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Vibration - 974 entries found

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CIS 08-447 Drivers of mobile equipment - Fed up with vibrations
Conducteurs d'engins mobiles - Vibrations, plein le dos [in French]
Drivers and operators who work in a sitting posture are regularly exposed to vibrations, tremors and jolts transmitted to the whole body by the seat and the cab floor, resulting in backache and injuries to the spinal column and inter-vertebral disks. This booklet is aimed at helping employers and persons responsible for occupational safety and health to limit the exposure of drivers of mobile equipment to whole-body vibrations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2001. 12p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$File/ed864.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1387
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing the risk of hand-arm vibration injury among stonemasons
This information sheet outlines the risk from hand-arm vibration to workers in the stonemasonry industry, together with the appropriate prevention measures. Topics covered: definition of hand-arm vibration syndrome; symptoms; risk factors; typical vibration magnitude of different tools used in stonemasonry and recommended daily usage time; assessment of exposure to vibration; health surveillance; reduction of vibration exposure; selection of low-vibration tools; personal protective equipment (anti-vibration or thermal gloves). Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 98-915).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 3p. 5 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-886 Mechanical vibration and shock - Range of idealized values to characterize seated-body biodynamic response under vertical vibration
Vibrations et chocs mécaniques - Enveloppes de valeurs probables caractérisant la réponse biodynamique d'individus assis soumis à des vibrations verticales [in French]
Indications that several conditions associated with feet and back support, posture, excitation amplitude and subject mass could have a significant influence on measured seated-body biodynamic response led to the conclusion that the definition of a range of idealized values would only be feasible if based on data sets known to have been determined under a well-defined and restricted range of similar conditions. This international standard defines a range of such idealized values for seated individuals. They may find applications in laboratory procedures for assessing vehicle seat performance and for predicting whole-body vibration exposure levels on platforms of mobile machinery.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2001. vi, 28p. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-402 de Ângelo da Cunha I.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Noise and vibration levels from chainsaws and their use in evaluating the occupational exposure of operators to vibrations
Níveis de vibração e ruído gerados por motosserras et sua utilização na avaliação da exposição ocupacional do operador à vibração [in Portuguese]
The first part of this document reviews the effects of vibrations on the hand-arm system caused by the use of chainsaws, the main standards for evaluating vibrations, criteria that apply to the definition of noise and vibration level limits as well as applicable preventive measures. The second part is devoted to comparing noise and vibration data supplied by manufacturers with those determined during standardized testing and under real field conditions. Results indicate that data supplied by manufacturers are meaningful for comparing chainsaws, selecting appropriate protective equipment and controlling workers' exposure.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 162p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.

CIS 02-1427 Palmer K.T., Griffin M.J., Syddall H., Pannett B., Cooper C., Coggon D.
Risk of hand-arm vibration syndrome according to occupation and sources of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration: A national survey
A questionnaire on hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) was mailed to a general-population sample of 12,240 men aged 16-64 years and to 906 men from the armed forces, all in the United Kingdom. Questions covered current occupation, sources of HTV, numbness or tingling in the fingers in the past week, and finger blanching. Among the 5,364 respondents who had been at work in the past week, 513 (10%) reported cold-induced finger blanching and 769 (14%) sensory symptoms in the fingers. The risk of blanching was increased in builders (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.4), carpenters and joiners (PR 1.9), motor mechanics (PR 2.3), and labourers (PR 2.8). The risk of sensory symptoms was elevated in labourers (PR 4.0) and plant operatives (PR 3.5). Use of hand-guided mowers, concrete breakers, chain saws and jig saws was significantly associated with symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.389-396. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1434
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration
This guidance document on the identification and control of hand-arm vibration hazards replaces an earlier edition (see CIS 94-2093). The main changes result from the introduction of the Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 96-410), which require that all suppliers of hand-held power tools provide information for users on vibration values. Contents: overview of vibration hazards and control programmes (injuries, factors contributing to risk, risk assessment, prevention programmes, health surveillance programmes, machinery suppliers); technical ways to reduce vibration; clinical effects and the health surveillance programme; measuring hand-arm vibration. In appendices: purchasing new tools and equipment; objective test methods for diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome; health surveillance questionnaire and guidance notes.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2001. iv, 64p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 02-1418 Gauthier F.
Low-vibration fork-lift trucks
Pour des chariots élévateurs moins vibrants [in French]
Drivers of power trucks are exposed to vibrations, which cause backache and inter-vertebral disk hernia. This article describes work undertaken by the mechanical prevention systems modelling laboratory of the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) aimed at reducing these vibrations. Test benches for testing cab suspensions, seats and tyres were designed and set up, and a numerical modelling calculation system was developed and applied for estimating vibration levels in the driver cab. Other topics covered: regulations concerning the compensation of chronic lumbar column diseases caused by vibrations, draft "vibrations" directive on the minimal safety and health requirements for the exposure of workers to physical agents (vibrations), according to which permissible values (8-hour average) would be 0.6m/s2 for whole-body vibration, with a threshold limit value of 1.15m/s2.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2001, No.610, p.12-17. Illus.

CIS 02-907 Gillmeister F., Schenk T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Development of a method for evaluating exposure to hand-transmitted vibration and whole-body vibration at the workplace
Entwicklung einer Methodik zur personengebundenen Messung von Hand-Arm- und Ganzkörperschwingungen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
This report describes the development of a new method for personal measurements of hand-arm vibration and whole-body vibration. Instead of the sensors being attached to the vibrating machinery or equipment, they are attached to the hands or to specific body parts of the operators, depending on the equipment used and the work postures adopted. The method enables measurements over a full working day and provides reliable evaluations of vibration exposure levels over extended periods of time.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. xvii,185p. Illus. 60 ref. Price: EUR 17.50.

CIS 02-105
Health and Safety Commission
Hand-arm vibration in foundries
This booklet aimed at managers, safety officers and safety representatives within the foundry industry gives guidance on how to reduce the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Main topics covered: definition of HAVS; risks factors; cost for employers; exposure control; engineering and management controls: personal protection; system design and process control; good grinding practices; selection of grinding wheels; wheel hardness; training; work organization; health surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 30p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 02-409
Health and Safety Executive
Noise reduction at band re-saws
The noise generated by band re-saws (typically over 85dB(A)) can be reduced by maintaining the machine and blade in good condition. Factors affecting the blade vibration level (the main source of noise) are listed along with advice on how the difference in noise levels when cutting and when idling can be used as a good indicator of the condition and adjustment of the machine and blade. Replaces CIS 91-515.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 01-1648
Health and Safety Executive
Power tools: How to reduce vibration health risks
Millions of hand-held power tools are used in the United Kingdom in sectors including agriculture and the shipbuilding, construction and quarrying industries. Power tools transmit hand-arm vibration and may put operators at risk of a range of diseases collectively known as the hand-arm vibration syndrome, which include vibration white finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, numbness and tingling in the hands and arms, painful joints and muscle weakening, damage to bones in the hands and arms. This leaflet is aimed at employers and users, and explains their duties under current United Kingdom legislation. Contents include: legal aspects; responsibilities; understanding and using manufacturers' vibration data; other important factors in choosing tools; managing tool use.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2001. 12p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 01-860 Lawton B.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Damage to human hearing by airborne sound of very high frequency or ultrasonic frequency
This literature review examines the audiological, occupational hygiene and industrial safety literature on the subjective and auditory effects of audible sound in the very high frequency range (10-20kHz) and also in the inaudible ultrasonic range (greater than 20kHz, generally thought to be the upper frequency limit of young normal hearing). Proposed exposure limits have been in existence since 1961, with the intent of avoiding any subjective effects and any auditory effects, in any exposed individuals. The evolution of these internationally-recognised Damage Risk Criteria and Maximum Permitted Levels has been examined critically. Conclusions and recommendations are offered in respect of hearing damage and adverse subjective effects caused by sounds outside the customary frequency range for occupational noise exposure assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 77p. 114 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.


CIS 03-879 Koton J., Harazin B.
Health effects of occupational exposure to local vibrations and their prevention
Skutki zdrowotne zawodowego narażenia na drgania miejscowe - wytyczne postępowania profilaktycznego [in Polish]
This booklet describes the health effects of occupational exposure to local vibrations (effect on the body through the hands and arms) and prevention methods. It is aimed at occupational safety and health services, employers and workers who are exposed to these types of vibrations. It can be also useful for manufacturers and suppliers of vibrating equipment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 52p. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 01-1800 Burström L., Bylund S.H.
Relationship between vibration dose and the absorption of mechanical power in the hand
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between calculated vibration dose and the measured absorption of vibration power in the hand, as well as the measured grip and feed forces applied by 10 healthy subjects. The influence of 4 vibration levels with different durations during a test period of 5 minutes was investigated. There was a significant difference between the calculated vibration dose and the amount of measured absorption of power. A higher acceleration level leads to significantly higher absorption. Furthermore, the outcome showed that the rest periods contributed to a lower absorption of power in the hand and also to lower feed forces. The study supports the hypothesis that vibration-free rest periods give the human organism an opportunity to recover.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2000, Vol.26, No.1, p.32-36. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 01-858 Todaro A., Tomasini M., Di Carlo D., Consonni D., Mariani E.
Disorders of the peripheral nervous system due to vibrating instruments: Clinical and diagnostic study of a group of symptomatic subjects
Neuropatia da strumenti vibranti: studio clinico-diagnostico in un gruppo di soggetti sintomatici [in Italian]
To evaluate the risk of hand-arm vibration exposure and associated disorders of the peripheral nervous system, 40 male subjects with exposure for more than five years and nervous symptoms of the hands for more than one year were studied, together with two control groups of non-symptomatic non-exposed subjects. An electroneurophysiological study of the exposed subjects revealed 18 nerve conduction speed changes (12 median nerve, 4 ulnar nerve, 2 median and ulnar nerve), most of which were sensitivity-motor changes; only 9 carpal tunnel syndromes were diagnosed. Some statistically significant differences between exposed subjects with negative results of the electroneurophysiological study and non-exposed subjects were observed. Prolonged vibration exposure seems to induce a hand-arm nerve suffering, initially with a progressive nerve conduction speed change and non-specific symptoms, but subsequently a peripheral nervous system disorder associated or not to a carpal tunnel syndrome may occur.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.217-225. 25 ref.

CIS 01-539 Cherniack M., Clive J., Seidner A.
Vibration exposure, smoking, and vascular dysfunction
A total of 601 shipyard workers (current and former users of pneumatic tools) was evaluated subjectively for cold-related vascular symptoms, and tested by cold challenge plethysmography. Follow-up testing was done on 199 members of the severely affected subgroup of smokers and non-smokers, many of whom had stopped smoking in the interval between tests. Effects of smoking and stopping smoking were assessed. Symptoms and measured abnormal vascular responses were more severe in smokers. Smokers were almost twice as likely to have more severe vasospasm than were non-smokers. 53 subjects who stopped smoking during the interval between tests improved, and were indistinguishable from non-smokers similarly exposed to vibration. Additional physiological benefits of stopping smoking were still apparent at further follow up examination, one year later. Improvements seen on plethysmography were not accompanied by improvements in symptoms, which remained unaffected by smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.341-347. 33 ref.


CIS 03-876 Kinne J., Latzel K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Hand-arm vibration models for use in hand-held machine test benches
Schwingungstechnische Modelle der Hand-Arm-Systeme für die Verwendung in Prüfständen von Handmaschinen [in German]
Vibration models of the hand-arm system were developed with a view of integrating them into text benches for hand-held machines. The practical use of the model was verified by carrying out comparative measurements between vibrations to which operators are subjected and those recorded for the models. Results indicate good agreement between the measured values; however, there was less dispersion for the model values than for the operator values. Finally, the influence of impedance of a hand-arm system on the vibration of the hand-held machine and the influence of two hand-arm systems (ambidextral use of the tool) on the machine-operator system were examined. The results are conclusive and both hand-arm systems need to be taken into consideration when developing vibration models.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 110p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.

CIS 03-875 Hauck M., Tattermusch W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Lowering the exposure to vibrations on mobile machines by adopting seats with automatic suspensions
Verminderung der Schwingungsexposition auf mobilen Arbeitsmaschinen durch Schwingungsschutzsitze mit geregelter Dämpfung [in German]
The physical limits of the vibration damping effect of regular passive suspension seats are very narrow, the minimum absorption required to limit the vibrations due to the seat reducing its efficiency in the main excitation frequencies situated in the range 2-4Hz. The objective of this research project was to develop a seat whose suspension would be regulated directly from the excitation frequency of the cabin floor, without intervention by the driver. This report describes the technical modifications to the seat as well as the results of test bench measurements.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 114p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: EUR 12.50.

CIS 02-1308 Badelt W., John C., v. Löwis J., Seidel E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Design, construction and testing of a control loop for an electro-mechanical hand-arm model
Auslegung, Aufbau und Erprobung eines Regelkreises für ein elektromechanisches Hand-Arm-Modell [in German]
A mechanical model of a hand-arm system can be used for testing hand tools or for the optimization of the transmission properties of anti-vibration elements of these tools, in order to avoid exposing the persons testing the products to vibrations and to avoid subjective assessments. A hand-arm model was developed and tested. However, it will require further work on the control systems before it can be applied to all types of vibrating tools across the entire frequency spectrum.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 66p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.

CIS 01-1807 Loyau T., Lovat G.
Workshop "Designing for more quietness: How to select components" - Proceedings
Colloque "Concevoir plus silencieux: comment choisir ses composants" - Recueil des communications [in French]
A particularly important step in the process of designing machines consists of selecting the least noisy components. However, in most cases, information for implementing this approach is not available. This technical workshop enabled the listing of known methods for determining the properties of components, comparing their performance and assessing their practical suitability. Papers presented cover theoretical aspects as well as several practical cases (small engines, automobile exhausts, ventilators).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Oct. 1999. 70p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-1511 Jalbert R., Vallières E., Fauchon R.
Dampening contact noise
Amortir le bruit par contact [in French]
Vibrating tables used for the compacting of concrete represent a frequently-encountered source of noise in companies involved in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete elements. The use of a damping material in such a vibratory system may allow the attenuation of the noise intensity, thereby reducing the exposure of workers to noise. This article describes the use of a noise damping coating material (nitrile rubber) applied to the surface of metallic supports fixed onto the vibrating table, which enabled the reduction of workers' exposure to 91dB instead of 100dB without the coating.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1999, Vol.15, No.4, p.17-19. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 01-1428 Meyer J.P., Flenghi D., Deschamps J.P.
Retrospective cross-sectional study: Lumbar pathology - Effects of manual handling, posture and exposure to vibration
Enquête transversale rétrospective: pathologie lombaire - Effets de la manutention manuelle, de la posture et de l'exposition aux vibrations [in French]
The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of occupational strain on the severity and frequency of back pain, as well as its consequences in terms of lost work days and medical treatment. The specificity of this study is to associate occupational strain with a detailed clinical classification of back pain based on data collected from interviews with workers. The study was carried out on a population of workers exposed to three types of strain which are generally accepted as representing risk factors for the lumbar column, namely manual handling, whole-body vibration and prolonged special postures. The age and body mass index of subjects are the individual characteristics most closely linked to back pain. Among women, periods of pain are most frequent among manual handlers or subjects exposed to prolonged special postures. Lost work days are significantly more frequent and prolonged among manual handling workers or those exposed to vibrations than among the reference population.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1999, No.80, p.355-366. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1209 Fischer S., Göres B., Gondek K.H., Sayn D.
Effects of vibration on bus drivers' cabs
Schwingungseinwirkung an Fahrerarbeitsplätzen von Kraftomnibussen [in German]
Topics: buses; drivers cabs; drivers seats; exposure evaluation; Germany; report; research; vibration amplitude; vibration frequency; vibration measurement; vibration transmission; whole-body vibration.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, June 1999. 129p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 01-898 Fritz M.
Simulation of rapid movements in sports and occupational oscillatory loads using biomechanical models in order to determine the stress exerted on the human musculoskeletal system
Simulation schnell ablaufender Bewegungen im Sport und bei beruflichen Schwingungsbelastungen mit Hilfe von biomechanischen Modellen zur Ermittlung der Beanspruchung des menschlichen Bewegungsapparates [in German]
According to the results of epidemiological studies, diseases of the musculoskeletal system correlate with oscillatory loads on the hand-arm system or entire body. Certain sport activities can also lead to leg (and, in particular, ankle) injuries. The damage arises from a mismatch between the forces transmitted and the mechanical resistance of bones and cartilage. Due to the difficulties of measuring forces on the joints, they are simulated by biomechanical models. The duration and frequency of motions, forces, and loads are compared with the strength of the joints which depend on age, sex and body build. Use of the data for the interpretation of musculoskeletal disorders due to hand-arm and whole-body vibration are discussed.
VDI Verlag, Postfach 10 10 54, 40001 Düsseldorf, Germany, 1999. x, 205p. Illus. 181 ref. Index.

CIS 01-228 Palmer K.T., Coggon D., Bendall H.E., Pannett B., Griffin M.J., Haward B.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-transmitted vibration: Occupational exposures and their health effects in Great Britain
Based on the responses of approximately 13,000 men and women of working age selected at random in the United Kingdom to a questionnaire on exposure to vibration at work, the main conclusions of the survey are: approximately 4.2 million men and 0.7 million women are exposed to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) at work in any one-week period; the occupations and industries with the highest exposures among men include metal-working production, carpenters, electricians, motor mechanics, plumbers, heating and ventilation workers, bricklayers and gardeners; exposure to HTV is a common cause of Raynaud's phenomenon among men; the most commonly used tools were hammer drills, hand-held portable grinders and jig saws; among women, highest exposures were for floor polishing among domestic workers and cleaners.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. vi, 149p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: GBP 37.50.

CIS 01-227 Paddan G.S., Haward B.M., Griffin M.J., Palmer K.T.
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-transmitted vibration: Evaluation of some common sources of exposure in Great Britain
Workplace visits were undertaken to measure vibration on selected tools and to observe workers exposed to vibration. Hand-transmitted vibration was measured on the handles of 125 different powered tools and assessed according to current British and international standards. The measurements were also used to assist the interpretation of responses to the questionnaire survey on vibration (see CIS 01-228). The vibration magnitudes assumed for various machines from the interpretation of the questionnaire responses were generally in agreement with the measured values. However, there were large differences among tools of similar type. Ergonomic observation was carried out on 116 users of hand-held powered tools, with emphasis on working posture, grip force, manual handling, duration of tool use, work environment and work organization.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. vi, 79p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 01-226 Paddan G.S., Haward B.M., Griffin M.J., Palmer K.T.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration: Evaluation of some common sources of exposure in Great Britain
Workplace visits were undertaken to measure the vibration on selected vehicles and machines, and observe workers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). Vibrations were measured on 39 vehicles and machines, and assessed according to current British and international standards. The measurements were also used to assist the interpretation of responses to the questionnaire survey on vibration (see CIS 01-225). The vibration magnitudes assumed for various vehicles and machines from the interpretation of the questionnaire responses were generally in agreement with the measured values. However, there were large differences between vehicles and machines of similar type. Ergonomic observation was carried out on 63 drivers exposed to WBV, with emphasis on driving posture, seat adjustment, ride comfort, manual handling of driving, duration of driving, work environment and work organization.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. vi, 71p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 01-225 Palmer K.T., Coggon D., Bendall H.E., Pannett B., Griffin M.J., Haward B.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration: Occupational exposures and their health effects in Great Britain
Based on the responses of approximately 13,000 men and women of working age selected at random in the United Kingdom to a questionnaire on exposure to vibration at work, the main conclusions of the survey are: approximately 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) at work in a one-week period; the occupations and industries with the highest exposures include drivers of forklift trucks, road transportation trucks, buses and coaches; moderate exposures exist for professional drivers and drivers of excavators and of off-road vehicles and industrial vehicles, and for helicopter pilots; overall, the risk of low-back pain due to exposure to WBV is small for most British workers, but more substantial risks may exist in certain occupations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. v, 143p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: GBP 37.50.

CIS 00-1740
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes: Hand-arm vibration - Assessing the need for action
Follow-up to CIS 97-632. Topics: data sheet; foundries; hand-arm vibration; hazard evaluation; limitation of exposure; safety guides; United Kingdom; vibrating tools; vibration control.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Feb. 1999. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-1207 Presidential Decrees No.159, 160 and 163/99 extending to the Territory of Macao the provisions of certain ILO Conventions [Portugal]
Decretos do Presidente da República n°s 159, 160 e 163/99, [que] estendem ao território de Macau [certas] convenções da OIT [in Portuguese]
Presidential Decrees extending to the territory of Macao, in the same terms as those committing the Portuguese State, the provisions of ILO Conventions No.120 concerning hygiene in commerce and offices (see CIS 89-1759), No.155 concerning occupational safety and health and the working environment (CIS 82-890) and No.148 concerning the protection of workers against air pollution, noise and vibration (CIS 78-1198).
Diário da República, 8 July 1999, Series I-A, No.157, p.4237-4238.

CIS 00-1471 Wu X., Rakheja S., Boileau P.E.
Distribution of human-seat interface pressure on a soft automotive seat under vertical vibration
Distribution of contact pressure and forces between sitting human subjects and a visco-elastic seat was experimentally investigated under conditions of vertical vibration. The human-seat interface pressure data acquired with a total of six subjects is analysed to illustrate the influence of magnitude and frequency of vibration excitations on the maximum ischium pressure, effective contact area and contact force distribution. The results are discussed to illustrate the influence of seated posture and the subject build on the contact force and area. Alternatively, the contour maps of static pressure distribution, and time histories of the ischium pressure and the effective contact area measured under vibration are compared with those determined while using a rigid seat. The results show that the maximum variations in the ischium pressure and the effective contact area on a soft seat occur near the resonant frequency of the coupled human-seat system (2.5-3.0Hz). The maximum ischium pressure and effective contact area on a softseat tend to increase considerably with increase in the magnitude of vibration excitation.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 1999, Vol.24, No.5, p.545-557. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-1469 Chang C.H., Wang M.J.J., Lin S.C.
Evaluating the effects of wearing gloves and wrist support on hand-arm response while operating an in-line pneumatic screwdriver
The effects of wearing a glove and wrist support on hand-arm response while operating an in-line pneumatic screwdriver were evaluated. Responses investigated were triggering finger force, flexor digitorum EMG and hand-transmitted vibration. Four glove levels (barehanded, cotton, nylon and open-finger), and two wrist support levels (wearing, and not wearing) were evaluated. Thirteen healthy male subjects drove screws into a horizontally mounted iron plate with pre-tapped screw holes using an in-line pneumatic screwdriver. Results indicate that wearing a nylon glove and not using a wrist support is the best combination. Wearing a nylon glove reduced 18.2% of the triggering force as compared with the barehanded condition. In addition, wearing a nylon glove had comparatively low forearm muscular exertion, and reduced 16% and 15% of hand-transmitted vibration in the z-axis and the sum of 3-axes as compared with the barehanded condition. The use of a wrist support required a greater triggering force and a 9.9% greater hand-transmitted vibration in the y-axis than when not using a wrist support.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 1999, Vol.24, No.5, p.473-481. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-1124 Bovenzi M.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome - Part II: Diagnosis and health surveillance
La sindrome da vibrazioni mano-braccio: (II) Aspetti diagnostici e criteri di idoneità [in Italian]
Part II of this paper reviews the clinical and laboratory methods used to diagnose the neurological, vascular and osteoarticular components of the hand-arm vibration syndrome. The prognosis and reversibility of vibration-induced neurological and vascular disorders after cessation of vibration exposure or the introduction of vibration-damped tools are discussed on the basis of follow-up clinical and longitudinal epidemiological studies. The health surveillance of vibration-exposed workers and the medical contra-indications against prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibration are discussed. (Part I: see CIS 00-1123).
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.90, No.5, p.643-649. 12 ref.

CIS 00-1123 Bovenzi M.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome: (I) Clinical aspects, exposure-response relationship and vibration exposure limits
La sindrome da vibrazioni mano-braccio: (I) Quadri clinici, relazione esposizione-risposta, limiti di esposizione [in Italian]
Part I of this paper reviews medical aspects of the hand-arm vibration syndrome and the relationship between occupational, hand-transmitted vibration and vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders in the upper limbs. Epidemiological evidence is insufficient for establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensorineural or bone and joint disorders. The exposure-response relationship between hand-transmitted vibration and vibration white finger has been clearly established. Vibration exposure limits proposed in the European Directive for physical agents were shown by clinical and epidemiological studies to be sufficiently protective. (Part II: see CIS 00-1124).
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.90, No.4, p.547-555. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1122 Schwarze S., Notbohm G., Hartung E., Dupuis H.
Whole-body vibrations as damaging factor of the lumbar spine - Results of a epidemiologic study on whole-body vibration
Ganzkörper-Schwingungen als Schädigungsfaktor für die Lendenwirbelsäule - Ergebnisse der epidemiologischen Studie "Ganzkörpervibration" [in German]
X-rays of the spinal column, available records on the causes of absenteeism as well as anamnestic results of 388 drivers of trucks, fork-lift trucks and earthmoving equipment and 65 controls without occupational exposure to whole-body vibrations were used to assess the presence of lumbar syndrome. The prevalence rate increased with increasing vibration dose. The cumulative whole-body vibration doses were calculated. 281 participants were examined in a follow-up conducted four years later following the same pattern. The follow-up showed a higher relative risk of lumbar syndrome for the highly exposed group.
Ergo-Med, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.23, No.5, p.236-242. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 00-1164 Björing G., Johansson L., Hägg G.M.
Choice of handle characteristics for pistol grip power tools
The handles of four similar drilling machines were covered with rubber with different hardness. The preferences and forearm muscle electric activity of the operators as well as the vibration level while they were using these drilling machines were assessed. The results showed that foam rubber on the handle is a covering material preferable to harder rubber and it does not increase a need for muscular activity. Foam rubber on the handle may also attenuate vibrations to some extent. Furthermore, the preferred width and thickness of handles for drilling machines were evaluated by letting the subjects perform three tasks: (a) choosing handle width and ranking handle thickness, (b) ranking handle width, (c) making a handle out of hand putty. The subjects' hand sizes (hand length, functional grip diameter and hand volume) were also measured and compared to their preferences. The results showed that the most commonly used handle cross-section size (50 x 35mm) is an acceptable compromise in terms of preferences. The measured hand size measures had low correlation with preferred handle width/circumference.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.24, No.6, p.647-656. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 00-1136 Lindsell C.J., Griffin M.J.
Thermal thresholds, vibrotactile thresholds and finger systolic blood pressures in dockyard workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration
Thermal thresholds (for perception of heat and cold), vibrotactile thresholds (for perception of vibration at 31.5 and 125Hz) and finger systolic blood pressures were measured in 107 dockyard workers, including 31 controls and 76 workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration (50 reporting finger blanching consistent with vibration-induced white finger). A history of vibration exposure and symptoms associated with hand-transmitted vibration were obtained for each subject. Increased duration of exposure to vibration resulted in a deterioration of both thermal thresholds and vibrotactile thresholds. Finger systolic blood pressures were lower in subjects reporting finger blanching and were related to the extent of blanching on the measured finger. Reported sensations of tingling were not correlated with any of the threshold measures; thermal thresholds and vibrotactile thresholds showed evidence of deterioration with reports of increasing numbness. Both numbness and tingling were correlated with reports of finger blanching. Finger systolic blood pressures were not correlated with either thermal or vibrotactile thresholds.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1999, Vol.72, No.6, p.377-386. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 00-1134 Bovenzi M., Hulshof C.T.J.
An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain (1986-1997)
In a systematic database search, several epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) were retrieved and evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects and methodology. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk for LBP, sciatic pain and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. It is also concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1999, Vol.72, No.6, p.351-365. Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 00-1121 Hill K.
The management of exposure to hand-arm vibration
Glasgow City Council (GCC) employs approximately 35,000 people in all areas of work, including construction, engineering, manufacturing and horticulture. Of these employees, around 4,000 are exposed to occupational vibration at varying levels as part of their normal work activities. In this article, GCC's health and safety officer explains the GCC approach to tackling and managing Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV).
Safety and Health Practitioner, July 1999, Vol.17, No.7, p.28-32. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 00-223 Ishitake T., Myazaki Y., Ando H., Matoba T.
Suppressive mechanism of gastric motility by whole-body vibration
Gastric motility suppression due to exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) was evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) in ten healthy volunteers. The amplitude of EGG wave and the power spectrum corresponding to the slow wave component was remarkably decreased by vibration exposure. Food intake enhanced gastric motility about 2.5-fold in the power spectral density. During and after vibration exposure, the response mode was similar to those in fasting states. Anticholinergic and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents decreased the power spectra. A further decrease was observed during vibration exposure. A beta-adrenergic blocking agent led to a marked increase in the amplitude of EGG and its power spectrum. However, pretreatment with a beta-adrenergic blocking agent resulted in a reduction of EGG amplitude and power spectrum on exposure to vibration. Results suggest that short-term exposure to WBV can suppress gastric myoelectric activity, the responses of which may be mediated by neurohumoral effects as well as by the mechanical effect of WBV.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1999, Vol.72, No.7, p.469-474. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 00-216 Laskar M.S., Harada N.
Assessment of autonomic nervous activity in hand-arm vibration syndrome patients using time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variation
Twenty one patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) who were no longer exposed to vibration and were undergoing standard treatment for HAVS, and 10 healthy control subjects were evaluated for autonomic nervous activity, using heart rate variation (HRV). Indices of HRV and normalized units of frequency-domain indices, indicating parasympathetic nervous activity, were calculated from 2min electrocardiographic data recorded during spontaneous breathing by subjects in supine rest. Findings indicate decreased cardiac parasympathetic activity in the HAVS patients in comparison to the healthy controls. The time undergoing treatment and time since retirement from work involving vibration significantly influenced the HRV results in these patients. However, the duration of exposure to vibration did not. The findings also indicate that treatment and cessation of exposure to vibration might have a beneficial effect on the cardiac parasympathetic activity in HAVS patients.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1999, Vol.72, No.7, p.462-468. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 99-1875 Daujard E.
Occupational disorders of the spine: The new schedules 97 and 98 of occupational diseases
Affections professionnelles du rachis: les nouveaux tableaux 97 et 98 [in French]
This article gives a short commentary on French Decree No.99-95 of 15 February 1999 (published in the Journal officiel de la République française, 16 February 1999) which adds new schedules of occupational diseases concerning chronic disorders of the spinal column due to whole-body vibration and/or manual handling of heavy loads. In addition, a preventive methodology is outlined which may be used in any enterprise to help prevent chronic spinal disorders. Topics: chronic diseases; comment on law; ergonomic evaluation; France; legislation; limitation of exposure; manual handling; manual lifting; physical workload; responsibilities of employers; schedule of occupational diseases; spinal column; spinal diseases; whole-body vibration; work posture.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 1999, No.44, p.48-51. Illus.

CIS 99-2030 Kattel B.P, Fernandez J.E.
The effects of rivet guns on hand-arm vibration
Vibration data were collected from five male and five female subjects using 12 rivet guns (from four different manufacturers depicted here as types l, 2, 3, and 4 with large, medium, and small sizes in each type) at three different postures (neutral, 1/3 maximum flexion, and 1/3 maximum ulnar deviation) and two different levels of applied force (8 and 12lbs). The results of analysis indicated that the level of vibration entering the hand was significantly higher for type 4 and large size than for other types and sizes. Based on the recommendations of ISO standard 5349, type 4 rivet guns should not be used for more than 30min per day. Results of detailed analysis and the ergonomic ramifications as well as practical applications of this finding are discussed. Topics: design of equipment; grip strength; hand tools; hand-arm vibration; Raynaud's phenomenon; repetitive strain injury; riveting; upper extremity disorders; vibrating tools; vibration acceleration; vibration damage risk criteria; vibration measurement; work posture.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.595-608. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 99-2079 Fredericks T.K., Fernandez J.E.
The effect of vibration on psychophysically derived work frequencies for a riveting task
A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine maximum acceptable task frequencies (MAF) for males performing a simulated riveting task at different wrist postures and applied force levels using an operational rivet gun. Twelve healthy males from a university population served as subjects. Results indicated that MAF decreased significantly with a deviation in wrist posture and an increase in applied force. These results were supported by various physiological variables and ratings of perceived exertion. It was also determined that decrements in MAF due to vibration were 36% while decrements due to wrist posture were 19%. This would indicate that vibration, as a risk factor in the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, is of more concern than wrist posture. Implications of the findings are discussed. Topics: grip strength; hand-arm vibration; human experiments; musculoskeletal diseases; repetitive strain injury; riveting; speed of work; upper extremities; vibrating tools; vibration measurement; vibration; work posture; wrist.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.415-429. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 99-2029 Castelo Branco N.A.A., Alves-Pereira M.
Vibroacoustic disease
Vibroacoustic Disease (VAD) is the clinical manifestation of a systemic disease developed as a result of long-term exposure to high-pressure amplitude, low frequency noise. Studies using small mammals and humans are reported here. Results strongly suggest that long-term exposure to noise levels of the order of 100dB(A) at a frequency spectrum below 500Hz (conditions prevalent in many industrial settings) is likely to lead to pathological sequelae to the cardiorespiratory system and the central nervous system. Evidence is also presented suggesting untoward effects of VAD on the immune system. Topics: aircraft industry; animal experiments; cardiological effects; central nervous system; genetic effects; health hazards; human experiments; long-term exposure; low-frequency noise; neurological effects; noise level; respiratory diseases; tissue damage; vestibular disorders; vibration disease; vibration.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.70, No.3, Section II, Supplement, p.iii-A154. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-2028 Takahashi Y., Yonekawa Y., Kanada K., Maeda S.
A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise
A measuring method was designed using a miniature accelerometer to understand the basic characteristics of human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to evaluate the effects on health. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of six male subjects exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20-50Hz, where the method proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration was higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. The measured noise-induced vibration was also negatively correlated with the subject's body mass index, which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depend not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body. Topics: body weight; human experiments; low-frequency noise; vibration acceleration; vibration measurement; whole-body vibration.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.28-35. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 03-1373 Mechanical vibration and shock - Guidance on safety aspects of tests and experiments with people - Part 1: Exposure to whole-body mechanical vibration and repeated shock
Vibrations et chocs mécaniques - Lignes directrices concernant les aspects de sécurité des essais et des expérimentations réalisés sur des sujets humains - Partie 1: Exposition de l'ensemble du corps aux vibrations mécaniques et aux chocs répétés [in French]
Part 1 of this international standard provides guidance on the safety aspects of design of equipment and the conduct of tests and experiments in the laboratory in which human subjects are exposed to mechanical vibration and repeated shock, for example for evaluating equipment intended to alleviate the effects of these factors such as seat suspension, seat cushions and other attenuating devices. It is concerned with whole-body vibration and repeated shock only. Local vibration is not within the scope of this part of the standard.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. iv, 23p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: CHF 97.00.

CIS 01-1201 Hinz B., Seidel H., Blüthner R.
Subjective assessment of whole-body vibration transmitted by vibration-insulated operator seats - An experimental study
Zur subjectiven Beurteilung der Einwirkung von Ganzkörperschwingungen bei Nutzung schwingungsisolierender Sitze - Ergebnisse einer experimentellen Studie [in German]
Topics: anthropometry; description of technique; drivers seats; subjective assessment; vibration damping; vibration measurement; vibration testing; vibration transmission; whole-body vibration.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, May 1998, Vol.52, No.1, p.30-35. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-1199 Asselineau M., Lovat G., Danière P., Arbey H.S.
Vibrating tables in the concrete industry: Analysis of noise generation mechanisms for noise reduction at the source
Tables vibrantes utilisées dans l'industrie du béton: analyse des mécanismes de génération du bruit pour une réduction à la source [in French]
European directives require manufacturers of industrial machinery to reduce the noise emitted by their machines to the lowest possible levels, in particular by acting at the noise source level. This requires a proper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for noise in each component of the machine. This understanding makes it possible to act directly at the noise source level, and to estimate improvements likely to be achieved. Vibrating tables which are widely used in the cement industry constitute a major source of noise both for the operator and for the surrounding environment. Means of considerably reducing noise emissions at the source are presented in this paper, including reducing workload, limiting shocks, eliminating resonance, and damping the walls from which noise is radiated. The improvements in acoustic performance that can be expected form these different methods are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.170, Note No.2071-170-98, p.21-32. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 01-861 Engel Z., Augustyńska D.
Noise control '98 - Proceedings - 2-4 June, 1998
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Noise Control held in Krynica, Poland, 2-4 June 1998. Main topics covered: general problems (noise assessment, noise and vibration control, detection threshold of low-frequency pure and complex tones, high-frequency hearing loss in percussion players); sources of noise at work and occupational exposure; environmental noise; transportation noise (aircraft, tramways, highways); tire and road noise measurement; protection against noise (sound absorption); active noise and vibration control; economic aspects of noise control; protection against hand-arm vibration; noise measurement and analysis.
Central Institute for Labour protection, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998. 650p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-776 Meyer J.P., Flenghi D., Deschamps J.P.
Effects of manual handling, posture, and whole body vibrations on low-back pain
To determine the effect of occupational stress on low-back pain (LBP), workers exposed to 3 kinds of stress, manual handling (MH, 82 women and 264 men), whole body vibration (WBV, 274 men) and static postures (278 women), were interviewed. Anthropometric data, occupational stress, LBP severity and frequency and a psychological evaluation of these groups were compared with those of a control population of 104 men and 104 women. The results show age and the body mass index of the workers were the parameters most closely associated with LBP. Women involved in MH had higher frequency and severity of LBP than their reference population. Men involved in MH or exposed to WBV had higher frequency of painful episodes than their reference population. Workers exposed to one of the stresses were on sick leave with LBP more often, and for longer periods, than workers in the reference group. Individual factors are often decisive in the onset of LBP, but occupational stress can be an aggravating factor for serious LBP cases.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.449-470. Illus. 22 ref.

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