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Mental health - 787 entries found

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CIS 06-999 Cremniter D., Laurent A.
Post-traumatic stress syndrome: Clinical diagnosis and therapy
Syndrome de stress post-traumatique: clinique et thérapie [in French]
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is attracting increasing attention given the trend towards providing care for victims of disasters, collective accidents, hostage taking and high psychological impact incidents. The clinical picture is characterized by the repeated reliving of the trauma in intrusive memories ("flashbacks") that are specific to this syndrome, together with emotional detachment and non-specific symptoms such as psychosomatic or personality disorders. Therapeutic intervention involves immediate care on the site of the incident, post-immediate psychotherapy follow-up and in certain cases, long-term follow-up for psychotraumatism, particularly for victims of assault and violence.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2006, No.150, 5p. 40 ref.


CIS 09-497 Palmstierna T., Nijman H., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Vienna, Austria, 20-21 October 2005. Several papers addressed the safety, health and training of the staff: training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on the effectiveness of training interventions in the management of violence in healthcare; nurses' attitudes on the reasons for patient aggression and its management.
Oud Consultancy, Hakfort 621, 1102 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005. 352p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-247 Järvisalo J., Andersson B., Boedeker W., Houtman I.
Mental disorders as a major challenge in prevention of work disability - Experiences in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden
The role of mental ill health in causing sickness absenteeism and work disability appears to be increasing in Europe. Researchers from Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden prepared country reports based on an analysis of available statistics on the causes of sickness absenteeism and work disability. The core of this report consists of these country reports. In addition it contains a short chapter on gender differences of sickness absenteeism and work disability at the European Union level. The findings of the country reports are that mental ill-health issues are an increasing cause of sickness absenteeism and work disability pensions. Since mental disorders have a complex aetiology, mental health promotion strategies must take various approaches. The prevention of harmful stress and anxiety at work should be addressed primarily at workplaces. There is a need to develop good practices for the maintenance, rehabilitation and re-integration into employment of employees whose mental health is fragile.
KELA, R&D Centre, Publication Orders, PO Box 450, 00101 Helsinki, Finland, 2005. 183p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 5.85. [in English]

CIS 07-748 Work, stress and mental health
This special issue includes articles on: occupational stress; assessment of the physiological effects of work-related stress; depression and work; prevention and management of work-related stress; discontinuous employment and health risk; work engagement (positive occupational wellbeing); mental work strain of farmers; and the mental health of journalists following changes in the work environment.
Työterveiset - Newsletter of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 2005, Special Issue 1, p.1-27. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-94 Kelloway E.K., Day A.L.
Building healthy workplaces: What we know so far - Where we need to be
La constitution d'un milieu de travail sain: ce que nous savons jusqu'à maintenant - où nous devons être [in French]
The first of these two articles explores what is meant by a healthy workplace, reviews the individual, organizational and societal costs of unhealthy work and workplaces and provides a framework in terms of a healthy workplace model to help summarize the literature on this subject. The second article focuses on the need to put research into practice and proposes an approach to a national strategy for addressing issues of work and health based on an assessment of the leading indicators of mental and physical health in the workplace, primary interventions and an organizational focus on stress reduction, and education and training within and external to organizations.
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, Oct. 2005, Vol.37, No.4, p.223-249. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-247 Mental health policies and programmes in the workplace
The overall WHO programme on mental health is aimed at policy makers and planners. It provides practical information for helping countries improve the mental health of their populations. This module on health policies and programmes in the workplace is more specifically targeted at employers, employees, safety representatives, trade union representatives and professionals in human resources, occupational health and mental health. Contents: work and mental health; role of government; implementing a four-step workplace mental health policy (analysing mental health risk factors, developing the policy, developing strategies to implement the policy, implementing and evaluating the policy); barriers and solutions.
World Health Organization, WHO Press, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. xiii; 81p.138 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-237 Seymour L., Grove B.
Workplace interventions for people with common mental health problems: Evidence review and recommendations
Common mental health problems are widespread among employed persons. This literature review was designed to provide evidence-based answers on key questions related to mental ill-health in the workplace. It is intended to assist managers, occupational health professionals and other interested parties in making management decisions and offering advice. The main questions addressed are: evidence for preventive programmes at work and the conditions under which they are most effective; interventions that most effectively enable employees identified as being at risk to remain at work; interventions that most effectively support rehabilitation and return to work of employees who have had periods of mental ill-health related sickness. Findings are discussed.
British Occupational Health Research Foundation (BOHRF), 6, St. Andrew's Place, Regent's Park, London. NW1 4LB, United Kingdom, 2005. PDF document. 96p. 104 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1081 Attridge M., Herlihy P.A., Maiden R.P.
The integration of employee assistance, work/life, and wellness services
This publication comprises a series of articles on the integration of employee assistance, work/life, and wellness services. This in-depth examination of the concepts and practical application of integrated programs provides strategies for making human resource services more useful, and thus helping employees be more productive. The latest research is presented, with a wide-ranging review of current programme models in various organizations that illustrate the most effective approaches. It examines the unique aspects of integrated programmes at universities, large enterprises, consulting firms and government institutions in the United States, as well as examples from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ireland.
The Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghampton, NY 13904-1580, USA, 2005. xxxiii, 439p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. Price: USD 59.95.

CIS 06-1243 Borritz M., Bültmann U., Rugulies R., Christensen K.B., Villadsen E., Kristensen T.S.
Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors of burnout: Findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA study
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. A total of 1772 workers in various human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses. Fourteen psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout were measured. Linear regression models were used for analysing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and after three years of follow up. Low possibilities for development, high meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity and high role conflicts predicted burnout after three years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders and burnout level at baseline.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.47, No.10, p.1015-1025. 56 ref.

CIS 06-916 London L., Flisher A.J., Wesseling C., Mergler D., Kromhout H.
Suicide and exposure to organophosphate insecticides: Cause or effect?
A literature review was performed of mortality and morbidity studies related to suicide among pesticide-exposed populations, and of human and animal studies of central nervous system toxicity related to organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Suicide rates are high in farming populations. Animal studies link OP exposure to serotonin disturbances in the central nervous system, a mechanism that is implicated in depression and suicide in humans. Various epidemiological studies conclude that acute and chronic OP exposure is associated with affective disorders. Other studies also support a causal association between OP use and suicide. It is concluded that OPs are not only agents for suicide, but may be part of the causal pathway.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.308-321. Illus. 132 ref.

CIS 06-498 Smith D.
Psychosocial occupational health issues in contemporary police work: A review of research evidence
Police officers are regularly exposed to a wide variety of occupational hazards including physical assault, work-related trauma, occupational stress, reduced physical health, alcohol abuse, musculoskeletal disorders and biohazards. This article provides an analysis of psychosocial occupational health issues in contemporary police work, with a particular focus on the situation in Australia. The study indicates that law enforcement is a high stress occupation when compared with other jobs, and the work tasks and job description of police work have become increasingly difficult over time.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.217-228. 100 ref.

CIS 06-496 Van Rhenen W., Blonk R.W.B., van der Klink J.J.L., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B.
The effect of a cognitive and a physical stress-reducing programme on psychological complaints
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two work stress management programmes. One programme was a cognition-focused programme, while the other was a newly developed intervention combining physical exercise and relaxation. It was hypothesised that the new intervention would be more effective in reducing psychological complaints than the cognitive intervention. Both programmes consisted of four sessions over a period of 10 weeks. Employees of a Dutch telecommunications company were given a questionnaire on their perceived level of stress. Among those declaring high stress, 130 were selected to participate in the present study. It was found that both interventions revealed a positive impact on psychological complaints, burnout and fatigue, both at short-term and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions were equally effective on psychological complaints, burnout and fatigue.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.139-148. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 06-494 van der Linden D., Keijsers G.P.J., Eling P., van Schaijk R.
Work stress and attentional difficulties: An initial study on burnout and cognitive failures
The most important characteristic of burnout is mental exhaustion. Burned-out individuals also often complain about attention difficulties. This study used a cognitive failure questionnaire to assess the level of attention difficulties in daily life. Performance on tasks of sustained attention and response inhibition was also measured using the SART and the Bourdon-Wiersma tests. Three groups were compared: a group of 13 burned out individuals who stopped working due to their symptoms and sought treatment; 16 teachers at a vocational training institute who reported high levels of burnout symptoms but continued to work; and 14 teachers from the same institute who reported no burnout symptoms. The level of burnout symptoms was found to be significantly related to the number of cognitive failures in daily life, and to inhibition errors and performance variability in the tasks requiring attention.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar 2005, Vol.19, No.1, p.23-36. 35 ref.

CIS 06-27 Mental health at work: From defining to solving the problem
La santé psychologique au travail: De la définition du problème aux solutions [in French]
This prevention kit for work-related mental health problems aims to raise awareness of the problem and provides guidance on effective measures for handling mental health issues in the workplace. It comprises three booklets: the concept of occupational stress, the scope of the problem and the consequences for individuals and organizations; sources of workplace stress and personal vulnerability; and preventive measures (risk elimination or control, mechanisms to help reduce the negative impacts of stress and treatment, return to work and follow up).
Chair in Occupational Health and Safety Management, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. 3 booklets. Bibl.ref. [in English] [in French]

CIS 06-249 Guiho-Bailly M.P., Guillet D.
Occupational psychopathologies and psychodynamics
Psychopathologie et psychodynamique du travail [in French]
This literature survey describes the concepts of occupational psychodynamics and psychopathology (including psychotraumatology). Contents: links between psyche, work and health; historical review of occupational psychopathology; concepts of occupational psychodynamics; occupational psychopathology and clinical psychiatry; substance addiction and work; burnout; psychosomatics and work; occupational psychotraumatology; collective approaches to psychotraumatology and psychodynamics at work.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.148, 9p. 56 ref.

CIS 06-238 Roelcke V.
Disease of civilization: historical and systematic review of a paradigm of stress-related disorders
Zivilisationskrankheit: Historisches und Systematisches zu einem Paradigma der Stress-Erkrankungen [in German]
Maladie de civilisation: historique et systématique d'un paradigme des affections liées au stress [in French]
This article addresses the question of whether modern societies cause ill health. Considers whether working conditions in a world subject to a globalisation process cause specific diseases and whether the consequences of stress on health therefore constitute a form of disease of civilization. Contents: disease models and the concept of disease of civilization; historical development of the concept of neurasthenia; stress as a form of disease of civilization.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2005, No.76, p.31-42. 21 ref.

CIS 06-241 Guillemin M.
Work as a mental health factor
Die Arbeit als Faktor der psychischen Gesundheit [in German]
Le travail comme facteur de santé psychique [in French]
Despite developments in occupational heath in recent decades, the usual approach consists of waiting for a problem to emerge before searching for solutions for its control. This article shows how more proactive policies are emerging whereby problems are pre-empted before their effects are felt. Psychological and psycho-physiological factors that are favourable to health in occupational settings are discussed. Contents: general scope and objectives; evidence (survey of job satisfaction in Switzerland, insurance statistics showing a general trend towards a decline in occupational accidents and diseases in Switzerland, adverse effects of unemployment on mental and physical health); current trends (integrated management of occupational safety and health, quality and environmental protection within the enterprise).
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2005, No.76, p.5-8. [in French] [in German]

CIS 05-497 Parry J., Barnes H., Lindsey R., Taylor R.
Health and Safety Executive
Farmers, farm workers and work-related stress
This report describes a study involving interviews with 60 key informants and members of farming communities in five locations across England and Wales. The study explored the ways in which stress affects farming communities, how this has changed in recent years, and the extent to which work-related aspects of stress can be disaggregated from broader characteristics of the farming experience, in assessing the kinds of support interventions likely to be most useful. The holistic perspective taken by this research has enabled an examination of the effects of stress in relation to people's different roles on farms.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xiii, 114p. Illus. 36 ref.Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-373 Bleecker M.L., Ford D.P., Lindgren K.N., Hoese V.M., Walsh K.S., Vaughan C.G.
Differential effects of lead exposure on components of verbal memory
To determine if verbal learning and memory retention is affected by lead exposure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was administered to 256 English-speaking lead smelter workers (mean age 41 years and mean employment duration 17 years). Lead exposure variables, based on up to 25 years of prior blood lead data, included a mean current blood lead of 28µg/dl, working lifetime time weighted average blood lead (TWA) of 39µg/dl, and working lifetime integrated blood lead index (IBL) of 728µg-y/dl. Associations of these chronic and recent lead exposure variables with measures from the RAVLT were modelled through multiple linear regressions after controlling for age and educational achievement. It was found that long-term lead exposure interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.62, No.3, p.181-187. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 05-496 Parkes K.R., Carnell S., Farmer E.
Health and Safety Executive
Musculo-skeletal disorders, mental health and the work environment
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence, severity and psychosocial risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among male employees in the oil and gas sector in the United Kingdom. 321 workers of this industry having participated in a previous survey five years earlier responded to the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. Low-back pain showed the highest 12-month prevalence (51%). Psychological distress and physical workload factors were the most significant direct predictors of MSDs, while anxiety and lack of social support were significant factors in predicting changes in the prevalence of MSDs over a five-year period.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 59p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-37 Smith A., Wadsworth E., Shaw C., Stansfeld S., Bhui K., Dhillon K.
Health and Safety Executive
Ethnicity, work characteristics, stress and health
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of reported occupational stress and psychiatric disorder in Black Caribbean, South Asian and White workers and to understand the reasons for differences in occupational stress between ethnic groups. In an earlier study, 30% of the non-White group reported very high, or extremely high, levels of stress at work compared to 18% of white workers. For the present study, a household interview design was chosen in an ethnically-diverse part of London. Approximately 200 persons from each of the three ethnic groups were interviewed. A second interview was held with six men and women from each of the ethnic groups who had reported moderate to high work stress during the first interview. Results suggest that the combination of racial discrimination with gender and ethnicity is powerfully influential in work stress; Black Caribbean women who had faced racial discrimination were particularly likely to experience work stress. The implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 90p. 94 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-590 Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Malenfant R., Vézina M.
Health care restructuring, work environment and health of nurses
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the psychosocial work environment and health of nurses in Quebec which has undergone significant restructuring in the past 15 years. It involved 2006 nurses from 16 health centers and a reference population of 2636 women employed in other occupations. They were given a questionnaire on work characteristics, psychological demands, decision latitude and social support at work from Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, as well as on organizational changes and their state of health. Prevalence ratios and binomial regression were used to examine the associations between current work characteristics, changes and psychological distress. A considerable increase in the prevalence of psychological distress and adverse psychosocial work factors was found in comparison to the prevalence reported by a comparable group of nurses in 1994. These adverse factors were also more prevalent among nurses than among other Quebec working women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.47, No.1, p.54-64. 58 ref.


CIS 07-992 Nandi A., Galea S., Tracy M., Ahern J., Resnick H., Gershon R., Vlahov D.
Job loss, unemployment, work stress, job satisfaction, and the persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder one year after the September 11 attacks
The influence of unemployment and adverse work conditions on the course of psychopathology after a mass disaster is unclear. In this study, a representative sample of 1939 adults living in the New York City metropolitan area six months after the September 11 attacks was surveyed, and follow-up interviews on 71 % of the baseline sample were conducted six months later. At follow-up, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) persisted in 42.7% of the 149 cases with PTSD at baseline. In multivariable models, unemployment at any time since baseline predicted PTSD persistence in the entire cohort, including among persons employed at follow-up. Among the latter, high levels of perceived work stress also predicted PTSD persistence. Persons unemployed in the aftermath of a disaster may be at risk for poor mental health in the long-term.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.10, p.1057-1064. 47 ref.

CIS 07-980 Escribà-Agüir V., Tenías-Burillo J.M.
Psychological well-being among hospital personnel: The role of family demands and psychosocial work environment
This cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the effect of gender role and the psychosocial work environment on the psychological well-being of staff at two hospitals in Spain. A total of 313 workers were surveyed on their psychological well-being by means of a self- administered questionnaire. Findings are discussed. Subjects with a very good marital relationship had less risk of presenting bad mental health (odds ratio (OR) 0.43), and limitation in the social function (OR 0.43) and emotional role (OR 0.35). Those who dedicated more than 30h per week to domestic chores had a higher risk of limitation of social function (OR 2.48). Those exposed to high psychological demands presented a higher probability of poor mental health (OR 1.77). Finally, workers exposed to low job social support had a higher risk of poor mental health (OR 1.86), low vitality (OR 2.21) and limitation in the social function (OR 1.88).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2004, Vol.77, No.6, p.401-408. 35 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1057
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Stress and mental health at work
Revista do trabalhador: Estresse e saúde mental no trabalho [in Portuguese]
This videotape examines the effects of stress at work on mental health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca. 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.

CIS 06-231 Rocha L.E., Debert-Ribeiro M.
Working conditions, visual fatigue, and mental health among systems analysts in Saõ Paulo, Brazil
To evaluate the association between working conditions, visual fatigue and mental health among systems analysts in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a cross sectional study was carried out by a multidisciplinary team. It included ergonomic analysis of work, individual and group interviews and 553 self-administered questionnaires in two enterprises. The comparison population consisted of 136 workers employed in various other occupations. Among subjects, visual fatigue was associated with mental workload, inadequate equipment and workstation, low level of worker participation, being a woman and the subject's attitude to computer work. Mental health was associated with mental workload and with inadequate equipment, work environment and tools. Continuing education and leisure activities were protective factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.61, No.1, p.24-32. 35 ref.

CIS 06-225 van Amelsvoort L.G.M.P., Jansen N.W.H., Swaen G.M.H., van den Brandt P.A.., Kant I.
Direction of shift rotation among three-shift workers in relation to psychological health and work-family conflict
This study investigated whether the direction of shift rotation was related to the need for recovery, fatigue, sleep quality, work-family conflict, and leisure time among three-shift workers. Data for 95 workers in forward-rotating three-shift work and 681 workers in backward-rotating three-shift work were analysed over a period of 32 months. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out. A backward rotation schedule was related to an increased need for recovery (relative risk RR=2.88) and poor general health (RR=3.21), as compared with a forward rotation schedule. Furthermore, a forward rotation schedule was related to less work-family conflict and better sleep quality over the 32 months of follow-up. Finally, high levels of fatigue, need for recovery, poor sleep quality, poor general health, insufficient leisure time and work-family conflict were associated with an increased risk of leaving shift-work during the follow-up.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.30, No.2, p.149-156. 49 ref.

CIS 05-493 Parslow R.A., Jorm A.F., Christensen H., Rodgers B., Strazdins L., D'Souza R.M.
The associations between work stress and mental health: A comparison of organizationally employed and self-employed workers
This study examined the associations between work stressors and mental health in organizationally-employed and self-employed workers. It also investigated associations between stress and the use of general practitioner (GP) services by these two groups. 2275 employed men and women aged from 40 to 44 years participated in a community survey. Participants entered responses to a questionnaire into a hand-held computer under the supervision of an interviewer. 14.2% of the group identified themselves as self-employed. Respondents also provided details of their occupation and the extent to which they experienced work stressors. 72.6% gave consent for information on their use of GP services over a 12-month period to be obtained from national insurance records. It was found that self-employed men and women reported more decision authority than the organizationally employed, while self-employed women also had more manageable job demands. However, self-employment was found to be associated with relatively few mental health benefits.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.18, No.3, p.231-244. 27 ref.

CIS 05-492 Terluin B., Ven Rhenen W., Schaufeli W.B., De Haan M.
The four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ): Measuring distress and other mental health problems in a working population
In working populations, it is important to differentiate between general distress, on one hand, and the psychiatric symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization on the other hand. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a new instrument that measures these four symptoms. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the 4DSQ in a working population. A questionnaire was addressed to all employees of a Dutch telecom company, 3852 (51%) of whom responded. The questionnaire included the 4DSQ together with a set of questions on job stress, coping style and indicators of strain. The validity of the 4DSQ was assessed using correlations with job stress, coping, and strain. As expected, the distress scale showed the strongest correlations with the indicators of strain, as well as with job stress and coping. In conclusion, the 4DSQ is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used in a working population to distinguish between stress-related symptoms and psychiatric illness.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.18, No.3, p.187-207. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 05-490 Seidler A., Nienhaus A., Bernhardt T., Kauppinen T., Elo A.L., Fröhlich L.
Psychosocial work factors and dementia
A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between psychosocial workplace factors and dementia. Patients with dementia were recruited from 23 general practices in the city of Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany, and the surrounding area in 1998-2000. Of these, 108 were suffering from possible Alzheimer's disease, 59 from possible vascular dementia, and 28 from secondary or unclassified dementia. A total of 229 control subjects was recruited from the same study region: 122 population controls and 107 dementia-free ambulatory patients. A detailed job history was elicited by next-of-kin interviews of cases. Psychosocial work exposure was assigned to cases and control subjects by linking lifetime job histories with a Finnish job-exposure matrix. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Odds ratios decreased for high challenge at work, high control possibilities at work, and high social demands at work. High risks for error at work revealed a significant positive association with the diagnosis of dementia. These results support a role for psychosocial work factors in the aetiology of dementia. As an alternative explanation, people might have chosen jobs with poor work factors due to preclinical dementia, which becomes clinically manifest decades later.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2004, Vol.61, No.12, p.962-971. 28 ref.

CIS 05-183 Boillat M.A.
Organic mental disorders of toxic origin
Troubles mentaux organiques d'origine toxique [in French]
Solvents are among the substances that are most frequently involved in the occurrence of organic mental disorders of toxic origin. While acute effects such as reversible pre-narcotic disorders are unanimously recognized within the scientific community, chronic effects due to several years of low-level exposures are the subject of scientific debate. From the 1970s onwards, various studies have described an organic disorder syndrome (chronic toxic encephalitis). Some questions concerning the conditions of occurrence of this syndrome and its relationship with the level, duration and nature of exposure to solvents remain unanswered. Diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specificity. Once exposure is confirmed and other mental or psychiatric disorders excluded, diagnosis rests on the presence of thymic disorders together with memory loss, concentration difficulties and sensorimotor disorders, with the deterioration of cortical functions appearing in later stages.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2004, No.145, 5p. 40 ref.

CIS 04-738 Merecz D., Mościcka A., Drabek M., Koniarek J.
Predictors of mental health status and work ability of blue-collar workers
Predyktory zdrowia psychicznego i zdolności do pracy pracowników zatrudnionych na stanowiskach wykonawczych [in Polish]
The aim of this study was to identify features and conditions of work that determine the work ability and health of employees. It was found that the strongest predictors of work ability are age, stress arising out of a lack of incentives at work and mental condition. Mental health is influenced by factors such as stress relating to lack of confidence at work, negative emotions and the quantity of alcohol consumed.
Medycyna pracy, 2004, Vol.55, No.5, p.425-433. 18 ref.

CIS 04-744 Berkels H., Henderson J., Henke N., Kuhn K., Lavikainen J., Lehtinen V., Ozamiz A., Van den Heede P., Zenziger K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Mental health promotion and prevention strategies for coping with anxiety, depression and stress related disorders in Europe - Final report 2001-2003
The aim of this project was to identify existing programmes concerning mental health promotion and prevention strategies (including early detection and intervention of anxiety disorders, various forms of depression as well as stress related disorders) at local, regional and national levels within the European Union. Work involved a review of published literature and an evaluation of community, enterprise and institutional programmes based on responses to questionnaires distributed through national OSH agencies in 15 European Union Member States. The evaluation enabled the development of a list of "models of best practice", on which recommendations for mental health promotion and mental ill health prevention are based.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 182p. Bibl. ref. Price: EUR 16.00. [in English]

CIS 04-734 Cothereau C., de Beaurepaire C., Payan C.
Train drivers involved in "person under train" incidents: The policy followed by the French state railways, a tool of accompaniment and prevention
A propos des conducteurs de trains confrontés à un accident de personne: la politique d'accompagnement de la S.N.C.F., outil de prise en charge et de prévention [in French]
In 1995, the French Railways (SNCF) implemented a policy of psychological support of train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident. In this background, SNCF's medical department undertook a national epidemiologic study to gain a better understanding of the psychiatric disorders, somatic health and professional effects on train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident and to study the relevance and effectiveness of the policy of accompaniment applied by the network since 1995. The study compared a group of 106 train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident in 1994 before the introduction of the new policy with a group of 202 train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident in 1996, having benefited from these new measures. At the time of each visit, the occupational physician evaluated the professional events, medical fitness and performed a clinical examination. The differences between the two groups, which were not as important as expected, are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.396-405. 22 ref.

CIS 04-489 Fernández Rodríguez J.L., Álvarez de Cienfuegos Gálvez I., Doménech Muñiz G.
An occupational health problem: Occupational stress and burnout
Un problema de salud laboral: "estrés" laboral - burnout [in Spanish]
Approximately one third of workers within the European Union report being subject to stress at work. Occupational stress is one of the main causes of health problems. It accounts for over a quarter of the cases of sickness absenteeism lasting more than two weeks. This article reviews the current situation with respect to occupational stress and burnout. Contents: epidemiology and costs; definition of stress and its various forms; triggering factors; consequences for workers and the enterprise; prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary); treatment (personal, group and organizational strategies); legal aspects.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2004, Vol.L, No.197, p.65-78. 79 ref.

CIS 04-484 Imai H., Nakao H., Tsuchiya M., Kuroda Y., Katoh T.
Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care
In this case-control study of burnout among psychiatric nurses, cases comprised 525 public health nurses engaged in mental health services at public health centres, while the control group comprised 525 public health nurses engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting nurses working at public health centres and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Lack of job control and frequent overtime in emergency services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.61, No.9, p.764-768. 36 ref.

CIS 04-312 Weijman I., Kant I., Swaen G.M., Ros W.J.G., Rutten G.E.H.M., Schaufeli W.B., Schabracq M.J., Winnubst J.A.M.
Diabetes, employment and fatigue-related complaints: A comparison between diabetic employees, "healthy" employees, and employees with other chronic diseases
Work factors and fatigue-related complaints of 141 employees with diabetes were compared with 8941 healthy employees and 1883 employees with other chronic diseases. Baseline data from a Dutch Cohort Study on Fatigue at Work were used to test differences in background variables, work factors, lifestyle factors and fatigue-related complaints. Odds ratios were calculated for prolonged fatigue, the need for recovery, burnout, and psychological distress. Results showed that employees with diabetes work more daytime hours and work less overtime than the other groups. If they have no co-morbidity (no additional chronic diseases), they are no more likely to report fatigue-related complaints than healthy employees. However, co-morbidity is associated with increased fatigue-related complaints.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.828-836. 54 ref.


CIS 09-997 Shaping the future
Proceedings of a conference on business and mental energy at work, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 6-7 October 2003. The objective of the conference was to address key issues affecting the psychosocial work environment worldwide. A white paper was issued at the end of the conference, serving as a recommendation aimed at international agencies, governments, employers and employees to implement mental wellbeing health management policies and to develop sustainable programs in workplaces worldwide.
Club Geneva, 1001 Bridgeway Avenue #607, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA; 2003. Approx. 200p. Illus.

CIS 06-119 van Wijngaarden E.
Mortality of mental disorders in relation to potential pesticide exposure
Some studies have suggested a role of pesticide exposure in the development of neurobehavioural disorders. This case-control study examined the association between mortality from mental disorders and occupational exposure to pesticides. The study population consisted of 7756 deaths and 330,452 eligible controls identified from United States death certificate files for the years 1988 through 1992. Exposure assignment was based on job title reported on the death certificates. Employment in jobs potentially involving pesticide exposure was weakly associated with the risk of death from mental disorders (odds ratio, OR=1.46). This association was stronger among women (OR=2.65), in particular for deaths from neurotic disorders (OR=4.32). These results must be interpreted with caution, however, because the impact of social and work-related factors other than pesticide exposure is not known.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.564-568. 21 ref.

CIS 06-155 van Wijngaarden E.
An exploratory investigation of suicide and occupational exposure
This exploratory study evaluated the association between suicide and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, pesticides and hydrocarbon solvents. The study population comprised 11,707 suicide deaths and 132,771 eligible controls identified from United States death certificate files for the years 1991 and 1992. Exposure assignment was based on job title reported on the death certificates. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and pesticides was weakly associated with suicide risk, while little evidence for an increased risk was seen for hydrocarbon solvents. The association for electromagnetic field exposure was highest for suicide between the ages 20 and 35 (odds ratio, OR=1.5), while the highest risk of suicide for pesticide exposure was seen between the ages of 35 and 49 years (OR=1.5). Further investigation to replicate these findings seems warranted, using higher quality occupational data.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.96-101. 25 ref.

CIS 06-39 Goetzel R.Z., Hawkins K., Ozminkowski R.J., Wang S.
The health and productivity cost burden of the "top 10" physical and mental health conditions affecting six large U.S. employers in 1999
Data for 374,799 employees from six large employers were analysed to identify the most costly physical and mental health conditions affecting American businesses. Absence and disability losses constituted 29% of the total health and productivity related expenditures for physical health conditions and 47% for all of the mental health conditions examined. The ten most costly physical health conditions were: angina pectoris; essential hypertension; diabetes mellitus; mechanical low back pain; acute myocardial infarction; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; back disorders not specified as low back; trauma to spine and spinal cord; sinusitis; and diseases of the ear, nose and throat or mastoid process. The five most costly mental health disorders were: bipolar disorder, chronic maintenance; depression; depressive episode in bipolar disease; neurotic, personality and non-psychotic disorders; alcoholism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.5-14. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 05-630 Miljours S., Braun C.M.J.
A neuropsychotoxicological assessment of workers in a sodium azide production plant
Neuropsychological and psychological tests, a symptom self-report questionnaire and haematological and cardiac measurements were gathered from 41 workers exposed to sodium azide and from 42 unexposed workers in a chemical production plant yearly for three years. The exposed workers presented more acute symptoms of exposure (headache, vertigo, nausea, fatigue, cardiac palpitations, irritated eyes) than did the unexposed workers. However, only one chronic symptom was repeatedly and more significantly reported, namely trembling of the hands. No psychological or neuropsychological tests (reaction time, psychomotor performance, cognitive performance, chromatopsia, Profile of Mood States) differentiated the two groups. However, acute effects of exposure on plasma creatinine and on systolic pressure were noted. Low creatinine levels in the plasma of exposed workers correlated significantly with impairment of mood on the Profile of Mood States test, but not with any other measure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2003, Vol.76, No.3, p.225-232. 55 ref.

CIS 05-746 Haslam C., Mallon K.
A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters
This preliminary study investigated symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTDS) among firefighters in relation to their experience of traumatic events and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire service workers completed an adapted version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) questionnaire. They were also individually interviewed. Rumination and sleep disturbance were the most commonly reported PTDS symptoms. Participants reported having benefited from high levels of social support from within the service and outside. The results suggest that fire service personnel are at risk of developing some symptoms of PTDS; however most had not experienced severe enough symptoms for PTDS to be diagnosed. High levels of social support may play a role in buffering firefighters from the development of PTDS.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.277-285. 25 ref.

CIS 05-744 Snow D.L., Swan S.C., Raghavan C., Connell C.M., Klein I.
The relationship of work stressors, coping and social support to psychological symptoms among female secretarial employees
This article describes a conceptual framework based on the assumption that psychological symptoms are influenced by the interaction of individual and situational risk and protective factors over time. This framework was used to examine the impact of work stressors, coping, and work-related social support on psychological symptoms among 239 female secretarial employees in the USA, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. Work stressors and avoidance coping were viewed as risk factors, and active coping and social support as protective factors. In both models, work stressors and avoidance coping contributed substantially to increased symptoms while active coping was related to fewer psychological symptoms. Work-related social support served an indirect protective function by contributing to lower levels of reported work stressors and greater use of active coping. Work stressors also mediated the relationship between social support and symptoms.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.241-263. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 05-234 de Carvalho Chaves M.E., Melgaço Valadares C.A., Lino M.L.M.R., Bussacos M.
Repetitive strain injuries and mental suffering in various occupations
Lesões por esforços repetitivos e sofrimento mental em diferentes profissões [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to examine the mental suffering of persons afflicted with musculoskeletal disorders or repetitive strain injuries. It involved 105 workers from the banking, commercial, telecommunication and other sectors of activity, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire containing 120 objective and subjective questions (SRQ-20). Results were analysed using various statistical methods. The workers' average age was 41 years, with a high proportion of women (87%). As far as work time schedules were concerned, telecommunications workers generally worked in shifts; in the other sectors, a wide majority worked overtime and many were subjected to pressures from their superiors. In all sectors however, similar levels of mental suffering were observed, vastly greater than had been observed in earlier studies. This is probably due to the fact that the totality of the study population suffered from repetitive strain injury, which no doubt increased their level of mental suffering.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.43-49. 13 ref.

CIS 04-558 Kivimäki M., Virtanen M., Vartia M., Elovainio M., Vahtera J., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depression
To examine exposure to workplace bullying as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and depression in employees, logistic regression models were related to prospective data from two surveys in a cohort of 5432 hospital employees (601 men and 4831 women), aged 18-63 years. Outcomes were new reports of doctor-diagnosed cardiovascular disease and depression during the two-year follow-up among those who were free from these diseases at baseline. The prevalence of bullying was 5% in the first survey and 6% in the second survey. Two per cent reported bullying experiences in both surveys, an indication of prolonged bullying. After adjustment for sex, age, and income, the odds ratio of incident cardiovascular disease for victims of prolonged bullying compared to non-bullied employees was 2.3. A further adjustment for overweight at baseline attenuated the odds ratio to 1.6. The association between prolonged bullying and incident depression was significant, even after adjustment for overweight (odds ratio 4.2). This suggests that bullying is an aetiological factor for mental health problems. The victims of bullying also seem to be at greater risk of cardiovascular disease, but this risk may partly be attributable to overweight.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.779-783. 24 ref.

CIS 04-314 Rhodes D., Spiro A., Aro A., Hu H.
Relationship of bone and blood lead levels to psychiatric symptoms: The normative aging study
Blood and bone lead levels were used to investigate the potential effect of lead on psychiatric symptoms among middle-aged to elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Average lead concentrations were 6.3µg/dL, 21.9mgg/g and 32.1mgg/g for blood, tibia and patella lead respectively. In logistic regression models that adjusted for age, alcohol intake, employment status and education status, it was found that blood and bone lead was significantly associated with an increased risk of phobic anxiety and combined measure of psychiatric symptoms. It is concluded that cumulative lead exposure reflected by bone lead levels could be a risk factor for psychiatric symptoms even at modest levels of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1144-1151. 34 ref.

CIS 04-249 Audet M.
Mental health at work - The urgency of adopting new organizational thinking
Santé mentale et travail - L'urgence de penser autrement l'organisation [in French]
Besides causing personal suffering, work-related mental health problems are an important factor in absenteeism and represent substantial costs both to enterprises and to society in general. Aimed at providing an insight into the problem of work-related mental health problems, this publication consists of four parts. Part 1 describes the current situation in Quebec, including the magnitude of the problem and its causal factors. Par 2 discusses the possible roles of the various social partners capable of providing solutions to the problem. Part 3 presents a series of examples illustrating practices that have been adopted in various occupational settings to cope with mental health problems. Finally, Part 4 outlines preventive strategies based on management practices.
Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Distribution de livres Univers, 845 rue Marie-Victorin, Saint-Nicolas, Québec, Canada, 2003. xii, 173p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CAD 20.00.

CIS 03-1972 Sanne B., Mykletun A., Dahl A.A., Moen B.E., Tell G.S.
Occupational differences in levels of anxiety and depression: The Hordaland heath study
This study examined the relationship between occupations and levels of anxiety and depression. Data were collected by means of standardized questionnaires from a cohort of 17,384 Norwegian workers for whom standardized occupational classifications were available. Levels of anxiety and depression were assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscales HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively. Both HADS-A and HADS-D scores differed significantly between occupational groups. HADS levels showed a distinct and inverse association with skill levels, most strongly observed for HADS-D scores in men. Elementary occupations consistently showed higher-than-average HADS scores. The strength of the associations between the frequency and severity of depressions and the skill levels are of clinical significance. Screening for depression should be considered in low-skill occupations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.45, No.6, p.628-638. 31 ref.

CIS 03-1993 Stansfeld A.S., Head J., Rasul F., Singleton N., Lee A.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupation and mental health: Secondary analyses of the ONS Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of Great Britain
This report presents the results of a survey among adults living in the United Kingdom on possible links between occupation and psychological morbidity. Among the over 12,000 households identified in a random sample, 69.5% agreed to participate in an interview. Occupations, expressed by Standard Occupational Classification codes, were linked to common mental disorders, self reported sickness absence data, illicit drug use, psychotropic drug use and use of health services. Higher levels of psychosocial disorders were found among clerical and secretarial, sales, security and service occupations, while lower levels were found among craft and related occupations, plant and machine operators, and managers and administrators.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xvi, 123p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1492 Brun J.P., Biron C., Martel J., Ivers H.
Evaluation of mental health at the workplace: Analysis of human resource management practices
Evaluation de la santé mentale au travail: une analyse des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines [in French]
As part of a systematic and strategic approach to the prevention of problems caused by occupational stress, the objective of this study was to measure the extent of mental health problems at the workplace and to highlight organizational factors perceived by employees as being detrimental to their mental health. It was also aimed at evaluating prevention and human resource management efforts with respect to organizational risk factors. 3142 workers of four organizations (higher learning institution, metalworking enterprise, hospital, tree nursery) responded to a questionnaire, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analyses. 56 participants were also interviewed. Findings are worrying. Indeed, 43.4% of the respondents declared to be suffering from high levels of psychological distress, with the highest rates among hospital staff. Societal consequences are discussed, and a number of proposals are made for improving working conditions through a more humane approach to work organization.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec), H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. ix, 88p. Illus. 135 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. [in French]

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