Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found
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Posttraumatic stress disorder
Reviews the causes and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and provides guidelines for managing trauma responses: organizational factors (supportive management practice and positive working relationships with peers and supervisors); adequate access to targeted group debriefing; early access to professional intervention; monitoring incident occurrence and assessing the risk; worker training and education.
Australian Safety News, Feb. 1997, Vol.68, No.1, p.44-47. Illus.
Shigemi J., et al.
The relationship between job stress and mental health at work
A questionnaire survey of 763 workers in a Japanese electronics company identified 37.8% with mental health problems. Regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for sex, age, marital status, familial stress and physical health, subjective job stress was significantly associated with the state of mental health. Significant stress factors included too much trouble at work, too much responsibility, not being allowed to make mistakes, poor relationship with superiors, and being unable to keep up with technology.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.29-35. Illus. 16 ref.
Kawakami N., Takatsuka N., Shimizu H.
Occupational factors, smoking habits and tobacco withdrawal symptoms among male Japanese employees
A questionnaire survey of 2,862 male employees in a Japanese electrical company identified 1,443 subjects with an experience of quitting smoking for at least three days. Of these, 67% had experienced tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Statistical analysis indicated that younger age, technical/clerical occupation, exhaustion after work, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking and the number of attempts to quit smoking were significantly associated with tobacco withdrawal symptoms.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.9-15. 31 ref.
Brett K.M., Strogatz D.S., Savitz D.A.
Employment, job strain, and preterm delivery among women in North Carolina
Case-control study to assess by means of a questionnaire survey the relationship between occupational stress and preterm delivery in American women (421 women delivering infants before 37 weeks gestation and 612 women delivering infants at term). High demand and low control job were not associated with increased risk of preterm delivery compared with work in all other combinations of job demand and control. Only women who worked at a high-strain job full-time or for 30 or more weeks had a modestly increased risk. Black women were at greater risk from job strain than white women.
American Journal of Public Health, Feb. 1997, Vol.87, No.2, p.199-204. 33 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note for the prevention of occupational overuse syndrome in keyboard employment
Contents of this guidance document: introduction (description of occupational overuse syndrome, overview of strategies); strategy for prevention; strategies for case management. In appendices: human factors in computer-aided design and in counter operation; telephone operations and keyboard work; glossary.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 2003. vii, 94p. 120 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/0DAC569C-47D0-4753-A923-6AE328F0E8BE/0/OOSKeyboardEmployment.pdf [in English]
Cox T., Griffiths A., Cox S.
Work-related stress in nursing: Controlling the risk to health
Topics: ILO; mental stress; nursing personnel; role of management; safety and health training; stress evaluation; stress factors; work organization; workplace design.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1996. 47p. 41 ref.
Pfister E., Lindner H., Ferl T.
Optimisation of the contrast of visual displays - Reduction of the psychophysiological stress
Optimierung des Bildschirmkontrastes - Reduktion der psychophysiologischen Beanspruchung [in German]
Topics: computers; contrast; CRT display terminals; ergonomics; experimental determination; neuropsychic stress; sensorimotor activities; visual comfort.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1996, Vol.50, No.3, p.154-161. Illus. 54 ref.
Camps del Saz P., Martín Daza F., Pérez Bilbao J., López García Silva J.A.
Psychological harassment at the workplace: Mobbing
Hostigamiento psicológico en el trabajo: el mobbing [in Spanish]
Topics: behaviour study; bullying; human behaviour; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; social aspects; Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.118, p.10-14. 14 ref.
Landau K., Rohmert W., Imhof-Gildein B., Mücke S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Stress analysis by an ergonomic job analysis procedure (AET) and occupational diseases
AET-Belastungsanalyse und arbeitsbedingte Erkrankungen [in German]
Topics: age-linked differences; data processing; dynamic muscular work; epidemiology; Germany; occupation disease relation; occupational diseases; physical workload; sex-linked differences; statistical evaluation; stress factors; vibration.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. viii, 116p. Illus. 78 ref.
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Moisan J., Vézina M.
Job strain and psychological distress in white-collar workers
Topics: Canada; mental health; mental stress; mental workload; overstrain; psychological effects; questionnaire survey; social climate; stress factors; white-collar workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1996, Vol.22, No.2, p.139-145. 32 ref.
Crawford J.O., Bolas S.M.
Sick building syndrome, work factors and occupational stress
Topics: character; job dissatisfaction; literature survey; microclimate; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; risk factors; sick building syndrome; symptoms.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1996, Vol.22, No.4, p.243-250. Illus. 71 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Occupational health and safety aspects of stress at modern workplaces
Topics: adrenal function; assembly-line work; cash registers; conference; fatigue; Germany; human relations; job study; mental stress; mental workload; musculoskeletal diseases; Netherlands; physical workload; pituitary function; questionnaire survey; social aspects; stress evaluation; supermarkets; work organization.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 121p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Optimization of the design of visual display units workstations (Final report)
Gestaltung beanspruchungsoptimaler Bildschirmarbeit (Schlussbericht) [in German]
Topics: comment on standard; CRT display terminals; description of technique; ergonomic evaluation; Germany; job study; mental stress; mental workload; neuropsychic stress; questionnaire survey; stress evaluation; work organization; workplace design.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 165p. Illus. 116 ref.
Elliott T.R., et al.
Occupational burnout, tolerance for stress, and coping among nurses in rehabilitation units
A questionnaire survey of 98 nurses showed that confidence in one's ability to handle problems and perceived tolerance were predictive of lower burnout scores, regardless of time spent on the job. Of the coping variables studied, emotion-focused coping was associated with higher burnout scores. Further investigation revealed that some coping efforts (taking time off work, confronting a supervisor) could be construed as symptoms of burnout. Implications for current notions of burnout and psychosocial interventions are discussed.
Rehabilitation Psychology, 1996, Vol.41, No.4, p.267-284. 52 ref.
Arnetz B. B., Berg M.
Melatonin and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in video display unit workers during work and leisure
This report examines the assays of two hormones (melatonin and ACTH) in 47 office workers. Significant decreases were found in circulating melatonin, whereas for ACTH an increase of the blood levels occurred during video display unit work, but not on days off. A possible impact of the electromagnetic field of the video unit is discussed. Changes in ACTH levels might be explained by the work-induced mental stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.38, No.11, p.1108-1110. 12 ref.
Stress and specific job fitness
Stress e idoneitŕ specifica al lavoro [in Italian]
Factors which may facilitate the onset of a stress syndrome in the workplace are analyzed and their role in evaluating job fitness is examined. The main factors discussed are job content and organisation, control at work, interpersonal relations, the balance of roles, monitoring of changes, coordination of management and health services, and workers' possibilities for advancement. The characteristics of stress syndrome are compared with those found in post-traumatic syndromes, and the role of individual factors in the aetiology of stress syndrome is considered. Summary in English.
In: Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Quali soluzioni per un problema in espansione, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, Pavia, Italy, 1996, p.65-72. 11 ref.
Stress and work: Approach to the problem from the point of view of trade unions
Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: L'approccio al problema dal punto di vista sindacale [in Italian]
The role of trade unions in the prevention of work-related stress is discussed. Problems associated with the study of stress at work include the priority given to preventing traditional work accidents and diseases and difficulties in developing quantitative and objective measures. Group questionnaires may be useful in identifying sources of occupational stress. Summary in English.
In: Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Quali soluzioni per un problema in espansione, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, Pavia, Italy, 1996, p.55-63. 3 ref.
Bettinardi O., Zotti A.M.
Prognostic value of the estimation of stress in ischaemic cardiopathy and in the back to work period
Valore prognostico dello stress percepito nell'evoluzione della cardiopatia ischemica e nel reinserimento lavorativo [in Italian]
Negative correlations have been found between patients' self-evaluation and their cardiovascular reactions. In a recent study, ischaemic patients with a low level of neuroticism and a high state of psychophysical well-being in the presurgical phase showed higher risks of post-surgical clinical complications than those who rated themselves less favorably. Data highlight the need for systematic psychological evaluations to determine the individual's propensity for underestimating emotional distress. Summary in English.
In: Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Quali soluzioni per un problema in espansione, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, Pavia, Italy, 1996, p.49-54. Illus. 14 ref.
Stress and work: The experience of the industrial physician in health surveillance
Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Esperienze del medico d'azienda nella sorveglianza sanitaria [in Italian]
Commonly occurring stress situations both inside and outside the workplace are discussed from the point of view of the industrial physician. Summary in English.
In: Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Quali soluzioni per un problema in espansione, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, Pavia, Italy, 1996, p.37-48. 51 ref.
Riboldi L., et al.
An out-patient department dealing with work stress: The experience of the Milan Occupational Medicine Hospital
Un ambulatorio per le patologie da stress lavorativo: L'esperienza della Clinica di Medicina del lavoro di Milano [in Italian]
The methodology used in dealing with cases of work-related stress at the out-patient department of the Milan Occupational Medicine Hospital, Italy is described and early experiences are examined. Summary in English.
In: Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Quali soluzioni per un problema in espansione, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, Pavia, Italy, 1996, p.25-35. 4 ref.
Stress and work: Present status of scientific knowledge
Stress e lavoro: Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze scientifiche [in Italian]
The status of scientific knowledge on the relationship between stress and work is examined in relation to the cultural origin of the stress concept and the underlying psychophysiological model, and measurement possibilities and their problems. Subjective, physiological and epidemiologic measures are discussed along with the use of the stress concept in the study of the aetiology of coronary disease. Summary in English.
In: Lo stress nel mondo del lavoro: Quali soluzioni per un problema in espansione, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, Pavia, Italy, 1996, p.9-24. 30 ref.
Gender differences in work and well-being: Effects of exposure and vulnerability
A job stress model for evaluating the differential exposure and vulnerability of men and women to job stressors was tested on 994 Canadian employees. The analysis considered the direct and moderating effects of occupational self-direction, job demands and co-worker social support on distress. Results indicated that women are more vulnerable than men to the effects of perceived job demands and to the degree of routinization in the job. Possible explanations include the additive effects of work and home demands on women's well-being, and the different approaches adopted by men in coping with routinization.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Sep. 1996, Vol.37, p.265-277. Illus. 45 ref.
Dryson E.W., et al.
Stress at work: An evaluation of occupational stressors as reported by a multicultural New Zealand workforce
In a questionnaire survey of 5,467 European, Maori, Pacific Islander and Asian employees working for 41 companies in New Zealand, men reported more work stressors than women for all categories of stressors measured, but particularly for job scope. Increased stressors were also found among younger workers due to their relationship with management and among administrative workers (managers) in relation to job pressure. People of European descent reported more work stressors than other ethnic groups. The study highlights areas for stress-reduction interventions.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.18-25. 34 ref.
Psychological risk factors - How to recognize and eliminate them
Seelische Risikofaktoren - erkennen, überwinden! [in German]
Introduction to the effect of psychological factors on health. Contents: overview of today's health problems, with emphasis on those due to worry; major influences on psychological health (basic life changes; family, school, workplace and occupation as factors); psychological risk factors as the most important sources of disease today; specific types of psychological factors ("boomerang" effects, "poisoned arrow" effects); avoidance mechanisms; prevention and elimination of psychological risk factors.
expert Verlag, 71272 Renningen-Malmsheim, Germany, 3rd improved ed., 1996. 106p. Index. Price: DEM 22.00.
Schleifer L.M., Galinsky T.L., Pan C.S.
Mood disturbances and musculoskeletal discomfort: Effects of electronic performance monitoring under different levels of VDT data-entry performance
Forty-seven female office workers were assigned at random to electronic performance monitoring (EPM) work management or no EPM work management. Self-ratings of mood disturbance and musculoskeletal discomfort during data-entry tasks were recorded over three workdays. Workers who fell below an EPM-enforced performance standard experienced more mood disturbance and musculoskeletal discomfort than those who exceeded the standard. These stress effects were more evident in workers who were close to the standard than in those who were far below it. Results suggest that EPM work management should be employed with performance standards that balance production requirements against the worker's skills and abilities.
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Oct.-Dec. 1996, Vol.8, No.4, p.369-384. Illus. 20 ref.
ADEREST - 3rd Symposium on Epidemiology and Health at Work, Paris, 9 and 10 November 1995
ADEREST - 3e Colloque d'Epidémiologie en Santé au Travail, Paris, 9 et 10 novembre 1995 [in French]
Papers presented to the 3rd Symposium on epidemiology and health at work, held in Paris, France, on 9 and 10 November 1995, fall into three main categories: physical hazards (ionizing radiation, vibration, noise); chemical hazards (chemical products and dangerous substances); and mental stress. Other issues dealt with: musculoskeletal problems, cancer, mortality.
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 1996, Vol.23, No.3, v, p.121-178 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.
Handbook of stress, medicine and health
This manual comprises a series of papers on the health effects of mental stress. Contents: introduction to the causes and health effects of stress and stress management; stress and health (cancer, endocrine responses, mental health, burnout); life events, stress and illness (personal control and the risk of disease, cardiovascular disease, occupational exposure to the AIDS virus); personality, stress and illness; social support, stress and illness; stress, health and families; preventing and treating stress-related illnesses.
CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA, 1996. xii, 388p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.
Levi L., Lunde-Jensen P.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
A model for assessing the costs of stressors at national level. Socio-economic costs of work stress in two EU Member States
This document describes the development of a model to estimate the socio-economic costs of work stress at the national level. Sources of stress at work are discussed along with resulting health effects and the need for prevention at the national level. Calculations for the model are based on estimates of the prevalence of stressors at the workplace and their health outcomes in terms of excess sickness associated with exposure to these stressors. The application of the model is demonstrated using illustrative results for Denmark and Sweden.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1996. x, 82p. 60 ref. Price: ECU 10.00.
Profession: Teacher - Job stresses, social conflicts, satisfaction
Beruf: Lehrer/in, Arbeitsbelastungen, Beziehungskonflikte, Zufriedenheit [in German]
This monograph discusses the psychological advantages and the mental stresses that characterize the teaching profession. Among the advantages: high degree of autonomy and variety; the primary duties of teaching (keeping discipline in class, motivating children to learn and think). Among the stresses: refusal of children to behave and perform well, correcting and grading, living up to parental expectations, conflicts with superiors, colleagues, parents, pupils. The book also discusses coping strategies for teachers and causes of job satisfaction such as success with children and social approval of accomplishments.
Beltz Verlag, 69469 Weinheim, Germany, 1996. 248p. Illus. 259 ref. Price: DEM 48.00.
Conditions of work and stress among female and male teachers in schools for retarded children in North Rhine-Westphalia
Arbeitsbedingungen und Arbeitsbeanspruchen von Sonderpädagoginnen und Sonderpädagogen an den Schulen für Erziehungshilfe in Nordrhein-Westfalen [in German]
A questionnaire was developed and given to 420 male and female teachers in schools for retarded children in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The questionnaire covered work organization, job satisfaction, difficulties encountered at work and wellbeing. The results show a high degree of job satisfaction. More than half of the teachers liked their job. More than half said they felt generally tired and exhausted.
Peter Lang GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1996. viii, 214p. Illus. 276 ref. Price: DEM 65.00.
Burnout and work organization in hospital wards: A cross-validation study
A report discussing the main factors that should be addressed in the management of nurses' work organization. The hypothesis that the number of nurses having contact with one patient was directly related to the level of burnout in nurses was only partially confirmed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.257-265. 10 ref.
Iskra-Golec I., Folkard S., Marek T., Noworol C.
Health, well-being and burnout of ICU nurses on 12- and 8-h shifts
Report on the effects of shift work schedules on the health, sleeping habits and the psychological and social well-being of two groups of intensive care unit nurses. The 12h shift nurses experienced more chronic fatigue and anxiety than those on 8h shifts. Job satisfaction was independent of shift duration.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.251-256. 25 ref.
Schaufeli W.B., van Dierendonck D., van Gorp K.
Burnout and reciprocity: Towards a dual-level social model
A report on tests of student nurses, aiming to confirm a model assuming that lack of social reciprocity at the interpersonal and the organizational (i.e. between employees and the organization) level is positively related to burnout. For the latter, several parameters were measured on the degree of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Analysis of the limitations of the study.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.225-237. Illus. 48 ref.
de Jonge J., Janssen P.P.M., van Breukelen G.J.P.
Testing the Demand-Control-Support Model among health-care professional: A structural equation model
This paper seeks to validate a Job Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model, the aim of which is to provide a theoretical framework of guidelines for the enhancement of the quality of working life. It predicts job strain reactions (fatigue and health complaints), when job demands are high and workers' control low. The model was only partially confirmed when applied to Dutch nursing personnel by means of a survey. An increase in autonomy is accompanied by an increase in job involvement and low job demands seem to reduce exhaustion and consequent health complaints.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.209-224. Illus. 71 ref.
Waluyo L., Ekberg K., Eklund J.
Assembly work in Indonesia and in Sweden - Ergonomics, health and satisfaction
Questionnaire surveys of Swedish and Indonesian assembly industry workers showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was high in both groups. Swedish workers reported more stress and psychosomatic symptoms and rated their work conditions as worse in most respects. Work tasks were physically heavier in Indonesia, but less monotonous and with lower demands on productivity. Physical job demands were associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, while conflicts and harassment at work were associated with stress and psychosomatic symptoms. Implications for job design in the two countries are put forward.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1996, Vol.39, No.2, p.199-212. 30 ref.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo
Preventing stress at work
La prevención del estrés en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Spanish translation of the issue of the ILO Conditions of Work Digest devoted to occupational stress. For a complete review, see CIS 93-1748.
Condiciones de trabajo, 1996, No.8, 402p. Bibl.ref.
Job satisfaction of personnel in charge of the care of the mentally retarded
Arbeitszufriedenheit bei Betreuern geistig behinderter Menschen [in German]
A questionnaire survey of 126 men and 225 women working in small and large institutions for the mentally retarded was conducted in 1992 to 1993 in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to compare job satisfaction and stress of nursing personnel in small community-integrated institutions for the mentally retarded with that in large isolated institutions. Independent of the size and type of institution, the degree of training and continued education of the nursing personnel turned out to be the most important factor influencing job satisfaction and subjectively perceived stress.
Profil Verlag GmbH, München, Germany, 1996. 179p. Illus. 142 ref. Price: DEM 42.00.
De Keyser V., Hansez I.
Towards a transactional perspective on stress at work: Methodological evaluation choices
Vers une perspective transactionnelle du stress au travail: pistes d'évaluations méthodologiques [in French]
This article explores methodological evaluation pathways for studying stress at work. The approach is based on a definition of stress that depends on the control of the situation and that adopts a transactional concept of psychological stress at work, one that puts the emphasis on the importance of personal evaluation of the situation and on the processes of coping. It surveys the indicators used by work stress researchers and the limitations of these indicators. Principal methodological problems discussed: difficulties in establishing causal relationships; the issues discriminating and convergent validity; demonstrating the effects of chronicity; reliability of measures. Examples drawn from a hospital environment illustrate the discussion.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1996, Vol.33, No.3, p.133-144. Illus. 33 ref.
Johnson J.V., Stewart W., Hall E.M., Fredlund P., Theorell T.
Long-term psychosocial work environment and cardiovascular mortality among Swedish men
This study examined the effect of cumulative exposure to work organization (psychological demands, work control and social support) on prospectively measured cardiovascular disease mortality risk. A sample of 22,517 Swedish males was followed over a 14-year follow-up period and 521 deaths from cardiovascular disease were identified. A nested case-control design was used. Work environment exposure scores were assigned to cases and controls by linking lifetime job histories with a job exposure matrix. In the final multi-variable analysis, workers with low work control had a relative risk of 1.83 for cardiovascular mortality. Workers with combined exposure to low control and low support had a relative risk of 2.62 . The conclusions were that long-term exposure to low work control is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 1996, Vol.86, No.3, p.324-331. 66 ref.
Inside stress claims - The Victorian experience
Workers' compensation claims for stress-related illness in Victoria, Australia have increased in recent years. Stress claims accounted for 4.9% of total claims in 1995-96, and were, on average, more costly than most other claims. Most stress claims in Victoria occur in the community services sector, particularly in education, hospitals, and the police and prison services. The nature and causes of occupational stress are discussed, current legislation is outlined, and suggestions for stress management initiatives are put forward.
Australian Safety News, Sep. 1996, Vol.67, No.8, p.26-31.
A re-analysis of the Occupational Stress Indicator
The Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), a set of seven self-report questionnaires, was issued to a sample of university staff. Data from the 336 respondents were used to reassess the apparently low reliabilities of many of the OSI scales previously reported. While the reliabilities were higher than those obtained originally, they were still unacceptably low. The strengths and weaknesses of this device are discussed and suggestions for future refinements are put forward.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1996, Vol.10, No.2, p.174-182. 34 ref.
Stephens C., Smith M.
Occupational overuse syndrome and the effects of psychosocial stressors on keyboard users in the newspaper industry
In a survey of 550 keyboard users working in different offices of the same newspaper company, 29.3% of workers reported experiencing neck, shoulder or arm pain. Differences between high- and low-pain reporting office groups were significantly related to perceptions of the quality of the work environment. Factors associated with low-pain reporting environments included higher peer cohesion, higher staff support, higher control, less work pressure, less stress, greater autonomy and more physical comfort. Consideration should be given to psychosocial factors in the design of work and workplaces.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1996, Vol.10, No.2, p.141-153. 29 ref.
Schmieder R.A., Smith c.S.
Moderating effects of social support in shiftworking and non-shiftworking nurses
Effects of various sources of social support (supervisors, co-workers, spouse, friends and relatives) on personal health and job-related attitudes were examined in 213 nurses at two U.S. hospitals. Measures included role ambiguity (as an indication of job strain), global job satisfaction, intent to quit, and perceived health problems. Results highlighted the importance of social support provided by supervisors in buffering (moderating) work stress, particularly among shift workers. Consideration should be given to the promotion of social support in the workplace.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1996, Vol.10, No.2, p.128-140. 50 ref.
Andries F., Kompier M.A.J., Smulders P.G.W.
Do you think that your health or safety are at risk because of your work? A large European study on psychological and physical work demands
A secondary analysis was carried out on survey data collected in 1991 from some 12,500 employees in 12 European Union countries. The main conclusions were: psychological demands, job control, and social support are all related to a perceived health and safety risk at work; each of these characteristics has a unique contribution; physical demands are the most influential determinant; in a cross-national comparison, physical demands are the most influential determinant of health and safety risk in all countries. The data underline the need to monitor risk factors and risk groups and to provide adequate legislation with respect to working conditions.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1996, Vol.10, No.2, p.104-118. 29 ref.
Battle on the buses
Increasing numbers of violent attacks on bus drivers in Dublin, Ireland, over the past decade have led to the development of an assaults intervention programme which provides treatment and counselling for post-traumatic stress disorder. Results of an independent stress study undertaken to assess the impact of the working environment on the health of bus drivers revealed that violence, shift work and running time were all considered to be sources of stress. Trade union suggestions for programmes to protect the health and safety of these workers are put forward.
Health and Safety, May 1996, p.4-8. Illus. 2 ref.
Camerino D., Ferrario M., Merluzzi F., Origgi G., Barducci M.
Validation of the Italian version of the Kjellberg & Iwanowski "Mood Scale"
Validazione della versione italiana della Mood Scale di Kjellberg & Iwanowski [in Italian]
Two questionnaires were administered to 1652 office workers of Milan City Council, in order to assess their cardiovascular health status and the impact of stress factors on it. For the first aspect the WHO Mopsy Questionnaire, while for the other the Swedish Kjellberg & Iwanowski Mood Scale were utilized. This method is used for the measurement of stress and arousal conditions in neurotoxicology. The aim of the study was to validate the Italian translation of the original Mood Scale questionnaire, correlating it with other questionnaires, such as the above mentioned Mopsy scale. This questionnaire has possible uses in health surveillance and for investigations of stress and arousal changes in the workplace. A good surface and construct validity and good internal consistency were observed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.99-109. Illus. 18 ref.
Vézina M., Gingras S.
Work and mental health: High-risk groups
Travail et santé mentale: les groupes ŕ risque [in French]
Quebec industrial sectors in which workers (blue collar and professionals) are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being were analyzed by means of two questionnaires. Risk levels were measured by looking at the following indicators: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Blue collar workers and less qualified workers in traditional economic sectors were found to be at risk, especially in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi driving; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Among occupations, increased risks of mental health problems were found in the following categories: road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repair; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing; food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.135-140. 38 ref.
Battling the stress monster
The nature of occupational stress is discussed with particular reference to four stressors: workload, uncertainty, lack of autonomy and conflict. It is argued that stress should be considered as a human resources issue rather than as a medical problem; managers need to be trained in the detection and measurement of stress and in its management. A draft document covering stress, fatigue and shift work issued by the New Zealand Occupational Safety and Health Service has been generally well-received by employers and will be finalized and issued as a guideline.
Safeguard, July/Aug. 1996, No.38, p.17-22. Illus.
Tachibana H., Izumi T., Honda S., Horiguchi I., Manabe E., Takemoto T.
A study of the impact of occupational and domestic factors on insomnia among industrial workers of a manufacturing company in Japan
In a survey of 271 male industrial workers in a medium-sized company in Japan, 75 workers (27.7%) complained of insomnia during the previous month; the prevalence increased with age. Only 11 workers reported current or past use of sleeping pills. The factors most significantly associated with insomnia were VDT work overload, limited bedroom space, over-involvement in job, and frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.221-227. 45 ref.
Set of 6 videotapes on the management of stress, whether of occupational or non-occupational origin. The tapes treat: breathing away stress (using special breathing techniques for reducing stress); relaxing muscle tension; the relaxation response; focusing the mind; maximizing performance; bringing the techniques together into a workable stress reduction programme. Reviewed in OS&H, July 1996, p.29.
Educational Media Film & Videos Ltd., 235 Imperial Drive, Rayners Lane, Harrow, Middlesex HA2 7HE, United Kingdom, no date. Set of 6 videotapes. Price: GBP 150.00 (for the set), GBP 29.50 (for each videotape). ###
Craig A., Hancock K.
The influence of a healthy lifestyle program in a work environment: A controlled long-term study
A group of university staff participated in a six-week health education programme designed to teach participants the skills needed to self-manage stress. Physical and psychological health assessments were carried out before the programme, on completion of the programme, and again two years later. Compared to a non-participating control group, the treatment group showed significant improvements immediately following the intervention. However, two years after, differences between the two groups were small. While direct intervention can be of great benefit to the individual in the short term, these benefits tend to disappear over time if contact is not maintained.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 1996, Vol.12, No.2, p.193-206. Illus. 31 ref.
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