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Vibration - 974 entries found

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  • Vibration

2005

CIS 06-13
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration: Advice for employees
This pocket card provides advice for users of hand-held powered work equipment on controlling exposure to hand-arm vibration. It briefly describes health hazards (symptoms of hand-arm vibration syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome), tools and equipment involving a risk and methods for reducing vibration.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. Folded card.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg296.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-12
Health and Safety Executive
Control the risks from hand-arm vibration - Advice for employers on the Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
This booklet provides advice to employers on legal requirements for controlling the risks from hand-arm vibration. Contents: health effects of hand-arm vibration; jobs and tools involving a risk; legal duties; vibration exposure limits; risk assessment; estimating exposure; duties of manufacturers and suppliers; risk control; health surveillance; information and training. Replaces CIS 98-1458.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., 2005. 20p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg175.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-11
Health and Safety Executive
Drive away bad backs - Advice for mobile machine operators and drivers
This pocket card provides brief guidance to mobile machine operators and drivers on avoiding back pain caused by driving for a long time in a poorly adjusted seat, jolting and jarring from rough roads (whole-body vibration) and manual handling.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. Folded card.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg404.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-10
Health and Safety Executive
Control back-pain risks from whole-body vibration - Advice for employers on the Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
This booklet provides guidance for employers on the legal requirements for managing the risk of back pain in operators exposed to whole-body vibration in off-road mobile machinery, agricultural vehicles or industrial trucks. Contents: health effects of whole-body vibration; persons at risk; legal duties of employers (vibration exposure limits); risk assessment; exposure evaluation; duties of manufacturers and suppliers; risk control; information and training; health monitoring. Replaces CIS 98-293.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., 2005. 14p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg242.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-442 Scarlett A.J., Price J.S., Semple D.A., Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration on agricultural vehicles: Evaluation of emission and estimated exposure levels
This study was conducted to quantify estimated whole-body vibration (WBV) emissions of a range of modern agricultural vehicles (tractors, self-propelled sprayers and all-terrain vehicles), when operated in controlled conditions (on ISO vibration test tracks and performing a range of normal agricultural operations). The potential consequences of WBV operator exposure level limitations, prescribed by the European Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive 2002, on agricultural vehicle usage patterns in the United Kingdom were also considered. It was found that most of the vehicles tested result in daily exposures exceeding the exposure action values specified in the Directive, thereby requiring employers to implement measures to reduce worker vibration exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xiv, 231p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr321.pdf [in English]

2004

CIS 08-449 Malchaire J.
Hand-arm vibration
Vibrations mains-bras [in French]
Hand-arm trillingen [in Dutch]
New Belgian and European regulations on vibrations require that each enterprise avoid or minimize workers' exposures to this risk factor. Aimed at employers, safety and health consultants, members of safety and health committees and occupational physicians, this guide presents a four-step safety and health approach involving screening, observation, analysis and expertise, which should allow to better avoid and address the hazards related to hand-arm vibration. It includes a series of sheets aimed at helping carry out the observation, analysis and expertise phases of the approach.
Service public fédéral, Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blériot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2004. 71p. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=3862 [in Dutch]
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=3862 [in French]

CIS 06-421 Kumar S.
Vibration in operating heavy haul trucks in overburden mining
The objective of this study was to examine the vibration experienced in the lumbar and cervical column of drivers of heavy haul trucks used in overburden mining. Vibration levels were measured on the seat pan of a new and an old truck of two different models and different carrying capacities and at the 3rd lumbar and 7th cervical vertebral levels of 14 drivers. The vibrations were compared with ISO standards and it was observed that heavy haul trucks frequently generated vibrations in excess of ISO standards in overburden mining operations, representing a health hazard to the driver.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2004, Vol.35, No.6, p.509-520. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 05-697 Riedel S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Testing of newly-developed vibration models for seated persons by means of a round-robin test
Erprobung neuentwickelter Schwingungsmodelle des sitzenden Menschen mittels Round-Robin-Test [in German]
This interlaboratory test was carried out to evaluate the use of models for measuring vibrations in sitting postures so as to improve the precision of the measurements while avoiding vibration exposures to human subjects. For this purpose, laboratory and field studies of vibration properties (seat transmission factor) were carried out on subjects of three different weights (55, 75 and 98kg) as well as on models of equivalent weight. Laboratory measurements involved four types of vehicle seat, while field trials were carried out on a tractor and on a tracked vehicle. Results indicate that simple models can be used for the standardized testing of seats. However, total agreement with findings obtained with human subjects is not possible, even when using optimized parameters.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 109p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.

CIS 05-426 Muzammil M.
The effect of age on cognitive performance under the impact of vibration in a driving environment
The effect of age on human cognitive performance was studied under the impact of vibration in different automobile driving environments, namely city streets, rural roads and highways. Reaction time was measured in milliseconds through a human response measurement system specifically designed for the purpose. Results of the study showed that age had a significant effect in city street and rural road conditions. It was also found that the level of equivalent acceleration of vibration and a difficulty index significantly affected cognitive performance in all driving conditions. However it was found that youngsters and older persons are stressed differently in specific driving environments, suggesting that specific stress management strategies should be developed for them.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.333-348. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 05-432 Blochwitz T., Schreiber U., Ilschner M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
ISOMAG 1.2 - Extensions and improvements
ISOMAG 1.2 - Erweiterungen und Verbesserungen [in German]
Vibrations can be detrimental to human health and hazardous for the safety of machinery, buildings and equipment. This CD-ROM contains an update of the software application entitled ISOMAG described under CIS 02-910 and of its manual. It features a graphical user interface and is executable under MS-Windows operating systems. It enables the modelling of the vibration characteristics of mechanical elements for the purpose of designing machinery with reduced vibration. The current version 1.2 has been extended with respect to functionality and ease of use.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. CD-ROM needs Windows NT 4.0, 2000, XP (recommended), 98, ME; min. 100MB free space on hard disk; graphic card 3D; screen min. 1024x786, min. 256 colours. Price: EUR 21.50.

CIS 04-705 Boileau P.E., Rakheja S., Wang Z.
Study of design mechanisms to reduce the impact of the displacement of suspension-equipped seats
Etude des mécanismes de conception visant à limiter l'importance des impacts occasionnés par le talonnement des sièges à suspension [in French]
The installation of suspension seats equipped with rigid rubber end stops is often the solution adopted to reduce the vibration transmitted to the bodies of vehicle drivers. When there is a significant displacement of the seat, the impact on these end stops transmits vibrations to the driver that may increase his vibration dose. Based on a novel analytical model, this document presents the optimal characteristics of seat suspensions and end stops that would reduce as much as possible the incidence or severity of these impacts. Among the alternatives proposed are end stops of variable stiffness or a shock absorber offering progressive damping in relation to the displacement.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iii, 52p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-368.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-202 Mitchell R.H., Garner K.F., Vaghela S.
Health and Safety Executive
Implications of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive for SMEs
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the proposed vibration exposure action and limit levels specified within the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive (see CIS 02-24) on small to medium enterprises (SME's). Work involved a literature survey, a telephone survey and site visits. 16% of the 121 companies that participated in the survey were aware of the Directive. 29% were estimated to expose their employees to vibration levels of 2.8m/s2 or greater, and 44% to vibration levels of 2.5m/s2 or greater. It is concluded that HSE guidance publications would be useful.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 127p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr267.pdf [in English]

2003

CIS 06-949 Guidelines on occupational vibration
Guide to the prevention of the harmful effects of vibration in the workplace.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2003. 15p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://dosh.mohr.gov.my/koperat/G-PANDUAN%20PDF/GUIDE-Vibration%201-03%20(I).PDF [in English]

CIS 06-95 Jokić V., Borjanović S.
Neural conduction impairment in forestry workers exposed to vibration and in lead-exposed workers
This study examines the effects of two different adverse factors, lead and local vibration, on the peripheral nervous system in the upper and lower limbs. Detailed neurophysiological investigations were performed in 40 chainsaw workers, 26 lead-exposed workers, and 36 healthy male controls. Among the chainsaw operators, the maximal motor conduction velocity (51.4±5.6 m/s) was significantly lowered in the right and left median nerves (in 27-45% of subjects), compared to that in controls (58.2±6.1 m/s). In the lead-exposed group, slowing sensory nerve conduction velocity (54.0±10.6 m/s) was the most frequent pathological pattern.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.13-22. 28 ref.

CIS 05-692 Barregård L.
Short daily exposure to hand-arm vibrations in Swedish car mechanics
The aim of the study was to examine the daily exposure times to hand-arm vibrations in Swedish car mechanics, to test a sampling method for estimating the exposure time and to use the results for predicting the prevalence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) by the ISO 5349 model. A total of 51 mechanics working in six garages were observed, most of them on two different working days, yielding estimates for 95 days. The median effective exposure time was ten minutes per day, and most of the exposure time was attributable to fastening and loosening nuts. The within-worker and between-worker variability was high. Based on these observations, the ISO 5349 model predicts that only 3% of the car mechanics will suffer from VWF after 20 years of exposure. In contrast, a recent survey of VWF among car mechanics showed the prevalence to be 25%. These differences are discussed and proposals are made for improved observation.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.35-40. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 04-550 Ando H., Noguchi R.
Dependence of palmar sweating response and central nervous system activity on the frequency of whole-body vibration
Palmar sweating volume was measured on the right palm of six healthy men before and during three minutes of exposure to sinusoidal whole-body vibration at three different frequencies (16, 31.5, and 63Hz). The whole-body vibration had a frequency-weighted, root mean square acceleration magnitude of 2.0m/s2. As an indicator of the activated central sympathetic nervous system, the saliva level of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) was analysed before and immediately after each vibration exposure. Each vibration frequency induced a palmar sweating response, that of 31.5Hz being the largest. Saliva MHPG increased in all the vibration exposures, and the largest change was observed at 31.5Hz.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2003, Vol.29, No.3, p.216-219. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 04-687 Palmer K.T., Griffin M.J., Syddal H.E., Pannett B., Cooper C., Coggon D.
The relative importance of whole body vibration and occupational lifting as risk factors for low-back pain
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) on low back pain (LBP) in the general population and to estimate the burden of LBP attributable to occupational WBV in comparison with that due to occupational lifting. A questionnaire including sections on WBV at work, LBP and potential risk factors was mailed to a community sample of 22,194 men and women of working age in Britain. Analysis was confined to subjects reporting exposures in the past week as typical of their work. Associations of LBP with personal vibration doses (eVDV), driving industrial vehicles and occupational lifting were explored by logistic regression. Significant associations were found between daily lifting of weights greater than 10kg at work and LBP, troublesome LBP and sciatica; but the risk of these outcomes in both sexes varied little by eVDV and only weak associations were found with riding on industrial vehicles. Assuming causal associations, the numbers of cases of LBP in Great Britain attributable to occupational WBV were estimated to be 444,000 in men and 95,000 in women. These results indicate that, compared with an estimated 940,000 male cases and 370,000 female cases of LBP from occupational lifting, the burden of LBP in Britain from occupational exposure to WBV is smaller than that attributable to lifting at work.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.715-721. 35 ref.

CIS 04-438 Jetzer T., Haydon P., Reynolds D.
Effective intervention with ergonomics, antivibration gloves, and medical surveillance to minimize hand-arm vibration hazards in the workplace
To determine and monitor the level of hand-arm vibration syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among workers exposed to upper extremity vibration, 165 workers in eight different facilities with similar vibration exposure were given a vibration exposure questionnaire and subjected to medical examinations. Workers who had no symptoms were placed in a long-term study group and examined every two years. Workers with clinical evidence of symptoms were followed up every six to twelve months. Ergonomic intervention in the form of tools with lower vibration levels and antivibration gloves were associated with a decrease in the pathologic symptoms in these workers, while workers without such intervention were more likely to show progression of symptoms. These findings suggest that ergonomic intervention can be effective in controlling the risks due to vibrating tools.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.45, No.12, p.1312-1317. 10 ref.

CIS 04-194 Falkiner S.
Prevention of hand-arm vibration syndrome
Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a condition associated with the use of vibrating tools or holding materials against a vibrating surface. It is represented by various symptoms, including numbness, pins and needles, finger blanching in cold environments also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, reduced grip strength and dexterity, and joint problems. The prevalence of HAVS in high-risk occupations such as forestry work is more than 80%. In advanced cases, treatment is usually ineffective even if exposure ceases, but in early cases, HAVS may be reversible. Therefore, it is important to eliminate or minimize exposure to hand-transmitted vibration in the workplace through good risk management practices, and to make accurate diagnosis through pre-employment medicals and health surveillance. Comprehensive measures for eliminating the risk of HAVS from the workplace in Australia are proposed, based on the management system used in the United Kingdom.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2003, Vol.19, No.4, p.371-379. 24 ref.

CIS 04-201 Popov K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
KAMIN - Catalogue of proven technical vibration protection solutions and vibration attenuation elements
KAMIN - Katalog praktisch erprobter Lösungen des technischen Schwingungsschutzes und für Elemente zur Schwingungsminderung [in German]
This vibration protection catalogue consists of a compilation of proven solutions with respect to vibration protection. It contains information on means of reducing whole body vibration and hand-arm vibration, as well as on elements for reducing vibrations (springs, rubber or elastomeric materials, shock absorbers), further information on basic principles of vibration protection and an overview on the PC-based ISOMAG programme for vibration damping. The catalogue is available on CD-ROM, which includes links to the web pages of ISOMAG (Software of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for optimal vibration isolation of machines and devices) and KarLa (Database of noise and vibration emission and exposure values of the Institute for Industrial Safety and Industrial Medicine in Potsdam).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 37p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: EUR 10.00. + CD-ROM

CIS 03-1885 Driving without shaking
La conduite sans les secousses [in French]
Set of three booklets providing guidance on the selection and maintenance of suspension seats. Each is separately aimed at mechanics responsible for the maintenance of suspension seats used in fork-lift trucks, at distributors of seats for agricultural equipment and at occupational safety and health personnel responsible for the selection and replacement of tractor and agricultural equipment seats.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2001. 8p, Illus.; 2003. 10p. Illus.; 1998. 22p. Illus (3 booklets.).

CIS 03-1859 Koton J.
Occupational exposure to mechanical vibration in Poland and in member States of the European Union
Ocena zawodowej ekspozycji na drgania mechaniczne w Polsce i w krajach Unii Europejskiej [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to mechanical vibration may be harmful to workers' health. For evaluating workers' exposure, one needs to measure vibration at workstations. Depending on the results, the risk to workers may need to be reduced. This paper presents a comparison of methods for measuring and evaluating vibration, as well as the regulations on vibration exposure limit values in effect in Poland and in member States of the European Union.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 2003, No.6, p.20-24. 9 ref.

CIS 03-1870 Wijaya A.R., Jönsson P., Johansson Ö.
The effect of seat design on vibration comfort
A field study was carried out to evaluate drivers' seats designed to minimize vibration transmission and reduce the level of vibration-related discomfort. Two seat designs (sliding or fixed in the horizontal direction) were each evaluated under two conditions of sitting posture, driving speed and type of obstacle. Participants included ten professional drivers, who provided subjective assessments of discomfort and perceived motion. Acceleration and vibration were also recorded. Based on values of maximum transient vibration and vibration dose, it was found that the sliding seat was superior in attenuating transient vibration in the horizontal direction. It was also perceived as giving less overall and low back discomfort compared with the fixed seat.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2003, Vol.9, No.2, p.193-210. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 03-1868 Barregard L., Ehrenström L., Marcus K.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome in Swedish car mechanics
To assess the frequency of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among car mechanics and the relation between HAVS and duration of exposure, 806 mechanics answered a questionnaire on vascular and neurological symptoms and exposure to vibrations. Mechanics with symptoms, and some mechanics without symptoms, were invited to a clinical examination. The mean daily exposure to vibrating tools (mainly using nut-runners) was 14 minutes, and the mean length of time in the job was 12 years. Published data have shown vibration levels in nut-runners of about 3.5m/s2. 24% reported cold-induced white finger (WF), 25% persistent numbness and 13% reduced grip force. The clinical examination showed a prevalence of vibration-induced white finger of about 15%, reaching 25% for workers with over 20 years of exposure. The clinical examination revealed neurological symptoms in the hands in about 25% of the subjects, mainly at stage 2. After 20 years, the prevalence was 40%.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.287-294. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 03-1354 Engel Z.
Vibroacoustics - A scientific subject for the 21st century
Wibroakustyka - jedna z dziedzin nauki XXI wieku [in Polish]
This article discusses the origins and development of vibroacoustics, the use of acoustic energy, the methods of testing vibroacoustic processes and current research topics of this branch of science.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Apr. 2003, No.4 (381), p.10-12. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-1368
Health and Safety Executive
Improving health and safety in construction - Phase 2 - Depth and breadth - Volume 4 - Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome - Underlying causes and risk control in the construction industry
In order to gain an insight into the underlying organizational and human factors influencing hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), three workshops were held with participants representing key stakeholders. It was agreed that among the direct influences on HAVS, inspection and maintenance, and equipment operability were primary influences followed by situational awareness and risk perception, state of health, information and compliance with regulations. Process design, training, supervision, communications, health culture and equipment purchasing were significant organizational factors. At the policy level, key factors were health and safety management, company culture and organizational structure. The regulatory agencies and market forces were considered to be the primary environmental influences. Target areas for risk reduction and risk management were also identified.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xii, 136p. + Supplemets. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 50.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr114.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1364 Boileau P.E., Boutin J.
Interlaboratory evaluation of gloves used for hand-arm vibration damping
Evaluation interlaboratoire de gants destinés à réduire l'exposition aux vibrations main-bras [in French]
This study presents the results of the evaluation of four types of vibration protection gloves in three laboratories, using the methodology described in the international standard ISO 10819:1996. Important differences between the laboratories were highlighted, particularly with certain types of gloves when subjected to an excitation spectrum in the range of frequencies from 200 to 1000Hz. An alternative method for evaluating glove transmission factors based on the evaluation of vibration response curves was also developed and validated. Use of the new method would considerably simplify the measurements necessary for evaluating gloves.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. iv, 33p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 5.35.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-340.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1386
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration in the cast stone industry: Reducing the risk
This information sheet outlines the risks to workers in the cast stone industry from hand-arm vibration. It is aimed at employers, managers, supervisors, employees and their representatives. Contents: description of the hand-arm vibration syndrome; symptoms; how to comply with legal requirements (risk assessment, eliminating or reducing the risk, providing appropriate equipment); exposure evaluation; limitation of exposure (elimination, substitution, engineering controls, management controls, personal protection); health surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 6p. Illus. 13ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc493.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-872 Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Isolation and auto-balancing techniques for portable machines
A portable engine-powered strimmer is used as a case study of the application of vibration analysis and control techniques. Strimmers have two sources of vibration, the engine and the cutting head. These were identified by frequency analysis, and resonant modes were shown to exist in the range of working frequencies. It was shown that better locations are possible for attaching the handles. Finally, suggestions are given for the maintenance of strimmers to ensure low vibration.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 51p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr078.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-860 Griffin M.J., Bovenzi M., Nelson C.M.
Dose-response patterns for vibration-induced white finger
To investigate the relationship between cumulative exposures to hand-transmitted vibration and the development of vibration white finger, data of three previous studies were combined to provide a group of 1557 users of powered vibrating tools in seven occupational groups: stone grinders, stone carvers, quarry drillers, dockyard caulkers, dockyard boilermakers, dockyard painters and forest workers. Cumulative exposures were calculated for each subject from measurements of vibration magnitude and exposure duration. An increase in dose was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of vibration-induced white finger, after adjustment for age and smoking. Measures of dose calculated from the unweighted acceleration gave better predictions than the equivalent dose measures using acceleration frequency-weighted according to current standards.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.16-26. Illus. 29 ref.

2002

CIS 07-699
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration in foundries: Furnace and ladle relining operations
In many foundries, furnace or ladle wrecking/relining is an area where workers may be exposed to significant hand-arm vibration. This information note presents possible approaches to reducing exposure, namely the use of the following: preformed linings or lining boards, push-out mechanism for removing spent linings, castables in preference to rammed linings, high quality materials for longer life, vibration-reduced chisels and rammers and management and environmental controls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb 2002. 2p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fnis11.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-433 Pontes J.A.P.
Vibra2002 Assessment and control of exposure to vibration - User's guide
Vibra2000 Avalição e controlo da exposição às vibrações [in Portuguese]
This guide describes the Vibra2002 computer application for assessing and controlling exposure to vibration. The application is available on the accompanying CD-Rom and covers the phase of assessment following the collection of data on vibration levels and exposure duration. Guidance is given on the assessment of exposure to hand-arm and whole-body vibration and on the calculation of a weekly average.
Associação Nacional de Empreiteiros de Obras Públicas (ANEOP), Rua Castilho, 57, 1250-068 Lisboa, Portugal, 2002. 66p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 05-425 Palmer K.T., Griffin M.J., Syddall H.E., Pannett B., Cooper C., Coggon D.
Raynaud's phenomenon, vibration-induced white finger, and difficulties in hearing
An association has previously been reported between finger blanching and hearing difficulties, but only in workers with exposure to noise and hand transmitted vibration (HTV). This study explores the association in a community sample, including cases who lacked occupational exposure to noise or HTV. A questionnaire was mailed to 12,606 subjects aged 35-64 years, chosen at random. Subjects were classed as having severe hearing difficulty if they used a hearing aid or found it difficult or impossible to hear conversation in a quiet room. Associations of finger blanching with hearing difficulties and tinnitus were analysed by logistic regression. Among 8193 respondents, 185 reported severe hearing difficulty and 1151 reported finger blanching. After adjustment for age and years of work in noisy jobs, hearing difficulty was about twice as common in men and women who reported finger blanching, including those who had never been importantly exposed to noise and in those never exposed to HTV.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.59, No.9, p.640-642. 11 ref.

CIS 04-195 Ando H., Noguchi R., Ishitake T.
Frequency dependence of hand-arm vibration on palmar sweating response
In this study on the effects of hand-arm vibration frequency on palmar sweating, sweating was measured on the right palm of six healthy men, before and during exposure of the left palm to various vibration frequencies during three minutes. The control condition consisted of grasping a handle without vibration. As an indicator of the state of activation of the central nervous system, plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) was measured before and immediately after each vibration exposure. Each vibration condition induced a palmar sweating response. Among the six vibration conditions, frequencies of 125Hz and 63Hz caused large palmar sweating responses compared with those of 315Hz and the control condition. Plasma MHPG did not increase significantly after either kind of vibration exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.28, No.5, p.324-327. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 03-1871 Fischer S., Göres B., Gondek K.H., Sayn D.
Effects of vibrations at the workstations of drivers of trucks of up to 7.5 tons
Schwingungseinwirkung an Arbeitsplätzen von Kraftfahrern auf Lastkraftwagen bis 7,5 t zul. Gesamtgewicht [in German]
In the context of a study on the vibrations to which drivers of trucks and tractors of over 7.5 tons are subjected, data were also collected for trucks with a maximum permissible laden weight of 7.5 tons. 45 vehicles were equipped with instrumentation for measuring vibration and vibration acceleration during typical journeys at the point of anchoring of the seat in the cab as well as on the drivers' body along three axes (back/chest, shoulder/shoulder and vertically along the spinal column). Results indicate that the spectral distribution and intensity of the vibrations are comparable to those recorded for trucks of more than 7.5 tons.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Sep. 2002. 131p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bia/pub/rep/rep04/pdf_datei/biar0302/text.pdf [in German]

CIS 03-877 Kinne J., Latzel K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Vibratory models for seated persons subjected to oscillations in the horizontal direction
Schwingungsmodelle des sitzenden Menschen für die horizontalen Schwingungsrichtungen [in German]
Drivers of trucks, agricultural machinery or other motorized vehicles are subjected to oscillations (or vibrations). In order to optimize and evaluate the damping effects of drivers' seats for horizontal oscillations without having to use human test subjects, it was necessary to develop appropriate vibratory models. This document explains how these types of models were developed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 91p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: EUR 10.50.

CIS 03-873 Boileau P.E., Rakheja S., Boutin J.
Identification and study of products that favour reduced exposure to hand-arm vibration among operators of vibrating hand tools
Identification et étude de produits favorisant la réduction de l'exposition aux vibrations main-bras chez les opérateurs d'outils portatifs vibrants [in French]
To reduce the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome when using vibrating portable power tools, several manufacturers offer "anti-vibrating" products whose true efficiencies remain untested. The objective of this study was to conduct an inventory of available anti-vibrating products (tools, handles, gloves) and to conduct tests for evaluating their vibration attenuation efficiency on workbenches that comply with the recommendations of various ISO standards. An analytical model representing a combination of a chipping-hammer and a hand-arm system was also developed and validated on the basis of the results obtained on the test bench.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 3C2, Canada, Dec. 2002. iv, 156p. Illus. 37 ref. Includes a CD-ROM containing the PDF version of the document (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader).
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-321.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-388 Griffin M.J., Bovenzi M., Olsen N., Harada N., Palmer K.T., Syddall H., Cooper C., Coggon D., Allen J.A., McGrann S., McKenna K.M., Lindsell C.J., Nilsson T., Lundström R., Morioka M., Whitehouse D.J., Sakakibara H., Maeda S., Yonekawa Y., Hagberg M., Toibana N., Ishikawa N., Haward B.M., Yamada S.
The diagnosis of disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration
This special issue contains 16 articles selected among the papers presented at a workshop entitled "The diagnosis of disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration" held at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, 11-13 September 2000. Main topics covered: vibration-induced white finger; cold stress test for evaluating vascular disorders; finger systolic blood pressure; neurological diagnosis; vibrotactile thresholds; thermotactile thresholds; musculoskeletal disorders among workers exposed to hand-arm vibration; manipulative dexterity in patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome; diagnosis, therapy and compensation of hand-arm vibration injury in Japan.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2002, Vol.75, No.1-2, p.1-128 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-395 Neitzel R., Yost M.
Task-based assessment of occupational vibration and noise exposures in forestry workers
Noise exposures and whole-body (WBV) and hand-arm (HAV) vibration exposures were evaluated from 43 forestry workers. Data were collected on ten days over eight weeks during various felling, logging and log handling operations. Five volunteers were also monitored for noise and vibration daily using data logging noise dosimeters, which provided daily time-weighted averages (TWAs) and 1-min averages, and a precision sound level meter equipped to measure human vibration, which provided triaxial HAV and WBV event-weighted averages (AEQs). Workers completed a short questionnaire throughout the workday detailing the timing and number of tasks performed and equipment used. Substantial overexposures to noise and vibration were observed. Noise TWAs according to OSHA and NIOSH exceeded 85dBA in 60% and 83% of the cases respectively. 33-53% of the axis-specific HAV AEQ exceeded the 8-hour ACGIH HAV threshold limit value, and 34% of all WBV AEQs exceeded the 8-hour exposure limit set by the Commission of the European Communities.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.617-627. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 03-403 Uhlig A., Schreiber U., Blochwitz T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
ISOMAG 1.1 - Design and calculation of the vibration isolation of machines and devices
Vibrations can be detrimental to human health and hazardous for the safety of machinery, buildings and equipment. This document describes a software application entitled ISOMAG. It has a graphical user interface and is executable under MS-Windows operating systems. It enables the modelling of the vibration characteristics of mechanical elements for the purpose of designing machinery with reduced vibration. A CD-ROM containing the ISOMAG software licensed for a single user is included.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 219p. Illus. 30 ref. + CD-ROM with the ISOMAG 1.1 software application.

CIS 02-1896 Kurozawa Y., Nasu Y., Hosoda T., Nose T.
Long-term follow-up study on patients with vibration-induced while finger (VWF)
A total of 99 men with hand-arm vibration syndrome who were examined at a hospital from 1975 were followed up for up to a further 15 years or more and classified according to the Stockholm scale. Finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) measurements were performed from 1989. The classification was compared with the results of FSBP measurements. It was found that stage 2 and 3 groups showed a significant decrease in percentage FSBP compared with the stage 0 group. Although vibration-induced white finger symptoms tended to decrease to some extent, 43.2% and 70.4% of patients with stage 2 and 3 at first examination, respectively, still suffered from finger blanching attacks after 15 years of observation. Blanching of fingers in advanced stages, especially stage 3, was found to be persistent many years after cessation of vibration exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1203-1206. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-1909
Health and Safety Executive
A purchasing policy for vibration-reduced tools in foundries
This information sheet guides the foundries industry in the selection and purchasing of fettling tools in order to minimize the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome. Contents: employers' and suppliers' duties; criteria to make the right choice (vibration emission and length of exposure); considerations in tool selection; adequate maintenance; training and supervision for proper use of machines.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 3p. 8 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fnis12.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-1897 Jang J.Y., Kim S., Park S.K., Roh J., Lee T.Y., Youn J.T.
Quantitative exposure assessment for shipyard workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration from a variety of vibration tools
The relationship between lifetime exposure to vibration from using vibrating tools and the hand-arm vibration syndrome was studied in 344 shipyard workers and 53 unexposed workers. Vibration levels and actual exposure times for the vibratory tools were measured. Participants responded to questionnaires on personal, occupational and health factors. A lifetime vibration dose was calculated for each worker using job categories, usage pattern of vibratory tools, and the measured vibration acceleration magnitude. Each worker was asked about vascular and neurological symptoms, and symptoms were classified according to the Stockholm scale. The prevalence of vascular and sensorineural symptoms for workers exposed to vibration was 22.7 and 78.2% respectively, compared to 0 and 34.0% for controls. The lifetime vibration dose also showed a significant association with both vascular and sensorineural symptoms.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.305-310. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1430 Johanning E., Fischer S., Christ E., Göres B., Landsbergis P.
Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives - An ergonomic risk assessment
Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 locomotives built between 1959 and 2000 was studied using international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation, the vector sum, the maximum transient vibration value, the vibration dose value and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor were calculated. The power spectral densities were also reported. It was found that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road and off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.439-446. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1420 Boileau P.E.
Whole-body vibration exposure and its role in the aetiology of backache
L'exposition à des vibrations globales du corps et son rôle dans l'étiologie des maux de dos [in French]
This article presents an updated review of published syntheses of epidemiological studies that attempt to establish the relationship between whole-body vibration exposure and the occurrence of low back pain and spinal disorders. The problems associated with the identification of a dose-response relationship are discussed and the vibration exposure limits or reference values adopted in several countries are presented and compared with those originating from a European Union Directive currently under discussion regarding the health hazards associated with exposure to physical agents. Finally, the criteria applied in countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and France for the recognition of spinal disorders as an occupational disease resulting from whole-body vibration exposure are presented and compared on the basis of a case study involving a woman forklift truck driver.
Travail et santé, Mar. 2002, Vol.18, No.1, p.31-35. 18 réf.

CIS 02-1419 Christ E.
Effects of vibrations at the workplace - Hazard evaluation and prevention
Vibrationseinwirkung an Arbeitsplätzen - Gefährdungsbeurteilung und Prävention [in German]
Vibrations caused by hand tools (hand-arm vibrations) and mobile equipment (whole-body vibrations) can give rise to musculoskeletal, muscular, neurological, circulatory and spinal diseases. A European directive on the protection against hazards from vibrations will soon come into effect. In this context, the German Directive VDI 2057 on the evaluation of hazards due to exposure to vibrations has been amended, along with the associated requirements and standards. This article comments the draft European directive and discusses the main changes to the VDI 2057 Directive.
Die BG, May 2002, No.5, p.225-232. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 02-910 Uhlig A., Schreiber U., Blochwitz T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
ISOMAG 1.1 - Design and calculation of antivibratory damping of machinery and equipment
ISOMAG 1.1 - Projektierung und Berechnung der Schwingungsisolierung von Maschinen und Geräten [in German]
Vibrations caused by machinery may be harmful to workers and present safety risks to equipment and buildings. This document describes ISOMAG (release 1.1), a software application for the design and calculation of antivibratory damping of machinery which takes into consideration the dynamic characteristics of the positioning of the machinery. The application helps users select appropriate vibration damping materials and place them in an optimal manner, and calculates the key values (vibration frequency characteristics, forces, displacement, speed and acceleration) while at the same time satisfying permissible levels. The user can select a German or English interface.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 232p. Illus. 30 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: EUR 21.50.

CIS 02-536 Order No.40/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on the protection of health of workers exposed to noise and vibration [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pred hlukom a vibráciami [in Slovak]
This Regulation (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum health protection requirements of workers exposed to noise and vibration in their work. It defines the maximum acceptable values for noise and vibration in different working environments as well as the requirements for the evaluation of noise and vibration levels. Related regulations from 1977 and 1980 of the Slovak Socialist Republic on noise and vibration are repealed.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 31 Jan. 2002, No.20, p.306-323.
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/40_02.pdf [in Slovak]

CIS 02-24 Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibration) [European Union]
Directive 2002/44/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 juin 2002 concernant les prescriptions minimales de sécurité et de santé relatives à l'exposition des travailleurs aux risques dus aux agents physiques (vibrations) [Union européenne] [in French]
This is the basic vibration directive brought in under the European framework directive concerning OSH (see CIS 89-1401). Contents: scope (all activities where workers may be exposed to vibration); definitions of hand-arm and whole-body vibration; exposure limits (hand-arm vibration: 5m/s2 for 8h daily exposure limit and 2.5m/s2 for 8h daily exposure action value; whole-body vibration: 1.15 and 0.5m/s2, respectively; at the choice of the Member States, the latter can also be given as 21 and 9.1m/s1.75, respectively); obligations of employers (risk determination and asessment, provisions aimed at avoiding and reducing exposure, information and training of workers, worker consultation and participation); miscellaneous provisions (health surveillance, derogations).
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 6 July 2002, Vol.45, No.L 177, p.13-19.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/l_177/l_17720020706en00130019.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2002/l_177/l_17720020706fr00130019.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2002/l_177/l_17720020706es00130019.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 01-1804 Scarlett A.J., Price J.S., Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration: Initial evaluation of emissions originating from modern agricultural tractors
This study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emissions levels found in five modern agricultural tractors when operated in controlled conditions (traversing ISO ride vibration test tracks). Vibration emission levels were found to increase with tractor speed and surface roughness, but were lowered as vehicle size increased. The presence of suspension systems reduced the degree of vibration increase with travel speed. Under standard test conditions, the highest single-axis vibration emission magnitude (for all the tractors tested) was within the range 0.8-1.5m/s2. However, application of the 1.4 multiplication factor (as required by ISO 2631:1997), increased this range to 1.2-2.0m/s2, in excess of the WBV exposure limit value (ELV) proposed by the EU Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive. Further investigation is required to establish linkage between the test track WBV emissions characteristics of given vehicles, and subsequent WBV emissions and driver daily WBV exposures encountered during typical agricultural operations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 26p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

2001

CIS 08-447 Drivers of mobile equipment - Fed up with vibrations
Conducteurs d'engins mobiles - Vibrations, plein le dos [in French]
Drivers and operators who work in a sitting posture are regularly exposed to vibrations, tremors and jolts transmitted to the whole body by the seat and the cab floor, resulting in backache and injuries to the spinal column and inter-vertebral disks. This booklet is aimed at helping employers and persons responsible for occupational safety and health to limit the exposure of drivers of mobile equipment to whole-body vibrations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2001. 12p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/E32A5138E64C8273C1256CD900505A00/$File/ed864.pdf [in French]

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