Mental health - 787 entries found
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Oramas Viera A., Almirall hernandez P., Fernández I.
Occupational stress and burnout syndrome among Venezuelan teachers
Estrés laboral y el síndrome de burnout en docentes venezolanos [in Spanish]
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of occupational stress and burnout among Venezuelan teachers, together with associated factors. A total of 885 teachers of 53 schools answered a Spanish-language version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Questionnaire for teachers, as well as a stress symptoms questionnaire. Emotional exhaustion was the most prevalent dimension of burnout. The best predictors of emotional exhaustion were age and perceived occupational stress. For depersonalisation, the best predictors were perceived stress and being of male gender. Occupational factors associated with increased stress were workload, student-related factors, low salary and inadequate materials and equipment. Other findings are discussed.
Salud de los Trabajadores, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.15, No.2, p.71-87. Illus. 35 ref
Callaghan P., Nijman H., Palmstierna T., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 25-27 October 2007. Several papers concerned the safety, health and training of the staff: prevention of post-traumatic stress reaction in staff following a patient assault; training programme in the management of violence in a Hong Kong hospital; training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on management of violence; ward safety perceptions by nurses in several countries; interactions between nurses and patients in terms of predisposition to violence; violence toward heath care staff in Turkey.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2007. 383p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Nakao M., Nishikitani M., Shima S., Yano E.
A 2-year cohort study on the impact of an employee assistance program (EAP) on depression and suicidal thoughts in male Japanese workers
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) on depression and suicide-related behaviours in the workplace. It involved 283 male Japanese employees aged 22-38 years at a Japanese information technology company introducing an EAP. Controls consisted of 22 men working at an affiliated company without the EAP. All participants completed the Hamilton Depression Scale questionnaire (HAM-D) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) before the EAP was introduced and two years after its introduction. In the EAP group, the total HAM-D scores significantly decreased after the two-year study period, while no significant changes were observed in the reference group. The JCQ scores were not significantly different between the baseline and after the two-year study period in both groups. EAPs may be a promising strategy for maintaining the good mental health of workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2007, Vol.81, No.2, p.151-157. 30 ref.
Chilton S., Jones-Lee M., Metcalf H., Loomes G., Robinson A., Covey J., Spencer A., Spackman M.
Health and Safety Executive
Valuation of health and safety benefits: Dread risks
It is known that people typically fear the prospect of premature death by some causes considerably more than others. Three studies were undertaken to shed further light on these issues. In the first study, the focus was principally on causes that typically result in instant (or near-instant) death, such as road or rail accidents. In addition, attitudes were viewed primarily from the perspective of self-focused preferences concerning personal safety. By contrast, the second study considered causes of death typically preceded by protracted periods of pain and discomfort, such as lung or breast cancer. It sought to investigate attitudes to factors such as the victim's age and the question of responsibility for the cause of death. Finally, the third study was aimed at summarizing and evaluating the extensive body of work undertaken to date by sociologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists on the concept of "Societal Concerns".
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. 151p. 50 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr541.pdf [in English]
Hayasaka Y., Nakamura K., Yamamoto M., Sasaki S.
Work environment and mental health status assessed by the general health questionnaire in female Japanese doctors
This study aimed to determine factors in the work environment influencing mental health status among female doctors in Japan. An anonymous survey questionnaire was mailed to 587 female doctors, and 367 (62.5%) responded. The survey included questions on their age and marital status, together with work-related information on their speciality, affiliated medical facility, position, type of employment, work schedule and night duty. The thirty-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) was used to examine psychological distress. A total of 169 (46.1%) subjects met criteria for having psychological distress. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, medical facility, position, working time and working at night were associated with the GHQ-30 score. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.781-786. Illus. 29 ref.
Brun E., Milczarek M.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This report presents the findings of an expert group on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts. A summary of the report is also available as a factsheet (CIS 08-250).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007.127p. Illus. 277 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/7807118 [in English]
Bauer J., Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Seibt R., Scheuch K., Wirsching M.
Working conditions, adverse events and mental health problems in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore the workload of teachers, to analyse the extent of negative or threatening school-related events teachers are confronted with and to evaluate mental health strain. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying a questionnaire covering different aspects of the occupational burden and threatening events, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 42% had faced verbal insults, almost 7% deliberate damage to personal property and 4.4% threats of violence by pupils during the past 12 months. When applying the GHQ-12, 29.8% reported significant mental health problems. Teachers in middle schools indicated more of such problems than those of high schools. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.442-449. 37 ref.
Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Scheuch K., Seibt R., Wirsching M., Bauer J.
Burnout and effort-reward imbalance in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore teacher burnout and the relationship between their efforts and their rewards. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Inventory (ERI). Compared with studies investigating burnout in other occupations, high rates of symptoms such as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment were found. Male teachers showed significantly lower personal accomplishment and more depersonalization than female teachers. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.433-441. 42 ref.
Psychotropic drugs and work (II) - Antidepressants
Médicaments psychotropes et travail (II) - Médicaments antidépresseurs [in French]
This literature survey addresses the use of antidepressants at work. The most recent publications on the topic cite a prevalence of depression of around 10% in the general population and a similar level in the working population. The consequences of antidepressants on work are little known. This article sheds light on current understanding with respect to vigilance, driving and co-exposure to toxic substances, and proposes several decision support tools aimed at occupational physicians. The ethical and practical aspects of medical treatment of employees are discussed, together with the issues of staying at work and returning to work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.487-508. Illus. 96 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20116/$File/TC116.pdf [in French]
Mingote Adán J.C., del Pino Cuadrado P., Huidobro Á., Gutiérrez García D., de Miguel Pecińa I., Gálvez Herrer M.
Patients with psychotic disorders at work: Diagnosis and treatment
El paciente que padece un trastorno psicótico en el trabajo: diagnóstico y tratamiento [in Spanish]
This article covers psychotic disorders and the conditions allowing affected workers to continue working. Contents: general aspects of psychotic delirium; costs of serious mental disorders; schizophrenia (characteristics, clinical evolution, compatibility of the disease with continued employment, behaviour to adopt with such patients and interventions during crises); paranoia or persisting delirium (characteristics, behaviour to adopt with such patients ); factors to take into account for the possible reintegration in their jobs of workers with psychotic disorders; brief psychotic episodes and work capacity.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.208, p.29-51. Illus. 27 ref.
Brun J.P., Biron C., Ivers H.
Strategic approach to the prevention of occupational mental health problems
Démarche stratégique de prévention des problčmes de santé mentale au travail [in French]
The growing number of injuries related to stress, burnout or other psychological factors result from the rapid increase in occupational mental health problems in the last few years. However, most organizations lack a strategic risk prevention tool to address this important issue. This report presents the results of a research project involving the evaluation of organizational interventions for the prevention of work-related stress, for the purpose of developing a diagnostic tool for use by enterprises. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and observations in three organizations: an educational institution, a hospital and a forestry enterprise.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. viii, 65p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-514.pdf [in French]
Dollard M., Skinner N., Tuckey M.R., Bailey T.
National surveillance of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace: An international overview
The national surveillance of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace is useful for recording the changing work environment, developing policies and programmes to prevent stress and promoting mental and physical health and well-being at work. This article reviews, from an Australian perspective, 35 national surveillance systems across 20 different countries in Europe and North America, together with an additional four multi-country systems for psychosocial risks. It describes the scope and sampling methodology of each system, for which it also provides an overall evaluation. Findings are discussed, with emphasis on subject areas likely to be of increasing concern in the future: additional psychosocial risks; emotional labour; workplace bullying; acute vs. chronic exposure to workplace stressors; organizational justice; organizational change; positive psychological states and well-being.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2007, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-29. 106 ref.
Five steps for eliminating unhealthy stress at the workplace
Cinq étapes pour réduire le mauvais stress au travail [in French]
The world of work has witnessed profound changes during the last two decades. Some of these changes have proven to be relatively detrimental to occupational health, as can be observed by the dramatic increases in morbidity related to mental health and absenteeism. This article presents a five-step approach that can be adopted when faced with risk factors of occupational stress: defining one's work-life balance; setting objectives; ensuring that the objectives are met by one's self and respected by others; working with dedication and efficiency; knowing when to rest and recover.
Travail et santé, June 2007, Vol.23, No.2, p.10-13. Illus.
Hermoso de Mendoza Urrizoa J.
Absenteeism associated with burnout syndrome - Economic costs of occupational stress among health care staff in a hospital
Ausentismo asociado al síndrome de burnout - Costo económico del estrés laboral asistencial en un hospital [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between burnout and sickness absenteeism among health care staff in a Spanish hospital. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) addressed to 582 women workers employed in various units of a 410-bed hospital. A total of 402 valid responses were analysed. Results indicate an association between the level of emotional exhaustion and absenteeism. Other findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 2nd Quarter, 2007, Vol.14, No.52, p.14-20. Illus. 8 ref.
Andrieu F., Coquerel N., Desbois M.J., Ducouret B., Guinel P., Kebbouh M.A., Morel I., Saint-Marc C., Vendewatyne E.
Precariousness among employed persons: Study undertaken by a team of medical and social professionals in the Ile-de-France region
Précarisation au travail: expérience d'une équipe médico-sociale du travail en région Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this study undertaken in the Ile-de-France region was to highlight the levels of precariousness existing within the world of work and to try to improve the state of physical and mental health of cases by means of medical and social support. Cases were identified by a team composed of medical assistants, occupational physicians and a social services worker. Thirty cases were selected for follow-up. They were subjected to medical examinations and interviews at baseline and two years later, enabling the collection of data according to three criteria (health, social aspects and enterprise aspects). Clear improvements were found, since only nine workers were still classified as being in a highly difficult situation at the end of the study.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2007, Vol.47, No.1, p.5-12. Illus. 6 ref.
Rodríguez I., González-Morales M.G., Carbonell S.
The AMIGO model and the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL methodology - Contributions and challenges in the prevention of psychosocial hazards
El modelo AMIGO y la metodología PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL - Aportaciones y retos en la prevención de los riesgos psicosociales [in Spanish]
Changes taking place in the world of work are causing the emergence of new psychosocial hazards and psychosomatic diseases. To address these risks, it is necessary to intervene at the organizational level. In turn, this implies being able to rely on a theoretical model such as the AMIGO model, which contrary to existing models, considers the various components of the organizational system as facets of a system which can only be approached holistically. The model served as the basis for the development of the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL diagnosis methodology, which is described in this article.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Apr. 2007, No.42, p.18-25. Illus. 32 ref.
Mental health and working conditions - Establishing collective and pluridisciplinary thinking on the issue
Santé mentale et conditions de travail - Asseoir une réflexion collective et pluridisciplinaire [in French]
This special issue includes the full texts of some of the key papers presented at a conference on mental health and working conditions held in Tunis, Tunisia, from 15 to 17 May 2007. Contents: addressing psychosocial problems at work; neuropsychic diseases caused by chemicals; evaluation of stress in a Tunisian clothing manufacturing enterprise; relationship between neuropsychic symptoms and markers of exposure to solvents among Tunisian workers; prevention of stress and psychosocial risks; cross-sectional approach to the prevention of stress at work; evaluation and prevention of stress in an office furniture manufacturer in France; morbidity and work aptitude among public transport bus drivers; absenteeism and mental diseases among municipal workers in a region of Tunisia.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2007, No.42, p.1-41 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Seidler A., Geller P., Nienhaus A., Bernhardt T., Ruppe I., Eggert S., Hietanen M., Kauppinen T., Frölich L.
Occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields and dementia: A case-control study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between exposure to low frequency magnetic fields and dementia. From 23 general practices, 195 patients with dementia were recruited. Of these, 108 had possible Alzheimer's disease, 59 had possible vascular dementia and 28 had secondary or unclassified dementia. A total of 229 controls were recruited among persons free from dementia. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. Exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields was assessed by expert rating. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression, to control for age, region, sex, dementia in parents and smoking. An increased risk of dementia was found in blue-collar occupations (electrical and electronics workers, metal workers, construction workers, food and beverage processors and labourers). However, findings do not support a significant association between occupational exposure to magnetic fields and dementia.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.108-114. 33 ref.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health (OSH)
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite psihosocialni riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZR) [in Bulgarian]
Expertprognos om nya arbetsrelaterade psykosociala risker [in Swedish]
Ekpertvarsling om psykosociale risici i fremvćkst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljř [in Danish]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden psychosozialen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous psuhokoinōnikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [in Greek]
Previsiones de los expertos sobre la aparición de riesgos psicosociales en relación con la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Eksperdiprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiuga seotud psühhosotsiaalsete riskide kohta [in Estonian]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat esiin nousevia työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä psykososiaalisia riskejä [in Finnish]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques psychosociaux émergents liés ŕ la sécurité et la santé au travail (SST) [in French]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló pszichoszociális kockázatokról [in Hungarian]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi psicosociali emergenti relativi alla sicurezza e alla salute sul lavoro [in Italian]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujų kylančių psichosocialinės rizikos veiksnių darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [in Lithuanian]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem psihosociāliem riskiem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [in Latvian]
Previżjoni ta' l-esperti fuq ir-riskji psikosoċjali emerġenti relatati mas-saħħa u s-sigurtŕ fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [in Maltese]
Prognoses van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde psychosociale risicożs in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca powstających zagrożeń psychospołecznych związanych z bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy (BHP) [in Polish]
Previsăo dos peritos sobre os riscos psicossociais emergentes relacionados com a segurança e saúde no trabalho (SST) [in Portuguese]
Previziunile experţilor privind riscurile psihosociale emergente legate de securitatea @si sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [in Romanian]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich psychosociálnych rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia pri práci [in Slovak]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih psihosocialnih tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [in Slovenian]
Odborná prognóza o vznikajících psychosociálních rizicích souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [in Czech]
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This fact sheet summarizes the results of the expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/et/publications/factsheets/74 [in Estonian]
http://osha.europa.eu/es/publications/factsheets/74 [in Spanish]
http://osha.europa.eu/fr/publications/factsheets/74 [in French]
http://osha.europa.eu/hu/publications/factsheets/74 [in Hungarian]
http://osha.europa.eu/it/publications/factsheets/74 [in Italian]
http://osha.europa.eu/lt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Lithuanian]
http://osha.europa.eu/lv/publications/factsheets/74 [in Latvian]
http://osha.europa.eu/mt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Maltese]
http://osha.europa.eu/nl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Dutch]
http://osha.europa.eu/pl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Polish]
http://osha.europa.eu/pt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Portuguese]
http://osha.europa.eu/ro/publications/factsheets/74 [in Romanian]
http://osha.europa.eu/sk/publications/factsheets/74 [in Slovak]
http://osha.europa.eu/sl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Slovenian]
http://osha.europa.eu/sv/publications/factsheets/74 [in Swedish]
http://osha.europa.eu/bg/publications/factsheets/74 [in Bulgarian]
http://osha.europa.eu/cs/publications/factsheets/74 [in Czech]
http://osha.europa.eu/da/publications/factsheets/74 [in Danish]
http://osha.europa.eu/de/publications/factsheets/74 [in German]
http://osha.europa.eu/el/publications/factsheets/74 [in Greek]
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/factsheets/74 [in English]
http://osha.europa.eu/fi/publications/factsheets/74 [in Finnish]
Multiple interactions of hazard exposures, role stressors and situational factors, and burnout among nurses
This cross-sectional study investigated the interaction between situational factors, role stressors, hazard exposure and personal factors among 135 nurses in a hospital in the Philippines. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents reported being ill due to work in the past year, and 59.3% missed work because of an illness. Regression analysis showed that factors associated with burnout were role stress, hazard exposure, self-efficacy, age, number of working years, illness in the past 12 months, migraine, dizziness, sleep disorder, cough and colds, and diarrhoea. After multiple regression analysis, organizational role stress, migraine, age and illness in the past 12 months were found to be significant predictors of burnout.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.73-82. 34 ref.
Gamperiene M., Nygĺrd J.F., Sandanger I., Wćrsted M., Bruusgaard D.
The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway
This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff from seven cleaning organizations in various locations across the country. The response rate was 64%. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information, employment history, work organization and psychosocial working conditions. Mental health was assessed using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). The proportion of cleaning women scoring a HSCL-25 ≥1.75 was 17.5%, which is higher than the prevalence of mental health problems among all working Norwegian women (8.4%). Quality of supervision, collaboration with co-workers and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2006, Vol.1, No.24, 10p. 55 ref.
Berg A.M., Hem E., Lau B., Ekeberg Ř.
An exploration of job stress and health in the Norwegian police service: A cross sectional study
The objective of cross-sectional study was to explore the physical and mental health of Norwegian police, and their associations to job stress. A detailed questionnaire was addressed to 3272 members of the Norwegian police at all hierarchical levels. It was found that job pressure and lack of support were the main causes of physical and mental health problems. Women showed higher anxiety symptoms than men, while men showed higher depressive symptoms than women. Police reported more subjective health complaints and depersonalization, but less anxiety and depressive symptoms than the general population. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2006, Vol.1, No.26, 9p. 34 ref.
Amati C.A., Scaife R.
Health and Safety Executive
Investigation of the links between psychological ill-health, stress and safety
Investigating the causes of accidents, incidents and unsafe behaviour, including understanding the possible influence of psychological ill-health, has become a priority. This understanding should address both whether experiencing psychological ill-health or stress at work can impact on individuals' safety behaviour and also how the presence of potential sources of psychological ill-health or stress at work may affect safety performance. This report presents evidence to contribute to this understanding, focusing on the relationship between psychological ill-health, stress and safety in a work context. It is based on a literature review, and divided into sections addressing the following topics: prevalence of psychological ill-health and stress; impact of psychological ill-health and stress on behaviour; evidence from accidents; stress and causes of accidents and errors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 99p. Illus. 50 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr488.pdf [in English]
Ahola K., Honkonen T., Kivimäki M., Virtanen M., Isometsä E., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression: The Health 2000 study
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression. A representative sample of 3270 Finnish employees aged 30 to 64 years responded to the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey and the Beck Depression Inventory and participated in an interview based on the Composite International Diagnostic Questionnaire. High strain compared with low strain was associated with 7.4 times higher odds of burnout, 3.8 times higher odds of depressive symptoms and 1.7 times higher odds of depressive disorders. The risk for depressive symptoms and for depressive disorders of high strain was reduced by 69% or more after adjusting for burnout. Burnout is strongly related to job strain and may in part mediate the association between job strain and depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.48, No.10, p.1023-1030. 57 ref.
Acting on relational suffering at work - Manual for the responsible persons faced with situations of conflict, bullying and indoctrination
Agir sur les souffrances relationnelles au travail - Manuel de l'intervenant confronté aux situations de conflit, de harcčlement et d'emprise au travail [in French]
Van meningsverschil tot hyperconflict - Gids voor wie beroepsmatig tussenkomt en geconfronteerd wordt met conflicten en grensoverschrijdend gedrag op het werk [in Dutch]
This guide to the prevention of relational suffering is the result of a research programme during which various methodological approaches were used. A first chapter is devoted to concepts and phenomena, as well as to the different phases during the evolution of a conflict. Next, the prevention of these problems is discussed and four main intervention methods are explained. Finally, good pluridisciplinary practices are addressed in a specific chapter.
Service public fédéral Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest- Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 2006. 151p. Illus. 140 ref.
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=5884 [in French]
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=5110 [in Dutch]
Cherry N.M., Chen Y., McDonald J.C.
Reported incidence and precipitating factors of work-related stress and mental ill-health in the United Kingdom (1996-2001)
The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of work-related stress and mental illness reported by occupational physicians and psychiatrists in the United Kingdom. Annual average incidence rates were calculated by sex, occupation and industry against appropriate populations at risk. For the period between 1996 and 2001, annual averages of 3624 new cases were reported by psychiatrists, and 2718 by occupational physicians. The rates were higher for men in reports based on the former and for women on the latter. Most diagnoses were of anxiety and depression or work-related stress, with post-traumatic stress accounting for around 10% of cases reported by psychiatrists. High rates of mental ill-health are observed among professional and associated workers and in those in personal and protective services. Factors (such as work overload) intrinsic to the job and issues with interpersonal relations were the most common causes overall.
Occupational Medicine, 2006, No.56, p.414-421. Illus. 15 ref.
Beseler C.L., Stallones L.
Structural equation modeling of the relationships between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms and safety behaviors among Colorado farm residents
The objective of this study was to use structural equation modelling (SEM) to test the theory that a past pesticide poisoning may act as a mediator in the relationship between depression and safety practices. A cross-sectional survey of farmers and their spouses was conducted in eight counties in north-eastern Colorado. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. SEM showed that poor health, financial difficulties and a history of pesticide poisoning significantly explained the depressive symptoms. Specific depressive symptoms appeared to be significantly associated with animal handling and farm machinery.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.3/4, p.35-46. Illus. 24 ref.
Roesler U., Jacobi F., Rau R.
Work and mental disorders in a German national representative sample
This study on occupational risk factors of mental disorders involved 2329 German employees (aged 18-65 years) who took part in a structured, computer-assisted clinical interview. Further, they specified whether their job was characterized by physical workload, overtime or stress, and evaluated whether they felt impaired by each job characteristic. Results show that substance abuse/dependence (including nicotine dependence) was the highest prevalent mental disorder (12 month prevalence: 14.4%) followed by anxiety (12.0%) somatoform (9.7%), and affective (9.3%) disorders. Sequential logistic regression analyses showed significant associations between the presence of stress at work and affective and somatoform disorders. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.20, No.3, p.234-244. 38 ref.
Taylor C.L., Macdiarmid J.I., Ross J.A.S., Osman L.M., Watt S.J., Adie W., Crawford J.R., Lawson A.
Objective neuropsychological test performance of professional divers reporting a subjective complaint of "forgetfulness or loss of concentration"
This case-control study attempted to determine whether the higher prevalence of reported "forgetfulness or loss of concentration" (FLC) among professional divers can be confirmed using objective neuropsychological tests. The neuropsychological test performance of divers complaining of moderate or severe FLC was compared with two age-matched control groups reporting no or slight FLC, divers and non-divers. Altogether 102 divers with FLC, 100 divers without FLC and 100 non-divers without FLC completed the study. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. The overall neuropsychological performance differed significantly between the groups. Verbal memory (logical memory and the California verbal learning test), current intelligence (Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence), and sustained attention (rapid visual processing) were poorer among the divers with FLC than among the divers or non-divers without FLC. Other findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.32, No.4, p.310-317. 40 ref.
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vinet A., Vézina M., Abdous B., Gaudet M.
Effectiveness of a participative intervention on psychosocial work factors to prevent mental health problems in a hospital setting
This article describes the evaluation of a workplace intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and effort-reward imbalance) and mental health problems among care providers of a Quebec hospital. Participants were interviewed by phone before and one year after the intervention. One year after the intervention, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors in the experimental group, whereas no such reduction was found in the control group. Results suggest positive effects of the intervention. See CIS 07-1235 for details of the development and implementation phases of the study.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.335-342. 34 ref.
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vinet A., Vézina M., Lower A.
Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital
This article describes the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors and their mental health effects among 500 care providers in a Quebec hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed and showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a reference population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR)=2.27), low social support from supervisors and co-workers (PR=1.35), low reward (PR=2.92), and effort-reward imbalance (PR=2.65). Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions. It was decided to target interventions towards team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organization, training, communication, and ergonomics. See CIS 07-1236 for an assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.326-334. 40 ref.
Wieclaw J., Agerbo E., Mortensen P.B., Bonde J.P.
Risk of affective and stress-related disorders among employees in human service professions
The objective of this case-control study was to examine the risk of affective and stress related disorders in human service occupations. 28,971 cases were identified among all hospitalized patients and outpatients in Denmark aged 18-65 who received a first time ever diagnosis of affective or stress-related disorder between 1995 and 1998. Each case was assigned five never-admitted referents of the same sex and age, randomly drawn from the Danish population. Health care, education, social work, and customer services were defined as human service occupations and constituted 21% of all those in the study. The relative risk of depression in human service professions was 1.35 for women and 1.49 for men. The risk of stress was 1.18 for women and 1.49 for men. Specific occupations contributed differentially to the magnitude of risk, with education and social services displaying the highest risks. No increase in risks was found in customer service occupations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.314-319. 37 ref.
Occupational accidents: Unrecognized effects
Accidents du travail: effets méconnus [in French]
This article comments on the findings of a survey carried out in the United Kingdom to analyse the nature and extent of the psychological consequences of occupational accidents, not only for the victims themselves but also for their families and close friends. The survey was conducted by means of telephone interviews of 237 victims of accidents in the construction industry and in health care. Issues include financial difficulties, reduced mobility, psychological problems and the impact on the family.
Prevent Focus, Oct. 2006, No.8, p.20-22. Illus. 1 ref.
Toulouse G., St-Arnaud L., Bourbonnais R., Damasse J., Chicoine D., Delisle A.
Study of the prevalence of musculoskeletal and psychological disorders, physical and psychosocial factors in 9-1-1 emergency call centre dispatchers
Etude de la prévalence des troubles musculo-squelettiques et psychologiques, des facteurs physiques et psychosociaux chez les préposés des centres d'urgence 9-1-1 [in French]
This study examined musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and physical and psychosocial stress among emergency call centre operators in Quebec. It was carried out in the form of a self-administered questionnaire survey addressed to the operators of five emergency call centres. 96% of the respondents declared having suffered from musculoskeletal pain in at least one body region in the previous year. Furthermore, half of the operators of these centres were found to present a high level of psychological distress. The study describes the characteristics of the work of these operators, documents the links between risk factors and MSDs and mental health symptoms and proposes several leads for preventive measures.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. viii, 75p. Illus. 82 ref. Price: CAD 10.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-472.pdf [in French]
Harvey S., Courcy F., Petit A., Hudon J., Teed M., Loiselle O., Morin A.
Organizational interventions and mental health in the workplace: A synthesis of international approaches
This report summarizes knowledge relating to organizational intervention programmes and strategies to improve mental health in the workplace. Frameworks for the understanding of stress interventions at work are described and an evidence-based framework is proposed. This requires the establishment of proof as to the presence of sources of stress and a clear description of the sources, symptoms and consequences of this stress in order to design and evaluate appropriate interventions. Evidence of the effectiveness of organizational interventions is reviewed and recommendations for future research and methodology are proposed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 48p. Illus. 94 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-474.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-480.pdf [in English]
Suicide prevention: A resource at the workplace
Workers' suicide and suicide attempts are a result of complex interactions between individual vulnerabilities (such as mental health problems) and stressful working conditions. This paper argues in favour of preventive actions that can be undertaken at the workplace against the risk of suicide among workers. Contents: general suicide facts; occupation, mental disorders and stress as risk factors; productivity and cost aspects of mental health problems; medical and social support to workers with mental health disorders; creating a workplace conducive to good mental health; helping suicidal employees.
Queen's University, 99 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6, [ca 2006]. 16p. 10 ref.
Schmidt K.H., Neubach B.
Main and moderating effects of self-control demands and control deficits on indicators of job strain
Haupt- und Interaktionseffekte von Selbstkontrollanforderungen und Kontrolldefiziten auf Indikatoren der Arbeitsbeanspruchung [in German]
A survey of office workers was conducted to examine the relationships between job-related demands of self-control and indicators of job strain. The extent of job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization was determined among 630 employees of a municipal administration department in Germany. In addition, the tendency towards making mistakes (cognitive control deficits) was determined by questionnaire. Results showed a significant increase in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and a significant decrease in job satisfaction with increasing job-related demands for self-control. The tendency towards cognitive control deficits rose significantly with increasing job-related demands for self-control.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2006, Vol.60, No.1, p.37-46. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., David S., Barouhiel L., Barrandon G.
Psychosocial work environment and mental health: Job-strain and effort-reward imbalance models in a context of major organizational changes
This cross-sectional study explored the association between the two job-stress models, job-strain and effort-reward imbalance, and mental health outcomes in a working population exposed to major organizational changes. It involved 680 subjects, 504 men and 176 women. Psychosocial factors at work included psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, effort, reward, and overcommitment. Mental health outcomes were depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Job strain, low decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and especially job instability were found to be associated with depressive symptoms and/or psychiatric disorders among men. Overcommitment at work was a risk factor for both men and women. Social support at work played a role in reducing depressive symptoms for women. These findings emphasize the deleterious effects of the psychosocial work environment on mental health during major organizational changes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.111-119. 40 ref.
Martinussen M., Richardsen A.M.
Air traffic controller burnout: Survey responses regarding job demands, job resources, and health
There are currently many changes taking place in the aviation sector that affect the work of air traffic controllers (ATCOs), and thus it was considered important to assess work-related demands and stress responses among ATCOs. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of burnout among ATCOs compared to workers in other occupations, to examine the relationship between job demands, job resources and burnout, and to examine if burnout could predict both work and health-related outcomes. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 209 Norwegian ATCOs. The overall level of burnout was lower than among journalists and police officers, and similar to that of construction workers. This could be related to selection procedures for the profession. Burnout was related to important outcome variables such as psychosomatic complaints and attitudes toward work.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.77, No.4, p.422-428. 33 ref.
Stress and psychosocial risk factors: Concepts and prevention
Stress et risques psychosociaux: concepts et prévention [in French]
The first part of this review article describes the current understanding of stress and psychosocial risk factors, in particular external violence (from persons external to the enterprise), internal violence (from persons within the enterprise) including bullying, suffering and ill-being at work. Chronic stress is the cause of adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, mental health disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The second part of the article is devoted to stress prevention measures and more broadly to the prevention of psychosocial risk factors. This needs to be undertaken within the broader context of hazard evaluation (compilation of the single document) and the definition of prevention plans.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.169-186. Illus. 44 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20108/$File/TC108.pdf [in French]
Bortkiewicz A., Gadzicka E., Zmyślony M., Szymczak W.
Neurovegetative disturbances in workers exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields
This study was undertaken to assess autonomic function in workers occupationally exposed to 50Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) by analyzing the heart rate variability. The study group comprised 63 workers of switchyard substations, aged 22-67 years and a control group of 42 workers with no EMF exposure. To assess the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiac function, heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed based on 512 normal heart beats recorded at rest. The relative risk of decreased HRV, calculated with use of a logistic regression model, was significantly higher in the exposed group than in controls (odds ratio 2.8). It is concluded that occupational exposure to 50Hz EMF could influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2006, Vol.19, No.1, p.53-60. 37 ref.
Artazcoz L., Benach J., Cortčs I., Borrell C., Leka S., Burton J., Shain M., Cox T., Elo A.L., Fichera G.P., Gilioli R.
Psychosocial factors and mental health at work
Topics covered in this special issue: impact of flexible employment on mental health and choice of living arrangements; towards the development of a psychosocial risk management toolkit (PRIMAT); psychosocial factors and mental health at work in Canada; occupational health psychology education and training; managing mental health at Finnish workplaces; work-related post traumatic stress disorder among Italian bank employee victims of robbery.
GOHNET Newsletter, 2006, No.10, p.1-12. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/newsletter/gohnet10e310806.pdf [in English]
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/newsletter/gohnet10ref.pdf [in English]
Depuydt B., Tirard-Collet O.
Mental suffering at work - A point of reference for action
Souffrance mentale au travail - Un repčre pour l'action [in French]
This booklet consists of a review of the main papers presented at a seminar on mental suffering held in Dijon, France, from 7 to 10 November 2005. Presentations are grouped under the following headings: increased prevalence of mental suffering at work; medical and legal definitions of mental suffering; mental suffering indicators; importance of work organization; roles of labour inspectors, occupational physicians, occupational psychologists, and occupational safety and health institutions.
Ministčre de l'emploi, de la cohésion sociale et du logement, Institut national du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle, Direction de l'administration des ressources SIRPAC, 1498 route de Saint-Bel, BP 84, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France, Apr. 2006. 28p. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.institut-formation.travail.gouv.fr/Pages/FicParu%5C2007_01%5C2005_souffrance_mentale_au_travail.pdf [in French]
Kopp Viglino Y., Bruttin F.
Burnout? It's time to act! - Burnout among teachers
Burn-out? Il est temps d'agir! - Le burn-out de l'enseignant [in French]
These two articles address the problem of burnout. The first covers general aspects (definition, proportion of workers affected, societal costs, responsibilities of employers, preventive measures), while the second covers more specifically the issue of burnout among teachers, summarizing the findings of a survey that was part of a master's thesis on the topic. Proposed preventive measures aimed at employers are also listed.
Focus, June 2006, No.27, p.12-16. Illus. 5 ref.
Paolillo A.G., Haubold B., Leproust H., D'Escatha A., Soula M.C., Ameille J.
Social and employment outcomes of patients presumed to be victims of bullying
Devenir socioprofessionnel de patients en situation de harcčlement moral présumé [in French]
A large greater Paris hospital set up a unit specializing in the treatment of victims of bullying. This study examined the social and employment outcomes of the 202 patients who consulted the unit between January 2000 and December 2002. Data were collected during the examinations of the patients as well as by means of questionnaires addressed to the patients three months after the first consultation. A poor medical, social and employment prognosis was found, with loss of employment and often prolonged sickness absenteeism. The study also highlights the importance of organizational factors in causing mental health changes at work. It concludes that the best prospects of effective primary prevention involve acting on organizational factors.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.105, p.49-59. 18 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20146/$File/TF146.pdf [in French]
Artazcoz L., Benach J., Cortčs E., Borrell C., Leka S., Burton J., Shain M., Cox T., Elo A.L., Fichera G.P T., Gilioli R.
Psychosocial factors and mental health at work
Topics covered by this issue dedicated to psychosocial factors and mental health at work: impact of flexible employment on mental health and choice of living arrangements; development of a psychosocial risk management toolkit (PRIMAT); Canadian perspective of psychosocial factors and mental health at work; occupational health psychology education and training; managing mental health at Finnish workplaces; study of work-related post-traumatic stress disorder among Italian bank employee victims of robbery.
GOHNET Newsletter, 2006, No.10, p.2-12. Illus. 83 ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/newsletter/gohnet10e.pdf [in English]
Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Martikainen P., Lahelma E.
Associations of psychosocial working conditions with self-rated general health and mental health among municipal employees
The objective of this study was to examine associations between various occupational psychological factors and self-rated general health and mental health. Data were collected through a postal survey addressed to middle-aged employees of the city of Helsinki. A total of 5,829 responses were received (response rate 67%). All working conditions studied were strongly associated with both general and mental health but the associations weakened after various adjustments. Of the two organizational fairness measures considered, procedural fairness remained independently associated with both health outcomes. The associations between working conditions and different outcomes also depended strongly on occupational class.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.205-212. 47 ref.
Bauer J., Stamm A., Virnich K., Wissing K., Müller U., Wirsching M., Schaarschmidt U.
Correlation between burnout syndrome and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms among teachers
Burnout is the main cause of the increasing rates of premature retirement among schoolteachers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational burden and the psychological strain of teachers who are still in work. A sample of 408 teachers at ten German high schools was evaluated. Modes of coping with occupational burden were determined using the coping capacity questionnaire (MECCA). Psychopathological and psychosomatic symptoms were determined using the SCL90R questionnaire. Findings are discussed. Burnout was significantly correlated with psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Burnout was significantly higher among women, divorced teachers and teachers working part-time. Besides high numbers of pupils per class, teachers regarded the destructive and aggressive behaviour of pupils as the primary stress factor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.199-204. Illus. 28 ref.
Work-related mental disorders in Australia
This report explores what is understood by work-related mental disorders and examines the causes and consequences of stress. Topics covered: general overview of work-related mental disorders; occupational stress; health and performance effects of stress; magnitude and severity of work-related mental disorders; OHS management of stress; evaluation of prevention approaches; national prevention activity.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council, firstname.lastname@example.org, 2006. 27p. Illus. 34 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/F1711D49-8E4B-499C-B67E-3D12E40DC38D/0/MentalDisorderswebversion.pdf [in English]
Pearce D., Dubey M.
Australian workers' compensation law and its application - Psychological injury claims
This report examines arrangements in Australia for the management of workers' compensation claims for psychological injuries. Results of the study indicate that, overall, Australian jurisdictions apply similar statutory provisions for assessing eligibility for such compensation. It is recommended that greater benefits might be obtained through attempts at prevention and early rehabilitation of psychological injuries.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council, email@example.com, 2006. 117p.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/6C3352C9-7A50-421C-AA40-8B6F9DC10FFF/0/PsychInjuryClaimsReport.pdf [in English]
Cremniter D., Laurent A.
Post-traumatic stress syndrome: Clinical diagnosis and therapy
Syndrome de stress post-traumatique: clinique et thérapie [in French]
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is attracting increasing attention given the trend towards providing care for victims of disasters, collective accidents, hostage taking and high psychological impact incidents. The clinical picture is characterized by the repeated reliving of the trauma in intrusive memories ("flashbacks") that are specific to this syndrome, together with emotional detachment and non-specific symptoms such as psychosomatic or personality disorders. Therapeutic intervention involves immediate care on the site of the incident, post-immediate psychotherapy follow-up and in certain cases, long-term follow-up for psychotraumatism, particularly for victims of assault and violence.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2006, No.150, 5p. 40 ref.
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