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Vibration - 974 entries found

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  • Vibration

1996

CIS 01-535 Palmer K.T., Mason H.
Serum endothelin concentrations in workers exposed to vibration
To compare serum endothelin 1 (ET1) concentrations in people with vibration-induced white finger (VWF) with those of controls exposed to vibration, and unexposed (pure) controls, volunteers from a stonemasonry, two quarries and an insurance company in Britain were classified by questionnaire and clinical examination into cases, exposed controls and pure controls. Subjects provided venous blood specimens after a period of warm equilibration (baseline) and again after cold challenge. Serum concentrations of the 21 amino acid peptide endothelin ET1-21 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Baseline ET1-21 was lower in cases than in the control groups. Cold challenge provoked a rise in ET1-21 in all groups but larger and significant mean absolute and percentage rises were found in cases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.118-124. 28 ref.

CIS 99-1329 Carretero Ruiz R.M., López Muñoz G.
Exposure to vibration in the workplace
Exposición a vibraciones en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on law; comment on standard; exposure evaluation; hand-arm vibration; legislation; noise and vibration control; Spain; vibration control; vibration measurement; vibration.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 202p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 98-903 Hinz B., Menzel G., Blüthner R., Seidel H., Gericke L., Schust M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Biological effects of whole-body vibrations using real simulated operator seat conditions (Final report)
Biologische Wirkung von praxisrelevanten Ganzkörperschwingungen unter Berücksichtigung realer Fahrersitzbedingungen (Schlussbericht) [in German]
Topics: acceleration; biological effects; comfort criteria; comment on standard; design of equipment; drivers seats; drivers; exposure evaluation; Germany; ISO; sitting posture; vibration; whole-body vibration.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 297p. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 98-293
Health and Safety Executive
In the driving seat
Leaflet on reducing back pain in drivers and machinery operators (United Kingdom), 1996. Topics: back disorders; design of equipment; drivers seats; drivers; ergonomics; hazard evaluation; industrial trucks; information of personnel; safety guides; United Kingdom; vibration control; whole-body vibration.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1996. 12p. 4 ref.

CIS 97-1684 Dasgupta A.K., Harrison J.
Effects of vibration on the hand-arm system of miners in India
A study of 66 miners using vibrating jackhammer drills included a questionnaire survey of symptoms and vibration exposure, clinical assessment, and measurements of motor nerve conduction velocities and finger circumference. Complaints of neurological symptoms in the hands were more prevalent in the drillers than in a group of unexposed controls. Clinical examination revealed soft tissue wasting in the hands (26 cases), ulnar nerve impairment (23 cases), median nerve impairment (23 cases) and Dupuytren's contracture (4 cases). Compared to the control group, the motor conduction velocity of the right median nerve in the exposed group was significantly decreased, and finger circumferences were smaller.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.46, No.1, p.71-78. 29 ref.

CIS 97-993
Health and Safety Executive
Health hazards from whole-body vibration caused by mobile agricultural machinery
This data sheet outlines precautions for reducing the risk of injury from whole-body vibration among operators of self-propelled agricultural machinery: deciding who is at risk; correct use of seat position and suspension arrangements; choice of appropriate speed and route; maintenance of suspension systems, seats and tracks; selection of machinery with low vibration emission levels; job rotation; reporting of symptoms.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1996. 2p. 7 ref.

CIS 97-976 Donati P.
Assessment and prevention of whole-body and upper-extremity mechanical vibration
Evaluation et prévention des vibrations mécaniques transmises à l'ensemble du corps ou aux membres supérieurs [in French]
In France, an estimated one and a half million workers are exposed to mechanical vibration. Machines transmit to the operator shocks which can produce disorders of the spine or of the upper limbs (see also AFNOR standard NF E 90-400). This data sheet provides information on technical and organizational preventive measures which 1) reduce vibration doses; 2) improve the posture of operators of mobile machines and vehicles, and optimize efforts exerted by operators, when using portable machines; 3) prevent cold exposure of hands and body in operators of hand-held machines, cold being a triggering factor of Raynaud's phenomenon. Beyond these measures, operators ought to be made aware of the health risks of vibration and of the importance of prevention.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.112, 4p. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 97-988 Mechanical vibration and shock - Hand-arm vibration - Method for the measurement and evaluation of the vibration transmissibility of gloves at the palm of the hand
Vibrations et chocs mécaniques - Vibrations main-bras - Méthode pour mesurer et évaluer le facteur de transmission des vibrations par les gants à la paume de la main [in French]
This standard describes a method of measuring the vibration transmissibility of gloves worn by a test subject. Main contents: scope; normative references; definitions; symbols and abbreviations; measuring principle and equipment; measurement conditions and procedure; evaluation of results; test report. Annexes: mathematical definition of vibration test signals; illustration of handle for measuring gripping force; spectra of test signals; reference to Standard EN 388 (Protective gloves against mechanical risks) and EN ISO 13753 (Method for the measurement of the vibration transmissibility of resilient materials when loaded by the hand-arm system).
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iii, 17p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 97-622 Kákosy T., Martin J., Lászlóffy M., Székely A.
Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin caused by bush-cutter equipment mounted on a tractor
A case of Raynaud's phenomenon was verified by cold-provocation test and by measuring finger systolic blood pressure in a man who had been driving a tractor installed with bush-cutter equipment for a period of five years. Vibration measurements on the steering wheel of the tractor showed acceleration values higher than the maximum allowable level. Based on clinical and exposure data, vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon was diagnosed. It is recommended that vibration measurements be performed on the steering wheel of a tractor after fitting any type of adapter.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.4, p.387-390. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 97-632
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes: Rumbling - Noise hazards. Hand-arm vibration - The current picture. Hand-arm vibration - Symptoms and solutions
The first of these three data sheets describes noise levels associated with rumbling processes and provides guidance on noise reduction measures (elimination, engineering controls, reduction of exposure time, hearing protection). The other two data sheets describe the nature, incidence and cost of hand-arm vibration syndrome, and provide guidance on causes (finger or hand contact with vibrating tools or materials), and control measures (risk assessment, reduction of exposure time, health surveillance, tool selection and care, employee training).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1996. 6p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 97-618 Özkaya N., Goldsheyder D., Willems B.
Effect of operator seat design on vibration exposure
Vibration measurements were carried out for three different operator seats on a metropolitan subway train. All variables other than the seat were constant. Results were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of each seat in reducing the mechanical vibrations transmitted to the operator. Seats with complex designs, and which appeared to be more comfortable and ergonomically correct, transmitted more overall vibration levels to the operators than did seats with relatively simple designs. Structural differences in the seats which may explain these results are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.9, p.837-842. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 97-279 Lasfargues G., Fontana L., Catilina P.
Pathology of mechanical vibration transmitted to the upper limbs
Pathologie des vibrations mécaniques transmises aux membres supérieurs [in French]
Chronic exposure of the upper limbs to mechanical vibration causes vascular and neurological health problems (often referred to as "angioneurological disorders") as well as damage to the musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, muscles, tendons). Even though these various conditions represent different physiopathological and clinical pictures, they are usually referred to as part of "vibration syndrome". Aspects covered in this information note: epidemiology of the syndrome; Raynaud's phenomenon; neuropathy; osteoarticular problems; compensation and prevention in France.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 1996, No.113. 6p. 104 ref.

CIS 97-278 Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Grinder characteristics and their effects on hand-arm vibration
This report presents results of studies to investigate the effect of machine design on the magnitude of vibration at handles of portable grinders. The work involved a literature review and experimental vibration measurements using a range of grinders and operating conditions. Much of the variance in vibration was caused by a large number of small effects; few generalizations of practical significance could be made. The most important factors were type or design of machine, wheel unbalance and width of the workpiece. Recommendations for choice and use of grinders are put forward.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 200p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP 45.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/1996/CRR96115.pdf [in English]

CIS 96-2275 Hong C., Yong-kui M., Jie W.
Adjusting the evaluation limit for broad-band whole-body vibration
The vibration levels of 87 axes in 29 conventional industrial, agricultural and civil vehicles were measured, recorded and analyzed. The vehicle vibrations were broad-band vibrations. The mean deviation of the overall frequency-weighted vibration levels and the greatest single one-third octave band frequency-weighted vibration levels were calculated. It is suggested that 6dB is an appropriate adjustment of the evaluation limit when a broad-band whole-body vibration is characterized by a single quantity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.476-479. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 96-1874 Jones C.M.
Occupational hearing loss and vibration induced disorders
This article is a synopsis of information on the medical aspects of occupational hearing loss and vibration-induced disorders. The incidence of hearing loss in the United Kingdom is reported (an estimated 13,000 received compensation benefits in 1992). The causes of deafness, its clinical presentation and diagnostic procedures together with audiometric screening in industry are summarized. The calculation of compensation benefits for disability from hearing loss is explained. The procedure for assessing noise exposure and the prevention of hearing loss, i.e. the appropriate ear protectors are described. Hand-arm vibration syndrome is presented together with its classification (Stockholm Workshop Scale). Diagnosis, prognosis and risk assessment aspects are also surveyed.
British Medical Journal, July 1996, Vol.313, p.223-226. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 96-1853 Kákosy T., Martin J., Diner J., Székely A.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome caused by power screwdrivers
Angiological, neurological and radiological examination of the upper extremities of 17 persons working with power screwdrivers revealed 12 patients with symptoms of the upper limbs, including numbness, muscle weakness and cold sensitivity. 10 of these also had signs corresponding to hand-arm vibration syndrome. In 9 out of 15 different types of power tools evaluated, the vibration levels exceeded the maximum allowable acceleration level. The importance of the right choice of tools and the significance of periodic medical examinations are emphasized.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.2, p.175-180. 14 ref.

CIS 96-979 Wilder D.G., Pope M.H.
Epidemiological and aetiological aspects of low back pain in vibration environments - An update
Studies on the relationship between vibration exposure and low back pain are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that vibration is an important risk factor for low back pain. Drivers appear to be at particular risk if exposures exceed those recommended by the ISO exposure limit; drivers who also load and unload trucks may be especially prone to back disorders. The epidemiological data are supported by human and animal studies of spine changes that might produce back pain (lumbar disc flattening, disc fibre strain and height increase, intradiscal pressure). Data indicate that the human spinal system has a characteristic response to whole body vibration in a seated position.
Clinical Biomechanics, Mar. 1996, Vol.11, No.2, p.61-73. Illus. 144 ref.

CIS 96-978 Boulanger P., Donati P., Galmiche J.P.
Vibration environment at the work station of compact construction machine operators
L'environnement vibratoire aux postes de conduite des mini-engins de chantier [in French]
The purpose of this study was to estimate vibration levels at the work posts of compact construction machine operators and to comply with the requirements of standards for seat and vehicle test codes. Vibration levels were measured at 15 operator's posts, helping to assess the effectiveness of seat suspension. Most of the compact machines tested produced relatively severe fore-and-aft low-frequency vibration, although the size of this vibration depended on the type of work in progress and the operator's driving style. Only loaders and site dumpers seemed to be subject to strong vertical vibration. These machines are often equipped with compact vertical suspension seats which are quite effective at reducing vertical vibration. The results suggest that seats that successfully pass the INRS class I test for seats of forklift trucks with a load capacity of less than 5 tonnes are suitable for reducing vertical vibration on compact construction machines. In the case of compact site dumpers it is preferable to use the type of seat designed for agricultural tractors with a load capacity of less than 3.6 tonnes. There are no compact seats with fore-and-aft suspension, however. Development work is required here before any tests codes can be proposed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.162, Note No.2011-162-96, p.33-39. Illus. 18 ref.

1995

CIS 97-1179 Elsner G., Nienhaus A., Beck W.
Coxarthrosis and occupational workload
Coxarthrose und berufliche Belastungen [in German]
The work load and exposures experienced by 134 men and 86 women suffering from osteoarthritis of the hip and by a control group of 95 men and 103 women were determined with the help of a questionnaire. Age-adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the various kinds of exposure and stress mentioned in the questionnaires. For women, elevated odds ratios were obtained for handling heavy tools and lifting or carrying of loads with weights from 5 to above 20kg. The highest risk was obtained for saleswomen in retail shops. More than half said that they frequently had to lift loads with weights between 5 and 20kg. For men, elevated odds ratios were found for the exposure of the upper extremities to vibrations as well as for exposure to whole-body vibrations and to a cold and wet environment. As for occupational factors, metalworkers had the highest risk of developing osteoarthritis of the hip.
Zeitschrift für Gesundheitswissenschaften, 1995, Vol.3, No.2, p.131-144. 24 ref.

CIS 97-1315 Fritz M.
Evaluation of the health hazard posed by whole-body vibrations to the spinal column with the help of the mechanical impedance in the human body
Abschätzung der Gefährdung der Wirbelsäule durch Ganz-Körperschwingungen anhand der mechanischen Übertragungsfunktion des menschlichen Körpers [in German]
In this study a biomechanical model was used to calculate the transmission of whole-body vibrations to the spinal column. Both sitting and standing postures were covered. The findings were compared with the few existing publications on this subject. Contrary to the present notion that whole-body vibrations are less harmful to the spinal column in standing rather than sitting posture, standing seems to dampen the vibrations at the lower frequency range below 4Hz but not at the higher frequency range.
Ergo-Med, Nov.-Dec. 1995, Vol.19, No.6, p.178-184. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 97-628 Weinert K., Gillmeister F., Michel O.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Reduction of the vibration exposure for the hand-arm system by the optimization of impact and rotary hammer drills
Verminderung der Schwingungsbelastung des Hand-Arm-Systems durch Optimierung von Schlag- und Hammerbohrern [in German]
When operating a hand-held vibrating power tool (e.g. impact drills, rotary hammers), high vibration exposures are applied to the hand-arm system of the operator. Over time, this mechanical vibration can lead to health problems of the hand-arm system. The aim of this research project was to investigate the isolated influence of the design of the cutting edge for drilling tools on the vibration characteristics of impact drills and rotary hammers. Exposure of the hand-arm system to vibration of the tools, and the volume of chip production were measured. Following the analysis of the results, it was possible to create optimized cutting edges for these tools. Prototypes for drilling tools were produced, investigated and assessed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. viii, 167p. Illus. 116 ref.

CIS 96-1859 Åkesson I., Lundborg G., Horstmann V., Skerfving S.
Neuropathy in female dental personnel exposed to high frequency vibrations
To evaluate early neuropathy in dental personnel exposed to high-frequency vibrations, 30 dentists and 30 dental hygienists who used low and high speed hand pieces and ultrasonic scalers were compared with 30 dental assistants and 30 medical nurses not exposed to vibrations (all women). Vibrotactile sensibility, strength, motor performance, sensorineural symptoms and signs, and vascular symptoms in the hands were studied. The two groups exposed to vibration had significant impairments of vibrotactile sensibility, strength and motor performance, as well as more frequent sensorineural symptoms which may be detrimental to their work performance. Thus, development of safer equipment is urgent.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.116-123. 38 ref.

CIS 96-1858 Petersen R., Andersen M., Mikkelsen S., Nielsen S.L.
Prognosis of vibration induced white finger: A follow up study
A total of 102 subjects with vibration induced white finger (VWF) were reexamined 13 years after the condition had first been diagnosed. Information about symptoms, occupation, and the prevalence of other diseases was present in the medical records from the first examination and was collected by a questionnaire and an interview at the second examination. The decrease in systolic blood pressure in a finger during cold provocation (FSP%) was measured in the same finger at both examinations. At the second examination, 22% stated that the frequency of attacks had decreased, 32% that it had increased. The aggravation was most notable in smokers and subjects who also had circulatory diseases other that VWF. As the FSP% in nearly half of the subjects had improved, it is concluded that VWF has a good prognosis in patients with mainly moderate to severe VWF after one to 13 years of observation. Continued work with high-vibration hand-held tools, smoking, other circulatory diseases and young age at the time of the diagnosis hand an unfavourable influence on the prognosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.110-115. 22 ref.

CIS 96-1871 Fischer S., Göres B., Gondek K.H., Sayn D.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Effects of vibration on the work environment of drivers of trucks with gross weights up to 7.5T
Schwingungseinwirkung an Arbeitsplätzen von Kraftfahrern auf Lkw bis 7,5T [in German]
Report containing data and vibration spectra for the drivers of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) with a total permissible laden weight of up to 7.5T. The 24 vehicles examined were monitored over representative terrain and the acceleration at the transmission points lorry/cab/seat (seat mounting point) and driving seat/driver was measured in both cases for the three directions of vibration, X (back-chest), Y (shoulder-shoulder) and Z (direction of the spinal column). It seems that HGVs with gross weights up to 7.5T are comparable with HGVs with gross weights in excess of 7.5T not just in terms of the spectral distribution of the chassis vibrations but also with regard to the intensity of the vibrations. Summaries in English, French, German and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstr. 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1995. 77p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 96-1510 Flenghi D.
Functional capacity of the lumbar region, low back pain and professional strain - Studies of manual handling, vibration and static posture
Capacités fonctionnelles lombaires, lombalgies et contraintes professionnelles - Etudes de la manutention manuelle, des vibrations et des postures prolongées [in French]
Thesis. Possible functional disturbances of the lumbar area were assessed in 1,970 workers (1,295 men and 675 women) in 49 French factories. The occupational physical strains considered were: whole-body vibration and manual handling for men, and static postures and manual handling for women. A control group not exposed to these strains comprised 208 workers (104 men and 104 women). Low back pain affected 70% of the population, whatever the occupational strain. The severity and frequency of low back pain were higher for women in manual handling tasks compared to the female referent group; this was confirmed by the lumbar functional impairment in the study group. Male workers exposed to whole-body vibration and manual handling showed functional impairment, whereas their clinical low back pain levels were equivalent to those of the male referent group. Preventive action should include workstation improvements, and the information and training of workers.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 1995. i, 191p. Illus. 285 ref.

CIS 96-983 Kohout J., Topolčan O., Bejčková H.
The serum level of endothelin in patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome (a preliminary report)
Blood levels of endothelin were measured in 17 patients with vascular disease caused by vibration. Endothelin levels, occupation and length of exposure are tabulated for each worker according to the stage of the disease. The highest concentrations were determined in the most advanced forms of the disease. The effect of complicating cardiovascular diseases is discussed. Further studies are required to enable this method to be used in disease diagnosis.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.2, p.169-173. 16 ref.

CIS 96-1052 Sharrock I., Wong S.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Report
Development of walkdown procedures and pilot study for the assessment of topsides equipment subject to blast induced vibrations
A methodology for the assessment of offshore platform topsides equipment was developed based on walkdown techniques: methodical, on-site visual evaluations of the equipment. The methodology was verified in a pilot study of a mid 1980s vintage North Sea platform. Two critical safety related systems with representative mechanical and electrical equipment were selected for demonstration purposes. Conclusions are presented which show the feasibility of the method and discuss key points required for its correct implementation, limitations to its use and potential further applications. Glossary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 73p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 24.00.

CIS 96-297 Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Vol.B7. Environmental protection and industrial safety I
Continuation of the collection abstracted under CIS 93-953, 95-265 and 95-693. The two volumes devoted to environmental protection and industrial safety examine the relationship between chemical technology and the environment and workplace. Contents: ethics and industrial chemistry; ecology and ecotoxicology; human toxicology (metabolic processes of toxic substances, mechanisms of toxicity and chemical carcinogenesis, toxicological methods, evaluation of toxic effects); legal aspects (European, US and Japanese legislation); environmental management; noise and vibration (sources, measurement, effects on humans); causes, effects and control of air and soil pollution. Industrial safety issues are addressed in several articles.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, P.O. Box 10 11 61, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, rev.ed., 1995. xvii, 728p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 625.00.

CIS 96-323 Hong C., Xiang-chun Z., Li D., Yongkui M., Jian-xin W.
Equal vibrotactile sense thresholds of the fingers and its diagnostic significance for hand-arm vibration syndrome
The vibrotactile sense thresholds (VSTs) of the middle fingers of 60 healthy persons and 97 patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or subclinical HAVS were measured quantitatively. There were significant differences in VST among all three groups; the VST values of the patient groups were significantly elevated at higher frequencies. The vibrotactile sense had the largest sensitivity loss at 125Hz and 250Hz; this appeared as a "V"-type hollow on the vibrotactilegram. The method provides a valuable auxiliary detection method for HAVS; the "V"-type hollow in the VST is an early clinical manifestation of HAVS.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.11-15. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 95-2098 Mori C.
Three-year follow-up study of health conditions among dental technicians
Shika gikoshi no kenko jotai ni kansuru sannen kan ni watarutsuseki chosa [in Japanese]
To provide detailed data on the health and working conditions of dental technicians in Japan, 39 male members of a professional association responded to questionnaires and underwent medical examinations in 1991 and 1994. The mean working time per day fell from 13.3h to 12.1h. Good health habits (longer sleep, more exercise, less smoking) became more prevalent, but satisfaction decreased. Numbness in the arms and fingers was positively correlated with daily working hours but not with length of career. However, vibrotactile threshold did increase with length of career. The prevalences of cough and sputum were 10% and 20%, respectively. Small opacities were seen in chest x-rays in 20% of the cases; their number increased with length of career. This suggests that dust exposure is responsible for the respiratory symptoms. Further improvements in the working conditions of dental technicians are necessary.
Journal of the Kurume Medical Association, 25 Jan. 1995, Vol.58, No.1, p.13-24. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 95-1863
Health and Safety Executive
Blast and shock induced vibrations in offshore jacket installations
A study was carried out to determine the severity of shock induced vibrations in offshore structures. Aspects investigated include: blast loading from explosions; blast loading on a typical fixed leg offshore platform; existing guidelines for assessing platform vibrations; current requirements for offshore suppliers; human response to platform vibration; vibration criteria used by the nuclear industry; developing vibration criteria for the offshore industry.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 60p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 95-1500 Gemne G., Brammer A.J., Hagberg M., Lundström R., Nilsson T.
Stockholm Workshop 94. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: Diagnostics and quantitative relationships to exposure - Proceedings
Proceedings of a conference on hand-arm vibration syndrome and diagnostics and quantitative relationships to exposure held in Sweden, 25-28 May 1994. Papers include: vibration exposure and vibration-induced white finger among stoneworkers; hand-transmitted vibration and its effects; vibration transmission and hand-arm impedance; the occurrence of sensorineural disorders and their relationship to vibration exposure; five-year follow-up of nerve conduction over the carpal tunnel; overview of quantitative diagnostic tests in vibration-induced white finger; influence of hand dimensions and grip force on vibration transmission into the hand; additive acute effects of multi-axis vibration exposure from hand-held vibrating tools; occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in the construction industry.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 199p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

1994

CIS 05-430 Gemne G., Brammer A.J., Hagberg M., Lundström R., Nilsson T.
Stockholm workshop 1994 - Hand-arm vibration syndrome - Diagnostics and quantitative relationships to exposure
This document contains the papers presented at a workshop on hand-arm vibration syndrome held in Stockholm, Sweden, 25-28 May 1994, mainly dedicated to diagnosis and quantitative relationships to exposure. Among the topics covered: work-related factors in the aetiology of carpal tunnel syndrome; relationship between vibration exposure and vibration-induced white finger; neurological changes in the hands of workers operating hand-held vibrating tools; vascular hazards; influence of ergonomic factors on vibration absorption; chronothermometric tests; dose-response relationships.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 77p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-981 Kjellberg A., Wikström B.O., Landström U.
Injuries and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to whole-body vibration. A review for criteria documentation
A review of research on the influence of whole-body vibration, to provide a basis for rules and guidelines on exposure to whole-body vibration, particularly for professional drivers. The review contains sections on the health effects of whole-body vibration, but also treats subjective reactions, performance effects and motion sickness. Standardization, vibration control and fundamental physical principles are also included. Whole-body vibration may contribute to injuries and other problems of the lower back. The exposure-response relationship, however, has not been clarified.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 80p. Illus. 201 ref.

CIS 96-1854 Azzaretto E., Peretti A.
Methodologies for the detection and evaluation of hand-arm vibration caused by agricultural and forestry machinery
Metodologie di rilevazione e di valutazione delle vibrazioni trasmesse al sistema mano-braccio da macchine agricole e forestali [in Italian]
This report deals with the impact of hand-arm vibration caused by work with agricultural and forestry machines. A standardized methodology to measure such vibrations was defined, partly in order to obtain data that can be used to reduce health problems (Raynaud's phenomenon), due to exposure to vibration in an unregulated environment. Results of measurements are used to suggest possible improvements in the manufacturing of these vibration-generating machines.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.6, No.3, p.3-58. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 96-1463 Löfgren B.
Mounted antivibration drivers' cabs
Schwingungsdämpfende Aufhängung von Fahrzeugkabinen [in German]
An active hydraulic vibration damping system is presented. It comprises hydraulic cylinders which counteract the vibrations. Field tests with a forestry tractor equipped with a hydraulic damping system confirmed that an 80% reduction of the vibration exposure of drivers is feasible. With this vibration damping system installed, the average driving speed in forests increased by 10%.
A F Z - Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, Oct. 1994, Vol.49, No.21, p.1156-1159. Illus.

CIS 96-980 Gemne G.
Where is the research frontier for hand-arm vibration?
How to combine diagnostics with exposure evaluation so that reliable risk assessments can be made for different tools and processes is a fundamental problem for current hand-arm vibration research. The scientific foundation of the model, in ISO 5349 (see CIS 90-1698), for white finger (WF) risk prediction has been shown to be insufficient. Prospective epidemiological studies are needed to establish exposure-response relationships addressing the specific aetiological factors. Another important research field concerns WF pathogenesis, which is likely to be a vessel wall lesion causing vasodilatory deficiency. A model is presented for the manifestation of cold-triggered WF in persons with exposure to vibration and other environmental stressors as a result of lowered symptom threshold and a raised level of sympathetic activity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, Vol.20, Special issue, p.90-99. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 95-2240 Cornelius K.M., Redfern M.S., Steiner L.J.
Postural stability after whole-body vibration exposure
One possible contributing factor in fall injuries of heavy mobile equipment operators is a loss of postural stability during egress. Because many of these operators are exposed to prolonged periods of whole-body vibration (WBV), a study was conducted to determine if postural stability is impaired by WBV exposure. The WBV consisted of 40 minutes of vertical vibration generated by a motion platform, which emulated actual vibration levels of an underground shuttle car. Two independent variables, each at two levels, consisted of vibration and vision. The measured dependent variables were postural sway amplitude and velocity of sway. No significant difference between the vibration and no vibration conditions were found. Based on the results of this study, it cannot be concluded that WBV at the exposed frequencies influences postural stability. Other factors may contribute to falls during egress, such as problems with foot placement accuracy or system design.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 1994, Vol.13, No.4, p.343-351. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 95-2239 Wikström B.O., Kjellberg A., Landström U.
Health effects of long-term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration: A review
Whole-body vibrations occur in most vehicles and working machines when they are driven over rougher surfaces and/or at higher speeds. A review is presented of research on health effects of whole-body vibration. The objective is to provide a basis for rules and guidelines on exposure to whole-body vibration, particularly for professional drivers. A greater part of the review concerns risks for low-back injuries. After a systematic literature review in the field, the conclusion is drawn that whole-body vibration may contribute to injuries and other problems of the lower back. The exposure-response relationship, however, has not been clarified. To reduce the risk of low-back injuries, new machine components have to be constructed and better driving surfaces created.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Dec. 1994, Vol.14, No.4, p.273-292. Illus. 104 ref.

CIS 95-1495 Carnicelli M.V.F.
Occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration: A review of peripheral vascular disease
Exposição ocupacional à vibração transmitida através das mãos: uma revisão sobre o distúrbio vascular periférico [in Portuguese]
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.22, No.82, p.35-45. 48 ref. ###

CIS 95-1273 Hand and arm vibration syndrome: Detection and prevention
La maladie du marteau pneumatique: détection et prévention [in French]
Videotape on the detection and prevention of vibration disease ("white finger disease") among miners with prolonged exposure to vibrating tools.
The Mining Association of Canada, 1105-350 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. K1R 7S8, Canada. No date. Videotape (length: 10min). Free. ###

CIS 95-1494 Özkaya N., Willems B., Goldsheyder D.
Whole-body vibration exposure: A comprehensive field study
A study was carried out to measure whole-body vibration levels experienced by train operators of a large metropolitan subway system. Mechanical vibrations transmitted to seated operators were measured using a triaxial accelerometer and daily exposure levels were calculated. Factors affecting measured vibration levels were also investigated. Six of the 20 subway lines studied had vibration levels higher than daily exposure limits recommended by ISO 2631. Train speed was the most significant factor influencing vibration levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1164-1171. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 95-1531 Davis P.J., Fernandez J.E.
Maximum acceptable frequencies for females performing a drilling task in different wrist postures
A study was made of 12 females performing a simulated drilling task using nine wrist postures at an adjustable workstation. Results revealed that flexion, extension and radial deviation all had a significant effect on maximum acceptable frequencies, while ulnar deviation did not. The postures are ranked in order of possible risk of contributing to cumulative trauma disorders, with neutral having the lowest risk and flexion having the highest risk.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1994, Vol.23, No.2, p.81-92. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-302 McGeoch K.L., Gilmour W.H., Taylor W.
Sensorineural objective tests in the assessment of hand-arm vibration syndrome
Assessment (staging) of workers exposed to vibration, based solely on a subjective history, has been shown to be unsatisfactory. The internationally agreed use of a sensorineural component in the Stockholm classification requires the use of sensory objective tests. 422 subjects were assessed by a subjective history supplemented by multiple objective tests. These tests covered the vascular, sensorineural, musculoskeletal and dexterity aspects of hand-arm vibration syndrome. Data showed that multiple sensory tests increased the accuracy of staging. Analyses of the sensory tests clearly indicated that they need to be done on all digits. In this survey the sensorineural damage was greatest in the forefinger (second) and the little (fifth) fingers. No association was found between smoking and the final staging, aesthesiometry, temperature neutral zone thresholds, or grip strength.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.57-61. 21 ref.

CIS 94-2121 Bovenzi M., Betta A.
Low-back disorders in agricultural tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress
A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP) among a group of tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress and among a control group of office workers. A vibration dose was calculated for each driver and perceived postural stress was assessed. The prevalence of LBP was greater in the tractor drivers than in the controls and was significantly associated with both vibration dose and postural load. Back accidents and age were also significant predictors for LBP. European and ISO recommendations for exposure to whole body vibration are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.25, No.4, p.231-241. 40 ref.

CIS 94-1885
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration. Advice for employers and advice on vibration white finger for employees and the self-employed
The first of these two booklets provides advice to employers on the injuries caused by hand-arm vibration, jobs affected, control measures, information and training for employees and health surveillance. The second is aimed at employees and describes the nature and symptoms of vibration white finger, the causes of the problem and ways of reducing the risk.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1994. 2 booklets (7p. and 5p.). 6 ref.

CIS 94-2093
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration
This guidance document provides advice on the identification and control of hand-arm vibration hazards. Contents: overview of vibration hazards and control programmes (injuries, factors contributing to risk, risk assessment, preventive programme, machinery suppliers); technical ways to reduce vibration; clinical effects and the health surveillance programme; measuring hand-arm vibration. In appendices: purchasing new tools and equipment; objective test methods for diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome; health surveillance questionnaire and guidance notes.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. iv, 62p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 94-2086 Hanley P.
Health and Safety Executive, Technology and Health Sciences Division
Vibration hazards from road breakers
Contents of this report: terminology; legislation; road breaker types and application; review of vibration hazards and vibration exposure data; vibration exposure (dose) reduction (control measures, vibration dose, design and use of the tool, reduction of vibration by use of suspended handles); vibration risk reduction (ergonomics, training); state of the art; future research. Appendices include a table of vibration measured on road breakers and relationships between EC Directives and UK Regulations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Feb. 1994. v, 32p. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 94-2092 Bednall A.
Health and Safety Executive
Survey of exposure to hand-arm vibration in Great Britain - Railway maintenance
Results of a questionnaire-based survey of the exposure of railway maintenance staff to hand-arm vibration are presented. Results indicate that during the survey week approximately 20% of such staff made some use of specified powered tools and processes associated with the incidence of vibration white finger. Overall it is estimated that about 5,000 (approximately 4%) of railway staff use hand-held or guided power tools for relatively long periods. Tasks involving the use of ballast tampers, impact wrenches and road breakers are considered to be of the greatest immediate concern.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 42p. 14 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 94-1583 Chatterjee D.S.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome. A double-blind case-control study with a new esthesiometer
A questionnaire survey of 34 subjects (15 with hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and 19 controls) was followed by a clinical examination and esthesiometry testing for the measurement of tactile depth perception. 14 of the 15 subjects with HAVS were positively diagnosed as suffering from the syndrome and one of the 19 controls had a false positive result. The study showed that the new esthesiometer, although not totally objective, could be regarded as an effective tool for the diagnosis of HAVS in clinical and field studies.
Occupational Medicine, July 1994, Vol.44, no.3, p.145-150. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 94-1785 Burström L., Lundström R.
Absorption of vibration energy in the human hand and arm
The mechanical energy absorption in the hand-arm system was measured within the frequency range of 4 to 1000Hz in a group of ten subjects exposed to sinusoidal vibration. The energy absorption in the hand and arm depended mainly on the frequency and direction of the vibration stimulus; higher vibration levels, as well as firmer handgrips, resulted in higher absorption of energy. Varying hand-arm postures had only a small influence on the amount of absorbed energy, while the constitution of the hand and arm affected the energy absorption to a larger extent.
Ergonomics, May 1994, Vol.37, No.5, p.879-890. Illus. 10 ref.

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