Mental health - 787 entries found
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Brun J.P., Biron C., Martel J., Ivers H.
Evaluation of mental health at the workplace: Analysis of human resource management practices
Evaluation de la santé mentale au travail: une analyse des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines [in French]
As part of a systematic and strategic approach to the prevention of problems caused by occupational stress, the objective of this study was to measure the extent of mental health problems at the workplace and to highlight organizational factors perceived by employees as being detrimental to their mental health. It was also aimed at evaluating prevention and human resource management efforts with respect to organizational risk factors. 3142 workers of four organizations (higher learning institution, metalworking enterprise, hospital, tree nursery) responded to a questionnaire, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analyses. 56 participants were also interviewed. Findings are worrying. Indeed, 43.4% of the respondents declared to be suffering from high levels of psychological distress, with the highest rates among hospital staff. Societal consequences are discussed, and a number of proposals are made for improving working conditions through a more humane approach to work organization.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec), H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. ix, 88p. Illus. 135 ref. Price: CAD 7.49.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-342.pdf [in French]
De Gasparo C., Grenier-Pezé M.
Clinical cohort study of patients who have suffered harassment: A quantitative sociological study
Etude d'une cohorte clinique de patients harcelés: une approche sociologique quantitative [in French]
This study involved 94 persons (31 men and 63 women) who consulted for bullying between June 1999 and December 2001 in a hospital department specializing in treating patients suffering from various forms of mental distress due to occupational factors. Patients were subjected to clinical examinations and responded to a 300-item questionnaire. Data were analysed to shed light on the following factors: characteristics of the victims of bullying (by sex, family situation, age and level of education); characteristics of the enterprises where the bullying took place (sectors of activity, working conditions, work organization); how the bulling process is initiated; characteristics of the bullying perpetrators (sex, hierarchical level); bullying techniques; consequences of bullying.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.95, p.307-331. Illus. 30 ref.
Mohren D.C.L., Swaen G.M.H., van Amelsvoort L.G.P.M., Borm P.J.A., Galama J.M.D.
Job insecurity as a risk factor for common infections and health complaints
The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal impact of job insecurity on common infections and health complaints. Self-administered questionnaire data were used from the Maastricht Cohort Study comprised of 12,140 subjects. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. A cross-sectional relationship between job insecurity and common infections or health complaints was found. For the longitudinal relationship, the largest effect was found for flu-like illness (OR 1.39) and health complaints (OR 1.51). Corrections were additionally made for health behaviour, the presence of a long-standing illness, and work-related demands, resulting in lower ORs. Increases in common infections or health complaints have a substantial impact on employee well-being and may result in economic consequences for the company.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.45, No.2, p.123-129. 30 ref.
Kalimo R., Pahkin K., Mutanen P., Toppinen-Tanner S.
Staying well or burning out at work: Work characteristics and personal resources as long-tem predictors
The aim of this longitudinal study was to recognize the work characteristics and personal resources that are associated with burnout symptoms in the long term. The empirical analyses are based on questionnaire responses of a sample of 174 workers of a forestry enterprise at two 10-year intervals. Participants were classified according to the degree of their burnout symptoms. Four job-related factors, five factors relating to organizational culture, 10 work environment hazards and three individual variables were used as predictors. All the significant changes in work and personal resources during 10 years had shifted to the positive direction among workers with no burnout symptoms, and to the negative direction among those with serious burnout. Both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal predictors showed that factors related to the social processes at work seem to be crucial to burnout. Of the individual resources, a strong sense of coherence appears to be of particular importance.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2003, Vol.17, No.2, p.109-122. Illus. 40 ref.
Bianchini K.J., Houston R.J., Greve K.W., Irwin T.R., Black F.W., Swift D.A., Tamimie R.J.
Malingered neurocognitive dysfunction in neurotoxic exposure: An application of the Slick Criteria
Toxic torts are increasing in the United States and often the results of the neuropsychological evaluation are crucial for defining damages. Therefore, the accurate differentiation of those damaged by toxic exposure from those exaggerating or fabricating deficits is important. However, there is little research on malingering in this context. This article presents the cases of four patients claiming cognitive deficits after apparent occupational neurotoxic exposure who were diagnosed as malingering using the Slick, Sherman and Iverson criteria. This article reviews current knowledge on neurological and neurocognitive effects of toxic substances and its impact on clinical decision-making, discusses the application of the Slick criteria to toxic exposure cases, and proposes a paradigm in which medical, toxicological and neuropsychology professionals can coordinate the evaluation of cases of alleged neurotoxic chemical exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.45, No.10, p.1087-1099. 52 ref.
MacDonald L.A., Deddens J.A., Grajewski B.A., Whelan E.A., Hurrell J.J.
Job stress among female flight attendants
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between job stressors and psychological distress and job dissatisfaction among female flight attendants. 73 flight attendants employed at two commercial airlines completed a detailed questionnaire. Standard questions and scale measures were used to assess job stressors, psychological distress and job dissatisfaction. The association between job stressors and these outcomes was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Except for fatigue, overall levels of distress and job dissatisfaction indicators were moderate to low. However, certain specific job stressors were found to have a substantive effect on these outcomes, following adjustment for individual factors. Despite moderate-to-low levels of distress and dissatisfaction, targeted efforts to reduce these job stressors and to enhance social support should be important steps toward improving the well-being and satisfaction of flight attendants.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.45, No.7, p.703-714. 34 ref.
Marchand A., Boyer R., Iucci S., Martin A., St.-Hilaire M.H., Guay S.
Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder among employees of a convenience-store chain having experienced armed robberies
La prévention du trouble de stress post-traumatique chez les employés de dépanneurs victimes de vols à main armée [in French]
This report consists of a literature review on post-traumatic stress disorder among victims of assaults, as well as a survey carried out among employees of a convenience-store chain having experienced armed robberies. The purpose of the study was to establish whether victims who had benefited from short psychological interventions ("debriefings") were at reduced risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms compared to those who had not received this counselling. Result suggest some lowering of risk, but are insufficiently conclusive. Further work is under way, particularly on the importance of debriefings, with results expected soon.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C2, Canada, May. 2003. vii, 73p. Illus. 127 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-330.pdf [in French]
Qiu C., Karp A., von Strauss E., Winblad B., Fratiglioni L., Bellander T.
Lifetime principal occupation and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the Kungsholmen project
This study is aimed at identifying the specific occupational categories that may be related to dementia. A cohort of 913 non-demented subjects aged 75 years or more was examined twice over six years to detect incident dementia. The lifetime longest occupations of all subjects were divided into different categories according to the occupation-based classification system. Data were analysed with Cox models. During the follow-up period, 260 subjects were diagnosed with dementia (197 with Alzheimer's disease). It was found that manual work was associated with an increased risk of dementia, and the association was dependent on educational level. Compared with non-manual work, manual work involving goods production had an adjusted relative risk of 1.6 for Alzheimer's disease and 1.4 for dementia. An association between goods production, manual work and Alzheimer's disease found in this study suggests that factors in the mid-twentieth century goods production environment may be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.204-211. 43 ref.
Michie S., Williams S.
Reducing work related psychological ill health and sickness absence: A systematic literature review
An analysis of published literature revealed that the following factors were associated with psychological ill health and sickness absence in staff: long hours worked, work overload and pressure, and the effects of these on personal lives; lack of control over work; lack of participation in decision making; poor social support; unclear work definitions and management role. There was some evidence that sickness absence was associated with poor management style. Successful interventions that improved psychological health and levels of sickness absence used training and organizational approaches to increase participation in decision making and problem solving, and to increase support, feedback and communication.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.3-9. 55 ref.
van der Klink J.J.L., Blonk R.W.B., Schene A.H., van Dijk F.J.H.
Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: A cluster randomised controlled design
The aim of this study was to compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesized that the intervention would be more effective in lowering the intensity of symptoms, increasing psychological resources and decreasing sickness leave duration. A prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out with 192 patients on first sickness leave for an adjustment disorder. Symptom intensity, sickness duration and return to work rates were measured at three months and 12 months. At three months, significantly more patients in the intervention group had returned to work compared with the control group. At 12 months, all patients had returned to work, but sickness leave was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group. The recurrence rate was lower in the intervention group. There were no differences between the two study groups with regard to the decrease of symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.429-437. Illus. 33 ref.
Haslam C., Brown S., Hastings S., Haslam R.
Health and Safety Executive
Effects of prescribed medication on performance in the working population
This report presents the findings from an investigation of the effects of medication prescribed for anxiety and depression on working life. The approach was based on focus groups to collect data on the personal experiences of mental health problems and the impact of psychotropic drugs. Focus groups were also conducted with staff in human resources and occupational safety and health to explore the organizational perspectives on mental health in the workplace. Results were presented to an expert panel comprising trade union representatives, researchers and practitioners in occupational medicine, clinical psychology, health and safety and psychiatry. Participants described a variety of accidents and near misses that they attributed to their condition or to the side effects of medication. Workers with responsibilities for others, such as teachers, health care workers and managers, appeared to present a particular risk to safety in the workplace.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. x, 103p. 34 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr057.pdf [in English]
Mortimer J.T., Harley C., Staff J.
The quality of work and youth mental health
Part-time work may place adolescents at risk because it confronts them with stressors for which they are unprepared and limits participation in more developmentally beneficial activities. However, if working signifies progress in moving toward adulthood, it could promote psychological well-being. Although the controversy surrounding teenage work is focused on employment status and intensity, research on adults indicates that it is the quality of work experience that matters for psychological functioning. This research examines key features of work experience and adolescents' depressive affect and well-being, including both selection and socialization processes. Based on data from the St. Paul Youth Development Study, the analysis indicates that the quality of high school work experience does have significant contemporaneous consequences for the mental states of young people but has little effect on their long-term mental health.
Work and Occupations, May 2002, Vol.29, No.2, p.166-197. 49 ref.
Coping with critical incident stress at work
Workers who witness critical incidents such as an armed robbery, a serious accident or a near miss that could have had disastrous consequences may suffer extreme emotional upsets, grouped under the term of "critical incident stress". Designed in a question-and-answer format, this booklet explains critical incidents and how employers can help workers suffering from critical incident stress. It also outlines a follow-up procedure and lists resources available for coping with critical incident stress.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2002. 9p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/critical_incident_stress.pdf [in English]
Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft (seco)
Practical examples of the promotion of safety and health within the enterprise and psychosocial problems at the place of work, with emphasis on stress
Praxisbeispiele der betrieblichen Gesundheitsförderung und psychosoziale Probleme am Arbeitsplatz, insbesondere Stress [in German]
Exemples pratiques de la promotion de la santé dans l'entreprise et problèmes psychosociaux au poste de travail, en particulier le stress [in French]
Folder containing documents distributed to the participants of a conference on psychosocial problems at work held in Berne, Switzerland, on 21 and 22 October 2002. Papers presented are included either in the form of full articles, PowerPoint presentations or abstracts. Other information includes information sheets on stress published by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the conference programme, list of participants, biographical summaries of the speakers and details of an ILO training programme on psychosocial problems at work.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2002. Folder containing conference materials.
Issever H., Onen L., Sabuncu H.H., Altunkaynak O.
Personality characteristics, psychological symptoms and anxiety levels of drivers in charge of urban transportation in Istanbul
The purpose of the study was to examine whether poor working conditions influenced drivers' psychological health, and to identify drivers' personality characteristics. The subjects were 208 bus drivers working in the European sector in Istanbul. Their personality characteristics, psychological symptoms and anxiety levels were investigated using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Symptom Check List (SCL90-R) and Spielberger's State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The average age of drivers was 38.65±4.69 years, and the mean working period was 7.44±4.00 years. According to the EPQ, 55 drivers had average standard extroversion scores, 25 had average neuroticism scores and none of the drivers had high scores for psychoticism and lying. All subtest scores of SCL90-R were higher for those who suffered from back pain, were dissatisfied with their jobs or undertook long- distance driving. It is concluded that the bus drivers show signs of physical and psychological ill-health, which may be improved by modification of their work and working environment.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.52, No.6, p.297-303. 31 ref.
Troup C., Dewe P.
Exploring the nature of control and its role in the appraisal of workplace stress
Situational control should not be reduced to a simple assessment of whether or not an individual has control over a given situation. Instead it is believed that it is important to identify the factors that an individual strives to have control of, as well as the perceived degree of control over those factors. This study viewed control as a multifaceted construct (task control, predictability, self-control and general control). 134 employees from four public sector organizations completed and returned a questionnaire on stress. Responses indicated that having control over work tasks was less important than either predictability or self-control. Respondents reported higher levels of self-control than other aspects of control. However, respondents reported lower levels of actual control than what they perceived important for them to have. This research confirms the importance of a having a sense of self-control, particularly when it comes to the use of different coping strategies.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.16, No.4, p.335-355. 55 ref.
Winstanley S., Whittington R.
Anxiety, burnout and coping styles in general hospital staff exposed to workplace aggression: A cyclic model of burnout and vulnerability to aggression
This study compared anxiety, coping styles and burnout among hospital staff according to the frequency of aggressive experiences. A sub-sample was also examined to determine any immediate after-effects from aggressive encounters. 375 healthcare workers across professions completed questionnaires which were analysed according to the type and frequency of aggression experienced within the preceding year. There were no significant differences in levels of anxiety or in coping styles. However, significant differences were determined in levels of burnout. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were significantly higher among staff more frequently victimized. A cyclical model is proposed according to which burnout from all sources might increase vulnerability to victimization. Increases in emotional exhaustion lead directly to an increase in depersonalization as a coping mechanism, which subsequently manifests as a negative behavioural change toward patients, thus rendering staff more vulnerable to further aggression.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.16, No.4, p.302-315. Illus. 34 ref.
Kraft N.O., Inoue N., Mizuno K., Ohshima H., Murai T., Sekiguchi C.
Physiological changes, sleep and morning mood in an isolated environment
The objective of this project was to examine physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood and complaints during confinement. Six male and two female subjects spent seven days in an isolation chamber simulating the interior of the Japanese Experimental Module. Each 24h period included 6h of sleep, three meals and 20min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed questionnaires on the quality of their sleep. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume and body weight were measured two days before and after confinement and sleep motor activity was recorded during confinement. Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine and sleep motor activity showed significant differences during confinement. Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.73, No.11, p.1089-1093. Illus. 18 ref.
Caccappolo-van Vliet E., Kelly-McNeil K., Natelson B., Kipen H., Fiedler N.
Anxiety sensitivity and depression in multiple chemical sensitivities and asthma
Patients with sensitivities to multiple chemicals report symptoms of cognitive dysfunction, respiratory distress and mood disturbance. Lifetime and current psychiatric disorders, personality traits associated with symptom reporting and tests of cognitive function were compared between 30 subjects with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), 19 asthmatics and 31 healthy controls. When compared with asthmatics and controls, more MCS subjects met criteria for current depression and somatization disorder. MCS subjects and asthmatics scored significantly higher than controls on scales of chemical odour intolerance and anxiety sensitivity, both of which were significant predictors of physical symptoms. Few differences on objective neuropsychological tests were noted. However, MCS subjects with co-morbid depression performed significantly worse on a verbal memory test relative to asthmatics but not to controls.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.44, No.10, p.890-901. 65 ref.
Suicide and seafarers: A pilot study
This article provides a brief overview of the working environment of deep-sea seafarers, legislation, safety and health hazards, and factors that contribute to a situation where suicide is contemplated. While the original focus of the study was to analyse the causes of traumatic fatalities among seafarers on ships on the United Kingdom registry, suicide emerged as a key variable. It is argued that work environment factors that contribute to fatigue and stress experienced by seafarers are likely to be closely linked to suicide. These risk factors include long hours of wok, limited rest and recreation time, poor sleep quality, excessive fatigue, homesickness, poor communication links with home, depression and poor health status.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.375-381. 34 ref.
The impact of loss
In the United Kingdom 2001, 295 workers died in occupational accidents, sometimes in violent circumstances. This article reviews the most common reactions of the deceased workers' relatives, colleagues and friends, and discusses some of the ways of providing effective psychological support.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2002, Vol.20, No.8, p.32-34. Illus.
Goetzel R.Z., Ozminkowski R.J., Sederer L.I., Mark T.L.
The business case for quality mental health services: Why employers should care about the mental health and well-being of their employees
Employers want to know whether their health care spending is improving the health of workers, and whether there is a productivity payback from providing good mental health care. This article addresses the subject of employee depression and its impact on business. The literature suggests that depressed individuals exert a significant cost burden for employers. Evidence is mounting that worker depression may have its greatest impact on productivity losses, including increased absenteeism and short-term disability, higher turnover, and sub-optimal performance at work. Although there is no conclusive evidence that physical health care costs decrease when depression is effectively treated, there is growing evidence that productivity improvements occur as a consequence of effective treatment, and those improvements may offset the cost of the treatment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.320-330. 67 ref.
Government Decree No.668 of 18 June 2002 approving the list of psychiatric counterindications for the performance of several types of professional activities, and of jobs which pose related dangers (Text No.201) [Kazakhstan]
Perečen' medicinskih psihiatričeskih protivopokazanij dlja osuščestvlenija otdel'nyh vidov professional'noj dejatel'nosti, a takže rabot, svjazannyh s istočnikom povyšennoj opasnosti [in Russian]
This Decree lists psychiatric conditions (including drug addiction) together with occupations for which these conditions are counterindications. Entry into force: 18 June 2002.
Aktiler Žinagy - Sobranie Aktov, 25 July 2002, No.18, p.77-103.
Dersh J., Gatchel R.J., Polatin P., Mayer T.
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic work-related musculoskeletal pain disability
Psychiatric disorders are believed to interfere with the successful rehabilitation of patients suffering from chronic work-related musculoskeletal pain disability. To investigate this issue, 1595 patients who started a prescribed rehabilitation course were evaluated. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results revealed that overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in these patients than would be expected from base rates in the general population. 64% of patients were diagnosed with at least one current disorder, compared with only 15% of the general population. However, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders was higher in patients only after the appearance of work-related disability. Such findings suggest that clinicians treating these patients must be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and be prepared to use mental health professionals to assist in identifying and stabilizing these patients.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.459-468. 64 ref.
Kishi R., Kitahara T., Masuchi A., Kasai S.
Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women - History, current issues and future research directions
This literature review examines current issues and future research directions in occupational health of Japanese working women, with an emphasis on reproductive health, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and mental disorders. In earlier studies on reproductive health, the main concern was pregnancy outcomes. Subsequently, interest focused on fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy. Future research will examine outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and post-menopausal health conditions. WMSDs are reviewed mainly with respect to sex differences and their causative factors. Historically, mental health research about working women in Japan focused on job stress of nurses. In this survey, Japanese studies are compared with recent research in Europe and USA which examine the interaction between occupational stress and family roles.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.101-112. Illus. 63 ref.
Causes of mood swings
Las causas del vaivén del temperamento [in Spanish]
Manic depression, or bipolar mood swings, is believed to have a biological component that can be stabilized by administering lithium chloride or other drugs. Some studies mention that this state is also influenced by emotional relationships, social tensions and individuals' thought processes. This article reviews several studies on the topic from which it emerges that sleep therapy (forced nocturnal rest) as well as regular habits and medical treatment allow a stabilization of mood patterns and the avoidance of further episodes.
Noticias de seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.64, No.9/10, p.31-33; p.46. Illus.
Sabaté Fort J.
Ergonomics of shift work as seen through a statistical evaluation of several physiopathological tests
Ergonomía de los turnos de trabajo a través de un estudio estadístico sobre varios tests psicológicos [in Spanish]
In this study involving 106 metalworkers in the automobile industry (93.4% men), different shift schedules (day, night and alternating day-night) were evaluated by using statistical methods based on responses to various physiopathological questionnaires (tests that evaluate depression, the anxiety-depression-vulnerability test, evaluation of the level of stress and social support). Results confirm the findings of earlier studies and indicate that levels of depression, anxiety and stress are higher among workers working night shifts or alternating shifts than day shifts. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of current understanding of the problems related to shift work.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.27-37. Illus. 10 ref.
Protection of mental health at work
La protection de la santé mentale au travail [in French]
Employers will to have to take into account the protection of workers' mental health. Indeed, the provisions of French Law No. 2002-73 on the bringing up to date of social benefits introduce the concept of "mental health" into labour legislation, and provide for penalties against cases of repeated bullying. This article describes the current situation with respect to the issues that employers have to take into account: limitations of hazard evaluation applied to workers' mental health; awareness of the symptoms of mental health disorders; ensuring that information concerning workers with mental health disorders are properly communicated to management; organization of mental health protection (inventory of risk factors, integration of physical, psychological and psycho-social constraints).
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2002, No.63, p.36-41. Illus.
Dewa C.S., Goering P., Lin E., Paterson M.
Depression-related short-term disability in an employed population
This study on disability claims for mental and nervous disorders was based on administrative data collected from three major Canadian financial sector employers, focusing on depression. The prevalence of short-term disability due to depression is reported, the characteristics of workers affected and their disability outcomes are described. It is observed that compared with other nervous and mental disorders, depression-related short-term disability generally affected more employees, lasted longer, and had a higher rate of recurrence. At the end of their episodes, more than three quarters of workers returned to work. These estimates suggest that the potential magnitude of the impact of short-term disability should be a concern for employers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.628-633. Illus. 23 ref.
Trout D., Nimgade A., Mueller C., Hall R., Earnest G.S.
Health effects and occupational exposures among office workers near the World Trade Center disaster site
To evaluate health effects and occupational exposures three months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) among a population of employees working close to the disaster site, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among government employees working near the WTC site in New York City (NYC) and a comparison group in Dallas, Texas. An industrial hygiene evaluation of the NYC workplace was conducted. Constitutional and mental health symptoms were reported more frequently among workers in NYC. Post-September 11 counseling services were utilized to a greater degree among workers in NYC, while utilization of other types of medical services did not differ significantly between the groups. No occupational exposures to substances at concentrations that would explain the reported constitutional symptoms were found. There is no evidence of ongoing hazardous exposure to airborne contaminants among the workers surveyed. Specific causes of reported constitutional health symptoms have not been determined.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.601-605. 11 ref.
Ferreras de la Fuente A., Pérez Urdániz A., Molina Ramos R., Solana Sorribas J.A., Rubio García I.
Guide to the evaluation of work incapacity as a consequence of psychiatric diseases
Manuel de valoración de la incapacidad laboral en las enfermedades psiquiátricas [in Spanish]
Aimed at occupational physicians, this manual offers guidance to the evaluation of work incapacity as a consequence of psychiatric diseases. Contents: incapacity due to psychic disorders; definition and classification of mental diseases; anamnesis and psychiatric evaluation of the patient; organic psychiatric disorders and mentally-retarded patients; psychiatric disorders related to the consumption of alcohol or drugs; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety, somatotrophic and dissociative disorders; personality disorders; other psychiatric disorders; new occupational pathologies (burnout, bullying). Appendices include: scales for evaluating the degree of incapacitation according Royal Decree 1971/1999; DSM-IV scales for evaluating total activity and social and professional activity; DSM-IV classification with ICD-10 and ICD-9-CM codes; ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders.
Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo, Madrid, Spain, 2001. 251p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Nakata A., Haratani T., Takahashi M., Kawakami N., Arito H., Fujioka Y., Shimizu H., Kobayashi F., Araki S.
Job stress, social support at work and insomnia in Japanese shift workers
To study the relationship between psychological job stress and insomnia in shift workers, a self-administered questionnaire concerning job stress, sleep, depressive symptoms and lifestyle factors was submitted to a sample of 530 rotating shift workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company. Perceived job stress was assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Overall prevalence of insomnia was 37.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that lower social support at work was significantly associated with a greater risk of insomnia than the higher social support (odds ratio (OR) 2.5). Higher job strain with lower social support at work increased the risk, compared to lower strain with higher support at work (OR 1.5). The findings suggest the low social support at work is independently associated with insomnia in shift workers.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.203-209. 27 ref.
Savikko A., Alexanderson K., Hensing G.
Do mental health problems increase sickness absence due to other diseases?
The aim of this study was to analyse the association of mental health problems with sickness absence in general. A total of 1407 women employed as metal workers, medical secretaries and nurses, were included. Sick-leave data were collected through social insurance and employment registers. Data on mental health were collected by means of questionnaires, and enabled the classification of subjects into five broad indicators of mental health. For all indicators, it was found that women with mental health problems had higher levels of sickness absence than women without mental health problems. The association was found for frequency, incidence, length and duration of sickness absence. In all diagnoses, the influence of mental health problems need to be taken into account for sickness absenteeism and rehabilitation.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2001, Vol.36, p.310-316. 28 ref.
Van der Hulst M., Geurts S.
Associations between overtime and psychological health in high and low reward jobs
This study focused on the relationship between overtime and psychological health as a function of reward and pressure to work overtime. Data were collected for 535 full-time employees of the Dutch Postal Service. Logistic regression analyses showed that employees reporting low psychological rewards had elevated risks of burnout, negative work-home interference and slow recovery. A second analysis was conducted separately for employees who worked overtime. In this subgroup, low psychological rewards were associated with elevated risks of health complaints, emotional exhaustion and negative home-work interference. Employees who worked overtime and reported a high pressure to work overtime in combination with low psychological rewards had elevated risks of poor recovery, cynicism, and negative work-home interference. The results suggest that even a limited number of hours of involuntary overtime in low psychological reward situations is associated with adverse mental health.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.15, No.3, p.227-240. 40 ref.
Van Horn J.E., Schaufeli W.B., Taris T.W.
Lack of reciprocity among Dutch teachers: Validation of reciprocity indices and their relation to stress and well-being
The validity of three indices of reciprocity in exchange relationships at work were studied. A total of 71 Dutch teachers were interviewed on their specific investments and outcomes in exchange relationships with students, colleagues and the school administration. Variance analysis revealed that they reported significantly more investments than outcomes, and that the number of reported investments and outcomes mentioned varied as a function of the type of exchange relationship. Multi-item scales were created to assess reciprocity for each of the exchange relationships, which were then validated by relating them to two global assessments of reciprocity as well as to measures of job stress and well- being. Analysis of data obtained from a further sample of 224 teachers revealed that for each type of exchange relationship, there were significant and consistent relationships among the three reciprocity indices.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.15, No.3, p.191-213. Illus. 50 ref.
Padlina O., Aubert L., Gehring T.M., Martin-Diener E., Somaini B.
Stages of change for perceived stress in a Swiss population sample: An explorative study
This study on stress used data from a cross-sectional sample of the Swiss population. The sample was interviewed by phone, and included 575 respondents who reported having experienced stressful situations in the previous month. It was found that one third of these respondents appeared to cope successfully with these situations and one third intended to manage their stress more effectively, while one quarter had no intention of attempting to do so. The findings provide some clues for stage-specific interventions in the filed of stress. In addition, a better knowledge of the relation between readiness to change behaviour and education level, as well as on cognitive and behavioural dimensions facilitating change would be of valuable support in designing interventions helping people cope with stress.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, 2001, Vol.46, No.6, p.396-403. Illus. 32 ref.
Burnett C.A., Lalich N.R., MacDonald L., Alterman T.
A NIOSH look at data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics - Worker health by industry and occupation
This report presents comprehensive descriptive information on the most common occupational diseases in the United States, namely: musculoskeletal disorders of the back; upper and lower extremities; hernia; dermatitis; anxiety, stress and neurotic disorders. The data are drawn from the annual survey of occupational injuries and illnesses of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data on the total number of cases, incidence rate per 10,000 workers and median days away from work are provided by code of activity according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Other results include cases by sex, race, age and length of service.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 2001. iii, 104p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/2001-120.pdf [in English]
Dunnagan T., Peterson M., Haynes G.
Mental health issues in the workplace: A case for a new managerial approach
Anger, stress, and depression in the workplace are growing concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a traditional worksite health promotion program had an impact on mental health factors. Results suggest that these programmes play only a limited role in improving work-related mental health. Rather, management should play a greater role in addressing workplace stress, anger and depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1073-1080. 27 ref.
Welfare, work and well-being
Recent changes in welfare policies in the United States have generated extensive research and media attention on the well-being of women and children under welfare-to-work policies. Concern has focussed primarily on women who leave welfare for work, but the well-being of recipients who do not find or keep jobs or who remain on rolls is gaining attention. This collection of articles focuses on the mental health of low-income women and its relation to welfare, work and material or other hardships.
The Hayworth Medical Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghampton, NY 13904-1580, USA, 2001. xxii, 299p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 74.95 (hard), USD 44.95 (soft).
Gilioli R., Adinolfi M., Bagaglio A., Boccaletti D., Cassitto M.G., Della Pietra B., Fanelli C., Fattorini E., Gilioli D., Grieco A., Guizzaro A., Labella A., Mattei O., Menegozzo M., Menegozzo S., Molinini R., Musto D., Paoletti A., Papalia F., Quagliuolo R., Vinci F.
A new risk in occupational medicine: Mobbing
Un nuovo rischio all'attenzione della medicina del lavoro: le molestie morali (mobbing) [in Italian]
In this consensus document from several Italian universities criteria are proposed for establishing the risks of bullying and mobbing in the workplace. Some definitions of the phenomenon are proposed, while potential targets and consequences for health and social situations are identified. Diagnostic criteria are listed with indications for the role of industrial physicians and human resource departments.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.61-69. 12 ref.
Mobbing in the workplace: New aspects of an old phenomenon
Molestie morali nei luoghi di lavoro: nuovi aspetti di un vecchio fenomeno [in Italian]
Psychological violence or mobbing should not be confused with normal competition and conflicts encountered in the workplace. It can be due to traditional motives, such as part of an attempt to get rid of an undesired individual or to a definite corporate strategy aimed at reducing the workforce. Mobbing has been recognized as a significant source of individual discomfort and subsequent illness. Lacking specific diagnostic criteria, post-traumatic stress disorder and adjustment disorder have been adopted from the international classification of mental diseases (DSM). Mobbing control is recognized not only as a target of prevention but also as a moral obligation.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.12-24. 18 ref.
Torp S., Riise T., Moen B.E.
The impact of psychosocial work factors on musculoskeletal pain: A prospective study
This study, conducted through a questionnaire survey of 721 workers at 226 automobile repair shops in Norway, indicates that psychosocial factors at work may have a role in the prediction of musculoskeletal pain. The best predictors were: low levels of decision authority and of management support.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.120-126. 56 ref.
McCulloch J., Ozminkowski R.J., Cuffel B., Dunn R.L., Goldman W., Kelleher D., Comporato A.
Analysis of a managed psychiatric disability program
A case study of how a health care organization managed psychiatric disabilities among employees of a telecommunications company in the United States. The duration of disability was reduced by 23% (17.1 days), thus illustrating the potential for significantly reducing the costs of disability care.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.101-109. 23 ref.
Tsutsumi A., Kayaba K., Theorell T., Siegrist J.
Association between job stress and depression among Japanese employees threatened by job loss in a comparison between two complementary job-stress models
Results of a questionnaire survey of neuropsychic stress among employees threatened by job loss in a small Japanese manufacturing plant. Employees with supportive tasks were more likely to have depressive symptoms than direct assembly-line workers. Despite some limitations, the study provides evidence of significant associations between theoretically grounded measures of job stress and depression in a sample of employees facing job loss. Intensified preventive efforts should be undertaken by those who hold the responsibility for occupational health for such vulnerable groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.146-153. 34 ref.
Kivimäki M., Vahtera J., Ferrie J.E., Hemingway H., Pentti J.
Organisational downsizing and musculoskeletal problems in employees: A prospective study
764 municipal employees were studied before and after an organizational downsizing carried out between 1991 and 1993 in Finland. The outcome measures were self reports of severity and sites of musculoskeletal pain at the end of 1993 and medically certified musculoskeletal sickness absence for 1993-5. After adjustment for age, sex, and income, the odds ratio (OR) for severe musculoskeletal pain between major and minor downsizing and the corresponding rate ratios for musculoskeletal sickness absence were 2.59 and 5.50, respectively. The largest contribution from changes in work characteristics and health related behaviour to the association between downsizing and musculoskeletal problems was from increases in physical demands, particularly in women and low income employees. Additional contributory factors were skill restrictions (relative to musculoskeletal pain) and job insecurity. The results were little different when analyses were confined to initially healthy participants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.58, No.12, p.811-817. 49 ref.
Langley J., Stephenson S.
Suicide and occupation in New Zealand
The popular press in New Zealand has suggested that certain occupations have elevated rates of suicide. These claims have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and limited overseas research. The aim of the study was to determine the rates of suicide by occupational groups for the period 1991 to 1996. Crude and adjusted (for sex and age) rates for occupations were estimated and classified according to the New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, at various levels of specificity. The results identified some occupational groups with high numbers and rates of suicide, in particular among manual craft and trade workers and agriculture and fishery workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.363-370. 14 ref.
Fostervold K.I., Buckmann E., Lie I.
VDU-screen filters: Remedy or the ubiquitous Hawthorne effect?
Health hazards attributed in office work to exposure to electrical fields surrounding CRT displays units were investigated without confirming the assumed protection given by screen filters. The results appear to be explained by other facts influencing employees e.g. subject reactivity, known also as the Hawthorne effect (improvement is due to psychological factors related to the subject's awareness that he/she is participating in an experiment).
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.107-118. Illus. 34 ref.
Hutchings C.V., Shum K.W., Gawkrodger D.J.
Occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life
A questionnaire survey of 181 subjects (70 responded, giving a response rate of 39%), diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis: 60 (32%) patients were in industrial occupations and 27 (14%) in health care. The questionnaire was based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The median DLQI score was 5, with a mean score 6.6. There was no statistically significant difference between male and female median scores. Males scored highest in problems associated with work, relationships and treatment, whereas females scored highest in problems associated with symptoms and feelings, daily activities and leisure. The results showed that occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.17-20. Illus. 20 ref.
Chiaroni J., Chiaroni P.
Epidemiological data of workplace harassment from an investigation by occupational physicians in the PACA administrative region - A victim profile?
Données épidémiologiques des situations de mobbing au travail d'après une enquête effectuée auprès des médecins du travail de la région PACA - Un profil type du salarié harcelé? [in French]
Data for this study on mobbing were collected in the form of responses to a standardized questionnaire submitted by 292 occupational physicians responsible for over 600,000 workers in the PACA (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur) region of France. There were 517 reported cases of mobbing, corresponding to an overall rate of 0.84 per 1000 employees, 0.80 per 1000 in the private sector and 1.45 per 1000 in the public sector. All the sectors are concerned, but trade, services and health care and social work were particularly affected. The victims were more likely to be women, aged mostly between 45 and 54. The consequences of mobbing on health are systematic, and are characterized in particular by psychiatric complications. The consequences for victims' aptitudes and employability are disastrous.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 17 ref.
Thomas Antérion C., Thomas Antérion P.
Frontotemporal dementia revealed during work
Démences frontotemporales relevées dans le milieu professionnel [in French]
Diagnosis criteria of frontotemporal dementia have been defined recently. The first manifestations of this form of dementia appear around the age of 50. The early symptoms are behavioural disorders associated with the primary degeneration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. Patients may be apathetic or highly agitated. Cognitive disorders indicative of frontal lobe dysfunction appear initially in the form of speech difficulties, slowing of response initiation, economy of mental effort, perseverance or distractibility. This article presents three cases of patients for which the first symptoms appeared at the workplace. They presented apathic and motivational symptoms, pseudomaniac behaviour or pseudo-depressed state and organizational and sequencing failure. It is important to be aware of these characteristic symptoms in order to limit accidents and to recognize the presence of this pathological condition.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Nov. 2001, Vol.62, No.7, p.564-569. 16 ref.
Chen R., Dick F., Semple S., Seaton A., Walker L.G.
Exposure to organic solvents and personality
To study the effects of exposure to solvents on personality, 260 male dockyard painters in the United Kingdom, 539 local community controls, 109 Chinese dockyard painters, and 255 dockyard controls completed the personality questionnaires. Both British and Chinese data showed that mean neuroticism scores of painters were significantly higher than those of controls, whereas scores of social conformity did not differ. The relative risk of being a painter increased significantly with increasing neuroticism (N) scores, but social conformity or dissimulation (L) scores showed no such trend. In a case-control analysis, there were significant exposure response relations for the N score. Neuroticism was significantly positively related to neuropsychological symptoms in all subjects. Social conformity showed no association with neuropsychological symptoms in British painters and a negative relation among the Chinese painters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.14-18. 22 ref.
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