosocial view of cumulative trauma disorders and implications for occupational health and prevention; a cognitive-behavioural perspective on pain in CTDs; workstyle and the prevention, evaluation and rehabilitation of upper-extremity disorders; psychosocial epidemiology in CTD research.
Taylor and Francis, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1996. xix, 313p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 22.00.


CIS 01-1265 Forsthofer R.
Stress during work on with VDUs - Approaches for a system-oriented analysis of stress perceptions when working with computers
Stress am Bildschirmarbeitsplatz - Ansätze zu einer systemorientierten Analyse des Stresserlebens bei der Arbeit mit dem Computer [in German]
Topics: computers; CRT display terminals; ergonomics; mental workload; psychology and sociology; stress evaluation; stress factors; stress studies.
Verlag Dr. Kovač, Postfach 50 08 47, 22708 Hamburg, Germany, 1995. iv, 200p. Illus. 177 ref.

CIS 00-297 Benett L., Ross M., Miller D.
Health workers and AIDS - Research, intervention and current issues in burnout and response
Topics: ethics; health care personnel; immunodeficiency syndrome; overstrain; social aspects; stress factors; stress studies.
Harwood Academic Publishers, Poststrasse 22, 7000 Chur, Switzerland, 1995. 419p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 99-1749 Pérez Bilbao J., Fidalgo Vega M.
Job satisfaction: Overall satisfaction scale
Satisfacción laboral: escala general de satisfacción [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; human relations; job dissatisfaction; psychology of work organization; questionnaire survey; Spain; stress factors; subjective assessment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 5p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 99-1049 de Arquer M.I., Martín Daza F., Nogareda C.
Role conflict and ambiguity
Ambigüedad y conflicto de rol [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; human behaviour; human relations; industrial relations; information of personnel; mental stress; psychology of work organization; role of management; Spain; stress factors; work organization.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 6p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 98-1749 von Eckardstein D., Lueger G., Niedl K., Schuster B.
Emotional disorders and health in the enterprise
Psychische Befindensbeeinträchtigungen und Gesundheit im Betrieb [in German]
Topics: alcoholism; anxiety; cost of accidents; depressive neurosis; drug dependence; Germany; human behaviour; human relations; mental disorders; neurosis; psychology of absenteeism; psychology of work organization; psychosomatic disorders; round-up; social climate; stress factors.
Rainer Hampp Verlag, Meringerzeller Str.16, 86415 Mering, Germany, 1995. 401p. Illus. 362 ref. Price: DEM 49.80.

CIS 97-1391 Rundmo T.
Perceived risk, safety status, and job stress among injured and noninjured employees on offshore petroleum installations
A survey of 915 employees from 5 companies on 8 offshore oil installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf shows that the subjective evaluations of employees correspond quite well to the real risk. Employees who have suffered an injury themselves may feel more at risk, become more dissatisfied with safety and contingency measures, and experience more job stress than they did before the injury occurred.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1995, Vol.26, No.2, p.87-97. 19 ref.

CIS 97-1380 Madden M.
The prevalence of occupational overuse syndrome among Australian Sign Language interpreters
A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) in 104 Australian Sign Language (Auslan) interpreters. Among diagnosed conditions: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve entrapment, epicondylitis and other upper extremities disorders were reported. Several hypotheses were put forward to explain the incidence of OOS, reaching the conclusion that the group most at risk is that of full-time sign-language interpreters employed for more than four years. Suggestions are as to how to avoid the further spread of OOS in this occupational group.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 1995, Vol.11, No.3, p.257-263. 14 ref.

CIS 97-1052 Leino P., Hänninen V.
Psychosocial factors at work in relation to back and limb disorders
Questionnaire surveys and clinical examinations were carried out on 902 blue- and white-collar workers in Finland. Measurements were repeated 10 years later on 654 of the workers. Data were collected on psychosocial factors (work content, work control, social relationships at work, mental overstrain), physical workload and musculoskeletal morbidity. Reported pain in various parts of the musculoskeletal system, as well as clinical findings, were associated with psychosocial factors. The observed associations were independent of physical workload. Results suggest a general musculoskeletal response to mental stress, a result supported by previous findings.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1995, Vol.21, No.2, p.134-142. 23 ref.

CIS 97-707 Beermann B., Meschkutat B.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Psychosocial factors involving stress and harassment
Psychosoziale Faktoren am Arbeitsplatz unter Berücksichtigung von Stress und Belästigung [in German]
In the past, psychological and sexual harassment at the workplace was treated as phenomena of lesser importance or as exceptions to the rule. There is now reason to believe that these phenomena occur far more frequently than one would think. Although there are strategies for handling this problem and preventing various forms of harassment and psychological pressure at the workplace, no complete analysis of these strategies has ever been done. In this report, the type and frequency of harassment at the workplace in Germany are described, as are the existing practices for handling these problems. On the basis of this information, practical guidelines are formulated.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 45p. 45 ref.

CIS 96-2338 Sakano J., Yamazaki Y, Sekiya E., Uehata T.
The relation between job characteristics, job-related stress, and health related symptoms among middle-aged male workers in Japan
Data from a questionnaire survey covering 30,610 workers (23,690 respondents) in 10 sectors of the economy. The questions bore on three variables: job characteristics, perceived occupational stress and health-related symptoms of stress. The job characteristics (stress factors) measured were level of demands, scope for decision-making and support from co-workers. The 16,363 responses from men in the 30-59-year age group were analyzed. In general, stress increased with increasing job demands, decreasing scope for decision making and decreasing social support, as predicted by models originally developed in Europe and North America. However, the data did not support the hypotheses that high demands and low decision latitude produce the highest stress, and that increasing decision latitude is effective in maintaining a healthy work environment. The correlation of symptoms with perceived stress was stronger than that between symptoms and stress factors, which shows that perception has a greater effect on well-being than the objective work environment.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Jan. 1995, Vol.71, No.1, p.1-12. 33 ref.

CIS 96-1917 Miyazaki K.
Occupational stress and maladjustment
Shokuba no sutoresu to futekiōshō [in Japanese]
High stress or chronic stress from work often cause maladjustment to work. In Japan, such occupational stress is considered to be more serious than other types because many workers regard the company as their prime concern. Occupational stress is classified into three categories: acute stress caused by a change of work, chronic stress due to long hours of work or an inappropriate assignment and stress caused by human relations. There are three symptoms of maladjustment at work: depression, neurosis and psychosomatic disorders. Although cases of depression largely outnumber the other two, cases of neurosis are increasing. Psychosomatic disorders are often followed by ulcers of the digestive tract.
Teishin Igaku, 10 May 1995, Vol.47, No.5, p.33-38. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1912 Rulli G., Cristofolini A., Bianco R., Garrino L., Maffei L., Mussano R., Maggi B.
Organizational analysis of hospital work: Identification of organizational constraints and their relationship with nurses' well-being
Analisi organizzativa del lavoro ospedaliero: identificazione degli elementi di costrittività ed ipotesi sulle loro relazioni con il benessere degli infermieri [in Italian]
Report on a research project on hospital work, whose aim was to identify organizational constraints and their relationship with nurses' well-being. Via the application of the Organizational Congruence (OC) Method, developed by one of the authors, different Italian hospital work situations were analyzed in order to identify the possible risks and damage to nursing personnel due to their work. Such damage is not limited to that due to exposure to physical or biological agents, but includes also that due to psychophysical aspects of discomfort, caused by stressful conditions. Incomplete communication between nurses and other health personnel on patients' needs and their health status during work shifts has been identified as one of the main sources of work constraint. An improved organizational infrastructure and active participation of all health personnel is postulated as the best means to reduce stressful work conditions.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1995, Vol.86, No.1, p.3-15. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 96-1517 Mori T., Kageyama T.
Cross-sectional survey on the mental health and working environment of hospital nurses
Kangosha no seishin eisei to shokuba kankyō yōin ni kansuru ōdanteki chōsa [in Japanese]
The mental health status of 471 nurses in three hospitals was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Their GHQ scores were higher than those of the general population. The score was inversely related to the number of days off in the month preceding the survey, and positively correlated with perceived stressors, particularly "difficulties in making judgements" and "confronting death of a patient". The effect of the factors grouped under "difficulties in making judgements in a job" was counteracted by factors grouped under the rubric "personal relationships at the workplace". These results suggest that a mental health promotion strategy for hospital nurses should include measures to improve the working environment, especially working time; measures concerning personal relationships, including on-the-job training; and measures to increase personal tolerance, such as psychological support systems in the workplace.
Journal of Occupational Health, 20 Mar. 1995, Vol.37, No.2, p.135-142. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 96-1506 Schierhout G.H., Meyers J.E., Bridger R.S.
Work related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic stressors in the South African workforce
To investigate exposure-response relations between adverse musculoskeletal outcome and ergonomic exposure variables, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 factories from seven sectors of manufacturing industry in South Africa. Exposure to workplace ergonomic stressors was assessed in factory floor jobs with a simple low-technology observational model. Repetition, force, static posture, dynamic movement, and other job exposures were measured. Data on adverse musculoskeletal outcome and on potential confounders and effect modifiers were obtained from each job category with a questionnaire given by interviewers. This study indicates good predictive ability to reduce ergonomic stress with the exposure model, simple surveillance methods, and educational programmes in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.52, No.1, p.46-50. 11 ref.

CIS 96-1519 Dekker I., Barling J.
Workforce size and work-related role stress
In a questionnaire survey of 108 clerical workers in organizations of 1-500 employees, workforce size was positively associated with each of four work-role stressors studied: role ambiguity, role conflict, and quantitative and qualitative role overload. It was also positively correlated with objective organizational support, but negatively correlated with perceived organizational support. Partial correlations between workforce size and role stress, while controlling sequentially for objective and perceived support, suggest that the effect of workforce size on role stressors is indirect and is a function of perceived organizational support.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.9, No.1, p.45-54. 31 ref.

CIS 96-1518 van Dijk F.J.H.
Work-related musculoskeletal and mental disorders
This overview of work-related musculoskeletal and mental disorders is based mainly on research and occupational health practice in the Netherlands. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is outlined along with risk factors (lifting, pushing and pulling, static working posture, repetitive movements and whole-body vibration), prevention involving the participation of workers and management, and research and development. Work-related mental disorders include nervous breakdown, post-traumatic stress disorders and burnout. Sickness absence and disability related to mental disorders are discussed along with a clinical approach to prevention.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.4, p.292-305. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 96-110 About coping with stress
Training booklet on coping with stress: symptoms of mental stress; effects of stress on the body and the mind; sources of stress at work, in the environment and in personal life; personal stress reduction programmes; ways to reduce stress (exercise, deep breathing, hobbies, etc.); some other tips for managing stress; avoidance of "substitutes" (alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, drugs); sources of help.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 96-109 What everyone should know about stress at work
Training booklet on stress at work: who is affected; causes of stress; effects of stress; symptoms; avoidance of exhaustion; reduction of stress at work; proper use of time; improving work habits; changing of stress-causing personal habits; learning to relax. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 96-385 Christiani D.C., Niu T., Xu X.
Occupational stress and dysmenorrhea in women working in cotton textile mills
A questionnaire survey of 895 female workers in three cotton textile mills in China was carried out to determine levels of occupational stress during pregnancy and symptoms of dysmenorrhoea when not pregnant. Proportions of no/low, moderate and high levels of stress were reported as 56%, 23% and 21% respectively; overall prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 59.7%. After adjusting for age, job, mill location and other factors, the findings suggest a positive association between high levels of occupational stress and dysmenorrhoea.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.9-15. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 96-388 Johnston J.
Occupational injury and stress
A review of the literature concerning stress and occupational injury identified 20 studies that provided a quantitative measure of stress and occupational injury and a quantitative assessment of the relationship between these two factors. Of the 11 occupations examined in these studies, transportation and mining were the industries with the highest risk of injury. Limitations of the studies are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.37, No.10, p.1199-1203. 25 ref.

CIS 95-2315 Gates E.
Healthcheck - Stress at work
Case studies of stress in five occupations: engineering, teaching, security services, prison guards and veterinary medicine.
Health and Safety at Work, June 1995, Vol.17, No.6, p.13-16. 7 ref. ###

CIS 95-2305 Cenova V., Tat'ozov T., Antonova C., Cvetkova M.
"Burn-out" syndrome in personnel at child-care establishments
Razprostranenie na burn-out sindroma pri personal na detski zavedenija [in Bulgarian]
The study covered 180 persons taking care of children at nurseries and Mother-and-Child Homes (MCH). Burnout is a consequence of unsurmounted prolonged occupational stress characterized by a growing sense of professional exhaustion, indifference to the ones under one's care, decreased reliance on one's own professional skills and loss of motivation for work. These symptoms were assessed with the Maslach Burn-Out Inventory. Clearly manifested symptoms were noted in 30% of the subjects. The prevalence was higher in MCHs. Burn-out in attending personnel carries a risk for the general development of children, which increases the need to recognize the problem and define responsibilities for prevention. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.90-100. 9 ref.

CIS 95-2304 Dejanov H., Hadžiolova I., Minčeva L.
Chronic occupational stress and cardiovascular risk in schoolteachers
Hroničen profesionalen stres i sărdečno-sădov risk pri učiteli [in Bulgarian]
Changes with age in arterial pressure (AP) and incidence of arterial hypertension (AH), as well as the probability of developing ischaemic heart disease, were compared between 168 school teachers and a control group of 183 women working as office employees, designers, researchers etc. The teachers showed a closer correlation of age to AP level than did controls. Systolic AP increased markedly after 45 years of age, and there was a significant difference between the first and the second halves of the 4th decade. Diastolic AP was also higher in teachers than in controls. Duration of teaching experience was strongly correlated with systolic and diastolic AP. Beyond 40 years of age teachers showed a high incidence of AH (31%). The whole group was at high cardiovascular risk. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.81-90. 24 ref.

CIS 95-2046
Health and Safety Executive
Stress at work: A guide for employers
Contents of this training guide, aimed at employers: commonsense about stress; definition of stress; causes of harmful levels of stress; identification of stress problems; legal aspects; possibilities of action by employers; monitoring of stress levels; pay-offs in reducing stress at the workplace.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 19p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 5.25.

CIS 95-1661
Thames TV
How to last a lifetime
Five-part TV series also available in video format. Part 3 (Work/Survival) deals with stress in the workplace, with nursing, financial trading and machinery operation in modern factories used as examples. The role of stress in the aetiology of heart disease is discussed.
Yorkshire International Thomson Multimedia, The Television Centre, Leeds LS3 1JS, United Kingdom, no date. 5-part TV series, also available on videotape. ###

CIS 95-1917 Reisine S., Fifield J.
Family work demands, employment demands and depressive symptoms in women with rheumatoid arthritis
In a survey of 262 women with rheumatoid arthritis respondents reported relatively high levels of psychological demands in both paid and family work, with time constraints being the most frequent problem. Family demands appeared to be more important than paid work demands in psychological well-being; high autonomy in family work seemed to mediate the effects of family demands. Higher social support reduced the effects of work demands on depressive symptoms in employed women. The literature on paid work, family work and health risks in women is reviewed.
Women and Health, 1995, Vol.22, No.3, p.25-45. 40 ref.

CIS 95-1912 Lovelace O.
Stress in rural America
Stress factors identified among the rural population of America are discussed. In a survey of 50 rural residents, financial situation and personal illness were ranked as the most significant sources of stress, while occupational hazards were ranked the least stressful. The mortality rate from accidental death is nearly 40% higher in rural than in urban areas; rural residents have fewer injuries but greater levels of injury disability than urban residents. Problems in the provision of adequate rural health care are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.71-78. 13 ref.

CIS 95-1545 23rd French National Congress of Occupational Medicine (1994) - Theme 3: Mental stress and strain in today's world of work
XXIIIes Journées nationales de Médecine du Travail, Besançon, France, 7-10 juin 1994: Thème n°3 - Astreinte et contrainte mentale du travail contemporain [in French]
Subjects of reports presented at the 23rd National Congress of Occupational Medicine (held at Besançon, France, 7-10 June, 1994): analysis of the problem and its tendencies; human reliability; ergonomic practice; contribution of ergonomics in the diagnosis and treatment of mental strain; psychosomatic aspects of mental strain; role of the occupational physician in dealing with the cognitive, psychological and interpersonal aspects of work. Fifteen papers were also presented at the Congress, dealing with stress and strain-related issues in connection with: workers' age; short-term heavy workload in nuclear power stations; simultaneous VDU and telephone-answering work; multi-task work; process-control work in the chemical industry; man-woman differences in cognitive stress and health; role of the occupational physician in resolving a psychodynamic problem at the workplace; sleep patterns in X-ray technicians working in the absence of daylight; psychological advice to health-care workers dealing with AIDS victims and to those offering palliative care to cancer patients; two recent cases of occupational burn-out; ergonomic analysis of the activities of telephone-answering staff at the French national electric-gas utility (EDF-GDF); between stress and strain: the search for a sense of personal freedom among construction workers; evaluation of the usefulness of a stress scale in occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.253-306. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1157 Widerszal-Bazyl M., Żołnierczyk D.
Dimensions of job control in computerized and traditional work and its health effects
A questionnaire survey of VDU and non-VDU users was conducted to investigate the relationship between computerization and both global job control and control related to specific tasks. Results showed no clear relationship between job control and computerization of work; latitude of control depended on the task performed and the aspect of control under consideration. There were significant relationships between global control and psychological stress symptoms (job satisfaction, moods) and somatic complaints; other aspects of control were correlated with stress symptoms in a variety of ways. It is recommended that the concept of global control should be avoided, and where possible, specific indexes of control should be applied.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.29-41. 25 ref.


CIS 99-1398 Martín Daza F.
Stress prevention: Intervention on the individual worker
Prevención del estrés: intervención sobre el individuo [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; human behaviour; human relations; neuropsychic stress; psychology and sociology; Spain; stress evaluation; stress factors.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 8p. 12 ref.

CIS 98-1743 Nogareda Cuixart S.
Physiological responses to stress
Fisiología del estrés [in Spanish]
Topics: biological effects; data sheet; mental stress; occupational physiology; physiology of nervous system; Spain; stress evaluation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 98-1042 Fujigaki Y., Asakura T., Haratani T.
Work stress and depressive symptoms among Japanese information systems managers
Topics: CRT display terminals; data processing; depressive neurosis; human behaviour; human relations; Japan; mental stress; mental workload; night work; office work; questionnaire survey; stress factors; work organization.
Industrial Health, 1994, Vol.32, No.4, p.231-238. 24 ref.

CIS 97-1057 Moors S.
Stress and work: Origins and approaches
Stress et travail: origines et approches [in French]
Contents of this book on occupational stress: organization and stress, causes and approaches; stress, motivation and management; individual management of stress; psychobiology of stress; stress as a cause of absenteeism; emotional load and women at work; personality and working environment; stressful occupations; assessment of occupational stress.
Institut National de Recherche sur les Conditions de Travail, rue de la Concorde 60, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1994. 270p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-2337 Houtman I.L.D., Bongers P.M., Smulders P.G.W., Kompier M.A.J.
Psychosocial stressors at work and musculoskeletal problems
The relationship between work stressors and health indicators such as psychosomatic complaints, health behaviour and musculoskeletal problems was investigated. Psychosocial stressors are not only associated with psychosomatic complaints and health indicators, but also with musculoskeletal problems, both acute and chronic. Especially the relation between intellectual discretion and musculoskeletal problems can be partly attributed to physical load. Even after adjustment for physical stressors and personal characteristics, the relationship between the psychosocial stressors and musculoskeletal problems remained significant and comparable in strength to the relationship between psychosocial stressors and several other health outcomes, such as psychosomatic complaints.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1994, Vol.20, No.2, p.139-145. 30 ref.

CIS 96-2111 Belkić K., Savić C., Theorell T., Rakić L., Ercegovac D., Djordjević M.
Mechanisms of cardiac risk among professional drivers
This literature review indicates that professional drivers have excess cardiac risk that is not fully explained by standard risk factors. The contribution of occupation is suggested by two independent methods and by psychophysiological studies during on-the-job driving. Driving has been conceptualized as a threat-avoidance task. Stimuli encountered in traffic are not inherently aversive but become so by association with driving experiences, a formulation corroborated by laboratory studies in which stimuli such as car headlights elicit cardiovascular hyperreactivity and electroencephalographic signs of arousal in professional drivers. More advanced neurophysiological methods (event-related potentials) show higher cortical electronegativity to imperative signals among professional drivers than among non-driver referents. These data are viewed in light of reports of possible associations between event-related slow potentials and cardiac risk. A clinically and ecologically relevant neurocardiological model is proposed, and preventive strategies, including workplace interventions, are suggested.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1994, Vol.20, No.2, p.73-86. Illus. 153 ref.

CIS 96-2117 Pressel G., Slesina W.
Health circles in the service sector: A pilot project in the context of an occupational medical service
Gesundheitszirkel im Dienstleistungsbereich: ein Modellprojekt im Rahmen eines Betriebsärztlichen Dienstes [in German]
The work of three safety and health committees for 12,000 employees of an airport administration in Germany is described. Committee 1 was concerned with the employees in the vehicle repair shop. Committee 2 was assigned to the employees dealing with passenger safety. Committee 3 took care of lower levels of management. The committees comprised eight to ten participants. In addition to the industrial physician, representatives of the affected employees participated in identifying all stress factors, physical responses to stress, and in finding improvements. In all three groups stress caused by time pressure and uncooperative colleagues was highest. Unfavourable environmental conditions were next, followed by heavy physical workload and accidents.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 1994, Vol.29, No.9, p.387-392. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 96-1905 Tsuchiya Y., Uehata T., Sekiya E., Abe M., Ishihara S., Oikawa S., Chida T., Yamazaki Y., Sugisawa A., Sakano J., Hasegawa Y.
Study of stressful life events of workers in Japan
Nihon no sangyō rōdōsha no life events ni kansuru kenkyū [in Japanese]
Questionnaire survey, with responses from 18,657 male and 4,443 female workers aged 20-59 years. Workplace events such as unsatisfactory transfers were not ranked as highly as such nonoccupational factors as family troubles or financial problems.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 15 June 1994, Vol.49, No.2, p.578-587. 31 ref.

CIS 96-1914 Rau R.
Teamwork versus isolated work: Influence of work organization on human reliability
Team- versus Einzelarbeit: Handlungssicherheit in Abhängigkeit von der Arbeitsform [in German]
Pulse rate and blood pressure were measured in 50 volunteers who performed computer-simulated tasks in isolation or in a team. In addition, mental stress was assessed with a questionnaire. The tasks performed by the volunteers corresponded to their real work and were concerned with monitoring the distribution of electric power and with repairing faults in the power distribution system. All volunteers performed the tasks without mistakes, but pulse rate, blood pressure and the subjectively assessed mental stress were significantly higher for work performed in isolation. Although it did not lead to mistakes, work in isolation is seen as a risk factor which may reduce human reliability. Abstract in English.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 2nd Quarter 1994, Vol.38, No.2, p.62-70. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 96-1346 Florian M.
Highway heroes in trouble
Highway-Helden in Not [in German]
Subjects covered in this publication of a doctoral thesis are: conditions of work including safety and health risks of long-distance truckers; stress factors and social aspects of the work of long-distance truckers.
Edition Sigma, Heimstrasse 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany, 1994. 344p. 386 ref. Price: DEM 35.00.

CIS 96-548 Kompier M., Levi L.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Stress at work: Causes, effects and prevention - A guide for small and medium sized enterprises
Guide to occupational stress in small and medium-sized enterprises within the European Union. It may be suitable for the training of management staff and workers' representatives in the way stress-related problems are treated. Contents: definition of stress; vulnerable portions of the workforce; reasons for stress monitoring; instruments for stress monitoring at the enterprise level; stress prevention at work. In appendices: checklists and questionnaires.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1994. 72p. 21 ref. Price: ECU 8.50.

CIS 96-1158 Henriksen T.B., Hedegaard M., Secher N.J.
The relation between psychosocial job strain, and preterm delivery and low birthweight for gestational age
The analyses were restricted to 3503 respondents who worked at least 30 hours per week during the first trimester. The four job exposure categories were: relaxed jobs (low demands and high control), active jobs (high demands and high control), passive jobs (low demands and low control), and high-strain jobs (high demand and low control). The results showed that women with relaxed jobs had the lowest risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm delivery. Compared to this group the odds ratio (OR) for SGA delivery among women with passive jobs was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-1.9), with high-strain jobs 1.1 (95% CI: 0.7-1.6), and with active jobs 1.1 (95% CI: 0.8-1.7). Compared to women with relaxed jobs, the OR for preterm delivery among women with passive jobs was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.8-2.3), high-strain jobs 1.3 (95% CI: 0.7- 2.2) and active jobs 1.2 (95% CI: 0.7-2.2). All risks were consistently increased in women with low job control.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1994, Vol.23, No.4, p.764-774. 51 ref.

CIS 96-1157 Williamson A.M.
Managing stress in the workplace: Part I - Guidelines for the practitioner; Part II - The scientific basis (knowledge base) for the guide
In the first part, a guideline is presented aimed at practitioners in the workplace who are responsible for ensuring the healthy, safe and productive conduct of work. It is intended to provide some assistance in reducing the negative consequences of workplace stress. Discussion about specific sources of stress is limited to only a few examples. The aim of the guideline is to provide an overview of the approaches that could be adopted to reduce the negative effects of stress from all workplace sources. In the second part, the scientific basis of the guide is presented. Topics include: a description of the problem, including early models of stress; the scope of the problem; workplace stressors and their measurement; the stress response; successful interventions to reduce the problem.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.14, Nos.1-2, p.161-196. 210 ref.

CIS 96-1150 Mital A., Ghahramani B.
The injury profile of a large telecommunication company: A statistical summary
Over the years, over-exertion injuries have continued to increase despite ergonomic interventions to control their frequency of occurrence. Occupational injury and illness data from a large US telecommunications company (297,548 employees), collected over a seven-year period, suggest that: (1) better record-keeping may be a reason behind the reported increase in injuries; workday losses decline as a result of improved ergonomic and occupational health interventions; (2) serious injuries are not just limited to heavy manufacturing industries; and (3) reduction in workday losses may not translate in injury cost savings.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.37, No.10, Special Issue, p.1591-1601. 8 ref.

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