Mental health - 787 entries found
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Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/107 [in English]
Petersen M.R., Burnett C.A.
The suicide mortality of working physicians and dentists
Using all deaths and corresponding census data in 26 states of the United States from 1984 to 1992, this study examined the suicide risk for physicians and dentists. Age-standardized suicide rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated for white male and white female physicians and white male dentists. For white female physicians, the suicide rate was elevated compared to the general working population (SRR 2.39). For white male physicians and dentists, the overall suicide rates were reduced (SRR 0.80 and 0.68 respectively). For older male physicians and dentists, however, elevated suicide rates were observed. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.25-29. 21 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/25 [in English]
Cosgrove M.P., Sargeant L.A., Griffin S.J.
Does depression increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes?
Workers may be tempted to allege that the onset of diabetes was precipitated or caused by depression induced by work in order to claim occupational disease compensation. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between work-related depression episodes and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. It was carried in the form of a literature survey. Risk factors were calculated using the Levin formula. The pooled fully adjusted relative risk estimate from the three highest quality studies was 1.25. However, depression was no more frequent among those with and without type 2 diabetes. Only 20% of cases of diabetes can be attributed to depression in people with both conditions. Further research is needed to determine possible causal mechanisms for the association and to ascertain whether depression and diabetes may have a common aetiology.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.7-14. Illus. 32 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/7 [in English]
Sheriff B., Stevens P.
Mental health challenges
This article discusses employers' responsibilities with respect to employees' mental health in Australia. It argues that this is a top management responsibility, requiring empathy and flexibility, together with awareness of the psychological frailty of victims when planning job or organizational changes. Reference is also made to legal aspects in Australia.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, May 2008, Vol.3, No.4, p.36-41. Illus.
LaBrash L.F., Pahwa P., Pickett W., Hagel L.M., Snodgrass P.R., Dosman J.A.
Relationship between sleep loss and economic worry among farmers: A survey of 94 active Saskatchewan noncorporate farms
Farm work involves seasonal peak busy periods with long hours of work and potential sleep loss. Social, technological and economic changes, and depressed commodity prices, have resulted in financial stress. The objective of this study was to examine the association between hours of sleep and economic worry among a population of farmers and their family members. It involved 195 persons from 94 active farms in two rural areas of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, who were interviewed by questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. During peak agricultural seasons, 31.6% of owner/operators reported less than six hours of sleep per night compared to 6.3% during the nonpeak season. A significant relationship (odds ratio 3.59) was observed between daily cash flow worry and impaired sleep during peak busy seasons.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.149-154. 24 ref.
Ramminger T., Cruz de Brito J.
Mental health work: A preliminary analysis of public service workers' health
O trabalho em saúde mental: uma análise preliminar relativa à saúde dos trabalhadores dos serviços públicos [in Portuguese]
This preliminary analysis of the health of workers in psychiatric services in Brazil is based on a literature survey of the relation between health and work at mental health services and individual and group interviews of mental health service workers. These elements will be used for further research.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.36-49. 63 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Trabalho%20em%20sa%C3%BAde%20mental.pdf [in Portuguese]
Needham I., Kingma M., O'Brian-Pallas L., McKenna K., Tucker R., Oud N.
Workplace violence in the health sector
Proceedings of a conference on workplace violence in the health care sector held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2008. Papers are grouped into chapters addressing the following issues: keynotes; economic aspects and implications of workplace violence; gender aspects; legal and ethical aspects; epidemiology, patterns and trends; policies and operational strategies; scientific aspects; social and psychological aspects; staff training and education.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2008. 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Boya F.O., Demiral Y., Ergör A., Akvardar Y., De Witte H.
Effects of perceived job insecurity on perceived anxiety and depression in nurses
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of perceived job insecurity on depression and anxiety among nurses working in the private health sector in Izmir, Turkey. A total of 462 nurses from 16 hospitals participated. Perceived quantitative and qualitative job insecurity were measured by means of structured questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Job strain was assessed by the demand-control-support questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Anxiety (odds ratio OR 2.2) and depression (OR 2.5) were significantly associated with qualitative job insecurity. Similarly, quantitative job insecurity was associated with anxiety (OR 3.4) and depression (OR 2.2).
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.613-619. 26 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_613.pdf [in English]
Yamasaki A., Araki S., Sakai R., Yokoyama K., Voorhees A.S.
Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: Time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density
Effects of nine social life indicators on annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-1996 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Indicators included unemployment rate, participation of women in the labour force, age structure of the population, population density, divorce rates, industry, age and sex. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.541-549. Illus. 65 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_541.pdf [in English]
Virtanen M., Koskinen S., Kivimäki M., Honkonen T., Vahtera J., Ahola K., Lönnqvist J.
Contribution of non-work and work-related risk factors to the association between income and mental disorders in a working population: The Health 2000 Study
The aim of this study was examine the contribution of non-work and work factors to the association between income and DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders in a working population. A representative sample of the Finnish working population aged 30-64 (1667 men, 1707 women) in 2000-2001 responded to a survey questionnaire on non-work factors (marital status, housing conditions, non-work social support, violence victimisation, smoking, physical symptoms), work factors (job demands, job control, social support at work, educational prospects, job insecurity) and household income. Somatic health was examined in a standard health examination. The 12-month prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The risk of having a depressive or anxiety disorder was 2.8 times higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group among men and 2.0 times higher among women. Work factors among men and non-work factors among women contribute to the income differences in mental health.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.171-178. 43 ref.
Phan Chan Thé E.
Identifying a suicide crisis and suicide prevention at the place of work
Repérage de la crise suicidaire et prévention du suicide au travail [in French]
Contents of this review article on the prevention of suicide risk at the place of work: general aspects; definition of suicide risk; identifying persons with suicidal intentions; recommendations with respect to behaviour aimed at work colleagues; evaluation of the risk and urgency; list of suicide risk factors proposed by the WHO; suicide prevention strategies at the place of work.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.84-88. Illus.
Lau B., Knardahl S.
Perceived job insecurity, job predictability, personality, and health
This study sought to determine whether perceived job insecurity was associated with workers' personality traits and beliefs. In addition, it was tested whether aspects of personality reinforced or moderated the relationships between job insecurity and health. A first questionnaire was returned by 5163 participants of the Oslo Health Study, and a follow-up questionnaire sent six months later to a random sample among the first respondents was returned by 1946 participants. Confidence in having a good job in two years was most strongly related to the health variables, and particularly with mental distress. Type-A behavior predicted an increase in upper back pain, while optimism predicted a reduction in low back pain. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.172-181. 37 ref.
Osinubi O.Y.O., Gandhi S.K., Ohman-Strickland P., Boglarsky C., Fiedler N., Kipen H., Robson M.
Organizational factors and office workers' health after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks: Long-term physical symptoms, psychological distress, and work productivity
To assess if organizational factors were predictors of workers' health and productivity after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 750 workers, comparing those that had direct exposures to the WTC attacks (south of Canal Street workers) with those less directly exposed (north of Canal Street workers). South of Canal Street workers reported headache and cough more frequently than north of Canal Street workers. Organizational culture was an independent predictor of cough and job stress, and job stress was an independent predictor of on-the-job productivity losses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.112-125. 45 ref.
Koopmans P.C., Roelen C.A.M., Groothoff J.W.
Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms
The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the Dutch working population. In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all absence episodes between April 2002 and November 2005 diagnosed as depression were identified. The mean (and median) duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms was 200 (179) days in men and 213 (201) days in women. In both sexes, older employees had longer absence durations. Employees in educational and public services (232 days in men and 242 days in women), commercial services (213 days in men and 219 days in women) and health care (212 days in men and 214 days in women) had the longest mean duration of absence, while men in the industrial sector (189 days) had the shortest absence periods. Employees in large sized companies (188 days in men and 208 days in women) had shorter absence episodes as compared to companies with less than 75 employees (214 days in men and 226 days in women). Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.711-719. Illus. 38 ref.
Consequences of violence exposures by emergency nurses
Emergency nurses are among the most likely groups of health care professionals to be exposed to violence. Violence exposure is the witnessing or receiving of a violent act with or without the intention to cause physical or psychological harm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature in relation to emergency nurses' exposure to violence and discuss the implications for emergency nursing practice. A review of the literature was conducted using the keywords violence, emergency nursing, health care workers and productivity. Emergency nurses exhibited anxiety, vulnerability, guilt, anger, sadness and peer blaming following violence exposures. Violence exposures affect emergency nurses both physically and psychologically. Interventions should be developed to reduce the negative consequences of violence exposures.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2008, Vol.16, No.4, p.409-418. 12 ref.
Waldenström K., Ahlberg G., Bergman P., Forsell Y., Stoetzer U., Waldenström M., Lundberg I.
Externally assessed psychosocial work characteristics and diagnoses of anxiety and depression
Interpretations of relationships between work characteristics and psychiatric disorders may be biased by over-reporting of unfavourable work characteristics among those with psychiatric disorders. This study attempts to account for this bias. The sample consisted of 672 employed men and women in different occupations. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed in an interview and psychiatric diagnoses were established according to DSM-IV. Data on current work characteristics and work characteristics three years ago were also obtained through interviews. Odds ratios (OR) for depression included lack of support from colleagues and supervisors (OR 6.4) and deterioration in work characteristics during the study period (OR 2.8). Findings for anxiety were similar but not statistically significant.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.90-97. Illus. 41 ref.
West C., Bernard B., Mueller C., Kitt M., Driscoll R., Tak S.
Mental health outcomes in police personnel after hurricane Katrina
This cross-sectional study examined symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) personnel who provided law enforcement and relief services to affected communities following Hurricane Katrina. Mental health outcomes related to personal and work-related exposures of police personnel eight weeks after the hurricane were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. Of the 912 police personnel who completed the questionnaire, 26% reported symptoms consistent with depression and 19% reported symptoms consistent with PTSD. For PTSD, risk factors included recovery of bodies, crowd control, assault and injury to a family member. Depressive symptoms were associated with rare family contact, uninhabitable home, isolation from the NOPD, assault and injury to a family member.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.689-695. 39 ref.
Kleppa E., Sanne B., Tell G.S.
Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: The Hordaland health study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine whether long work hours are associated with increased prevalences of anxiety and depression. A total of 1350 overtime workers was compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle and somatic health was included. Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.658-666. Illus. 22 ref.
Using routinely collected data to augment the management of health and productivity loss
The objective of this study was to test models of productivity loss developed from data collected using a health risk appraisal including the broader context of work, mental health, well-being, and the demands of organizational and family life. It involved the secondary analyses of 17,821 responses to a questionnaire on work limiting factors. Structural equation techniques were used to develop a series of models featuring 38 measures and a four-step hypothesized sequence. The tests confirmed the presence of two distinct but interrelated components driven by health issues, namely presenteeism (impaired performance at work) and absenteeism (time away from work) to describe productivity loss. The tests also documented the predictive power of eight categories of measures in accounting for the phenomenon.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.615-632. Illus. 21 ref.
A clinical perspective on workplace depression: Current and future directions
The aim of this literature review was to identify and propose potential solutions to challenges encountered by clinical and consulting occupational and environmental medicine practitioners in the management of workplace depression. Numerous consequences and challenges to the clinical management of workplace depression are recognized. Several potential present and future roles of the practitioner to improve the current management of workplace depression are identified, and specific interventions are examined.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.501-513. 115 ref.
Research on depression in the workplace: Where do we go from here?
The current status of research on depression in the workplace is reviewed and recommendations are made for future research to increase knowledge and close the research-to-practice gap. Knowledge gaps are identified along the public health continuum from prevention and promotion to disability management and return-to-work. The role of occupational physicians in generating and disseminating knowledge is discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.492-500. 62 ref.
Integrated management of depression: Improving system quality and creating effective interfaces
Depression is a chronic recurrent condition and is a leading cause of work disability. Improving occupational outcomes for depression will require an integrated approach that incorporates best practices from the clinical, community and workplace systems. After a brief review of quality improvement initiatives and promising practices in each system, an integrated chronic care model for depression is presented.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.482-491. Illus. 53 ref.
Burton W.N, Conti D.J.
Depression in the workplace: The role of the corporate medical director
Depressive disorders are a major health issue in the United Sates workplace. They are responsible for significant direct and indirect costs to the employer in terms of medical and pharmaceutical costs, time absent from work and decreased productivity while on the job (presenteeism). The corporate medical director (CMD) or occupational health physician must be equipped to respond to this health problem just as they must be able to respond to the more "traditional" workplace issues such as communicable disease, occupational exposures, and work-related ergonomic injuries. An integrated response by the CMD includes: forming partnerships with relevant departments; measuring the impact of the disease; providing leadership with regard to interventions in health plan design, disability management, workplace policy and education aimed at increasing awareness and destigmatization.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.476-481. Illus. 19 ref.
Williams C.D., Schouten R.
Assessment of occupational impairment and disability from depression
This literature review examines the relationship between work impairment and disability in the occupational psychiatry context and identifies practical strategies that occupational physicians can apply for screening, managing and appropriate referral of depressive employees. A new and more consistent strategy for identifying impairment severity and its impact on employment, including simple procedures to screen for depression and guidelines to minimize role and boundary confusion, is proposed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.441-450. 28 ref.
Challenges and opportunities for preventing depression in the workplace: A review of the evidence supporting workplace factors and interventions
The objective of this literature survey was to highlight workplace factors and interventions for preventing depression at the workplace. A strategy to prevent depression at the workplace can include developing individual resilience, screening high-risk individuals and reducing that risk, improving organizational literacy, and integrating workplace and health care systems to allow access to proactive quality interventions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.411-427. 125 ref.
Lerner D., Henke R.M.
What does research tell us about depression, job performance, and work productivity?
A review of research articles published since 2002, reporting on the magnitude and/or nature of depression's impact on work was carried out. Research in this field was found to be characterized by the use of three outcome indicators (employment status, absenteeism, and presenteeism metrics) and three research designs (population-based, workplace, and clinical). Compared to non-depressed individuals, those with depression have more unemployment, absences and at-work performance deficits. Methodological variation makes it difficult to determine the magnitude of these differences. Additionally, the research suggests that the work impact of depression is related to symptom severity and that symptom relief only partly reduces the adverse work outcomes of depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.401-410. 61 ref.
Diagnosis and referral of workplace depression
Effective treatment of depression requires an understanding of the many possible reasons for employees and patients to complain of "depression." This process of differential diagnosis includes panic anxiety, thyroid and other medical conditions, as well as several distinct types of depression (including atypical depression and melancholia). Optimal treatment requires accurate and specific diagnosis and focused care, with some cases requiring urgent psychiatric referral. Optimal diagnosis and specific treatment is a cost-effective approach that saves money for employers, while helping employees.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.396-400. 7 ref.
Langlieb A.M., DePaulo J.R.
Etiology of depression and implications on work environment
The aetiology of clinical forms of depression and their interaction with workplace factors are described based on selective literature searches. Substantial research exists on the causes of depression. The causes of clinical forms of depression are complex. Genetic factors, several specific brain disorders and gender, as well as life events or circumstances, are all involved in the causal pathway. Research addressing how the work environment impacts depression and its role in aggravating or alleviating depression is more limited. Research findings on the various causal connections in depressive disorders may provide some guides to treatment as well as to further research on depression in the workplace.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.391-395. 25 ref.
Kessler R.C., Merikangas K.R., Wang P.S.
The prevalence and correlates of workplace depression in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
This study examines workplace prevalence and correlates of major depressive episodes based on the results of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. A total of 6.4% of respondents had 12-month major depressive disorder. An additional 1.1% had major depressive episodes due to bipolar disorder or mania-hypomania. Only about half of depressed workers received treatment. Fewer than half of treated workers received care consistent with published treatment guidelines. Depression disease management programs can have a positive return-on-investment from the employer perspective, but only when they are based on best practices.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.381-390. 103 ref.
Puriene A., Aleksejuniene J., Petrauskiene J., Balciuniene I., Janulyte V.
Self-perceived mental health and job satisfaction among Lithuanian dentists
The aim of this study was to document dentists' self-perceived mental health and job satisfaction of Lithuanian dentists. A postal questionnaire survey was mailed to all the 2449 licensed dentists registered with the Lithuanian Dental Association. The response rate was 68.2%. The questionnaire investigated dentists' mental health and job satisfaction during the previous year. The majority of respondents (80.7%) reported being satisfied with their job. Nervousness (89.2%) and burnout (83.6%) were the most prevalent mental complaints and they also tended to be the most chronic of all reported mental disorders. Increasing age significantly reduced the possibility of nervousness or depression and increased the possibility of being satisfied with dental practice. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2008, Vol.46, No.3, p.247-252. Illus. 35 ref.
Kolstrup C., Lundqvist P., Pinzke P.
Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. Data on self-perceived psychosocial work environment and MSDs were collected by means of questionnaires. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as being good by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs of the back and upper extremities. The study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.23-36. 53 ref.
Work, stress research update
This article summarizes the findings of two recent surveys on occupational stress among Canadian workers. Overall, workplace stress and related mental problems seem to be on the rise. However, executives seem to be in better health than in earlier surveys conducted in 1997 and 2002. Other findings are discussed.
Accident Prevention, Aug.-Sep. 2008, Vol.55, No.3, p.19-20.
Violanti J.M., Charles L.E., Hartley T.A., Mnatsakanova A., Andrew M.E., Fekedulegn D., Vila B., Burchfiel C.M.
Shift-work and suicide ideation among police officers
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between shift work and suicide ideation among police officers. Shift work was based on daily payroll records over five years for 41 women and 70 men. Standardized psychological measures were employed. ANOVA and Poisson regression were used to analyse associations. Among policewomen with increased depressive symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 116% for every 10-unit increase in percentage of hours worked on day shift (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.16). Among policemen with higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 13% with every 10-unit increase in the percentage of hours worked on afternoon shift (PR 1.13). Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.758-768. 57 ref.
Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence
Major depression is a leading cause of psychiatric morbidity. Psychosocial factors at the workplace may influence the occurrence of this disorder, but evidence so far remains circumstantial. This literature survey reviews studies addressing the risk of major depression and depressive symptoms relative to psychosocial stressors in the working environment. Sixteen company or population-based studies including some 63,000 employees were identified. Despite the methodological limitations of several studies, there are consistent findings indicating that perceived adverse psychosocial factors at the workplace are related to elevated risks of subsequent onset of depressive symptoms or a major depressive episode.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.438-445. Illus. 41 ref.
Hoffmann-Richter U., Hoffmann H., Pfister S., Siegenthaler F., Schade V., Znoj H.
Psychosocial factors as reversible components in social insurance systems
Psychosoziale Faktoren in den Sozialversicherungen als Kippfigur [in German]
Les facteurs psychosociaux, figures réversibles des assurances sociales [in French]
This article discusses mental disturbances caused by occupational accidents or diseases, which represent an obstacle to rehabilitation. It presents a Swiss project entitled EBEPS (German acronym for identification and treatment of mental disorders in the context of occupational accidents and diseases), whose aim is to simplify the processing of complex rehabilitation cases. The project involved insured workers whose cases were followed up using "New Case Management" approaches, and who answered a questionnaire on their accident or diseases, as well as on various psychosocial factors and their perception of responsibilities in 2007. The questionnaire was submitted again one year later. The information collected enabled the identification of predictors of rehabilitation. The project will allow the development of an instrument that improves the early identification of workers who could have rehabilitation problems.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2008, No.79, p.35-46. Illus. 11 ref.
Psychological resources, their social antecedents, and association with well-being and health behaviour in early adulthood
The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how psychosocial characteristics in early childhood and adolescence predict successful entrance into working life. The subjects were members of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, which consists of all women and men born in 1966 in two northern provinces of Finland (n=12,058). At the most recent follow-up in 2007, 11,637 subjects were alive. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. Findings highlight the importance of family support during childhood and school achievement during adolescence. Other findings are discussed with respect to gender differences and differences in social and educational levels.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2008. 71p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 23.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.tsr.fi/files/TietokantaTutkittu/1998/98451Loppuraportti.pdf [in English]
van Rhenen W., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B.
Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population
The objective of this study was to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the 50-item four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ), using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should allow a reliable evaluation of the risk of sickness absence in occupational health practice and be useful for future studies on distress and mental disorders. The questionnaire was given to workers with and without sickness absence due to distress. Sensitivity and specificity were compared for various potential cutoff points. A distress cutoff point of ≥11 appears reliably indicative of a distress level at which an employee is presumably at risk of sick leave on psychological grounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.3, 8p. Illus. 56 ref.
Taris T.W., Geurts S.A.E., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B., Lagerveld S.E.
All day and all of the night: The relative contribution of two dimensions of workaholism to well-being in self-employed workers
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between workaholism and perceived health (exhaustion, physical complaints, and feelings of professional efficacy). It involved a sample of 477 Dutch self-employed workers. Workaholism is characterized by long work hours coupled with the inability to detach from work. It was expected that both workaholism components would be related to ill health. Variance and regression analyses revealed that this reasoning was confirmed for one component (inability to detach from work), but not for the other (working long hours).
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.153-165. 47 ref.
Willis T.A., O'Connor D.B., Smith L.
Investigating effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflict in relation to morningness-eveningness and shift work
The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has been found to be a strong predictor of both psychological and physiological outcomes. A sample of 112 police employees in the United Kingdom completed a baseline questionnaire that contained the ERI model and a measure of "morningness or eveningness" (M-E) chronotype. Two months later, participants completed a second questionnaire, including this time measures of work-family conflict and burnout. Regression analyses confirmed that ERI was a significant predictor of psychological adjustment to shift work. Moreover, M-E was found to make a unique contribution to the prediction of work-family conflict, such that evening types reported greater levels of maladjustment. The results indicate that adjustment to shift work and attendant effects on work-family conflict can be affected by an individual's morning-evening typology. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.125-137. 45 ref.
Exposure to stress: Occupational hazards in hospitals
Various studies show that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors. The purpose of this booklet is to explain the sources of occupational stress, to identify the adverse health effects of occupational stress and to recommend work practices to reduce occupational stress. Short descriptions of two hospital stress prevention programmes are included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. iii, 13p. 28 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-136/pdfs/2008-136.pdf [in English]
Edimansyah B.A., Rusli B.N., Naing L., Mohamed Rusli B.A., Winn T., Tengku Mohamed Ariff B.R.H.
Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychological job factors in male automotive assembly workers
This cross-sectional study explores the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors among automotive industry workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 workers, all male, responded to Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous working conditions were positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, while supervisor support was inversely associated with depression and stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.90-100. 40 ref.
Morin E., Aranha F.
Meaning of work, mental health and organizational commitment
Sens du travail, santé mentale et engagement organisationnel [in French]
The objective of this survey was to demonstrate that characteristics such as the usefulness and moral rectitude of the work, the learning and development opportunities, autonomy, recognition and the quality of human relations were linked to the meaning that people give to their work. Data were collected from the personnel of four organizations: a hospital, a health and social services centre, a research centre and an engineering consulting firm by means of questionnaires. Jobs perceived as being useful for society and that allow knowledge to be acquired were considered positive factors. Other hypotheses relating to the positive or negative impact of the meaning given to the work on psychological well-being or distress also emerged. Based on these findings, a theoretical model was developed that presents work organization as a determinant of employees' health, attitudes and performance. The report contains recommendations regarding the prevention of symptoms of psychological distress and the reduction of stress.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. iii, 54p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-543.pdf [in French]
Innstrand S.T., Langballe E.M., Espnes G.A., Falkum E., Aasland O.G.
Positive and negative work-family interaction and burnout: A longitudinal study of reciprocal relations
This study examined the relationship between work-family interaction in terms of the direction of influence (work-to-family vs. family-to-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation) and burnout. A sample of 2235 respondents from eight different occupational groups (lawyers, bus drivers, information technology workers, physicians, teachers, church ministers, advertising agency professional and nurses) supplied data at two points in time with a 2-year time interval. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed evidence for normal, reverse and reciprocal relationships. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-15. Illus. 64 ref.
Saijo Y., Ueno T., Hashimoto Y.
Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between specific workload items and job stress among firefighters engaged in 24h shift work. The subjects were 1301 firefighters who answered a questionnaire covering age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, CES-D depression scale and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that workload, workload variance, conflicts, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2008, Vol.51, No.5, p.380-391. 53 ref.
Bond M.A., Kalaja A., Markkanen P., Cazeca D, Daniel S., Tsurikova L., Punnett L.
Expanding our understanding of the psychosocial work environment: A compendium of measures of discrimination, harassment and work-family issues
There is broad recognition that the psychosocial environment at work can affect physical and mental health as well as enterprise performance outcomes such as efficiency and productivity. Past research across several disciplines has revealed that gender- and race-related factors such as values, biases, harassment, discrimination, lack of support and work-family balance issues can affect physical and mental health. However, these features of the work environment have rarely been included simultaneously with the study of other workplace conditions. The objective of this project was to provide practical tools to occupational safety and health researchers interested in evaluating the role of discrimination, bias and work-family issues in occupational injuries and illness. A literature survey enabled the compiling of inventories, check lists, questionnaires and scenarios in the form of a catalogue of 46 measures that will be useful for investigating the psychosocial work environment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Feb. 2008. vi, 275p. Approx. 120 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-104/pdfs/2008-104.pdf [in English]
Munce S.E.P, Stansfeld S.A., Blackmore E.R., Stewart D.E.
The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic study
This study examined the association between depression and absenteeism among individuals with chronic pain. Data were obtained from a Canadian community health survey. The sample comprised over nine million individuals who reported at least one chronic pain condition and were absent from their job in the previous week because of illness or disability. Nineteen percent of individuals reporting absenteeism met the criteria for major depression versus 7.9% of non-absent individuals. The presence of major depression represented a three-fold risk of absenteeism. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1206-1211. 26 ref.
Mauer M.P., Cummings K.R., Carlson G.A.
Health effects in New York State personnel who responded to the World Trade Center disaster
The state of health of 1423 New York State personnel who responded to the World Trade Center disaster was evaluated. Data collected by means of questionnaires, clinical examinations and laboratory tests were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Lower and upper respiratory symptoms were reported by nearly half of the study participants. One third reported a psychological symptom. Some health effects were associated with having been caught in the cloud of dust on the day of the terrorist attack. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1197-1205. Illus. 28 ref.
Wada K., Sakata Y., Fujino Y., Yoshikawa T., Tanaka K., Miyajima E., Watanabe M., Aizawa Y.
The association of needlestick injury with depressive symptoms among first-year medical residents in Japan
The objective of this study was to determine the association of depressive symptoms with needlestick injury among first-year medical residents in Japan. It was conducted in the form of a cross-sectional study among 107 medical residents in 14 training hospitals. The baseline survey was conducted in 2005 and the follow-up survey in 2006. Depressive symptoms were classified based on the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression Stale (CES-D). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were examined using logistic regression analysis. For medical residents without depressive symptoms at the baseline survey, needlestick injury events were associated with depressive symptoms at the follow-up survey (corrected odds ratio 2.98). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.750-755. Illus. 22 ref.
Dimich-Ward H., Taliadouros V., Teschke K., Chow Y., Abboud R., Chan-Yeung M.
Quality of life and employment status of workers with western red cedar asthma
The impact of current employment status and other factors on quality of life was evaluated for workers diagnosed with western red cedar asthma in British Columbia, Canada. Data were collected by means of structured telephone interviews. Among the 213 participants, employment status was the most consistent predictor of quality-of-life domains, with highest scores for employed subjects, particularly those who were no longer exposed to red cedar. Subjects who had quit work because of their asthma had worse scores, particularly for vitality and general health perceptions. Other factors independently associated with specific aspects of poor quality of life were having asthma-like symptoms, taking medication, and not being married.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1040-1045. 29 ref.
Ahola K., Honkonen T., Virtanen M., Kivimäki M., Isometsä E., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Interventions in relation to occupational burnout: The population-based health 2000 study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation in burnout prevention interventions. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, structured interviews and the Finnish national register of psychopharmacological prescriptions in a representative sample of 3276 employees. When compared with employees free of burnout, the odds ratio of severe burnout for participation in occupational interventions was 0.41 and in individual-focused interventions 5.36. Antidepressant prescriptions were 2.53 times more common among those with severe burnout than among those without burnout after adjustment for depressive and anxiety disorders.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.943-952. 60 ref.
Oramas Viera A., Almirall hernandez P., Fernández I.
Occupational stress and burnout syndrome among Venezuelan teachers
Estrés laboral y el síndrome de burnout en docentes venezolanos [in Spanish]
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of occupational stress and burnout among Venezuelan teachers, together with associated factors. A total of 885 teachers of 53 schools answered a Spanish-language version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Questionnaire for teachers, as well as a stress symptoms questionnaire. Emotional exhaustion was the most prevalent dimension of burnout. The best predictors of emotional exhaustion were age and perceived occupational stress. For depersonalisation, the best predictors were perceived stress and being of male gender. Occupational factors associated with increased stress were workload, student-related factors, low salary and inadequate materials and equipment. Other findings are discussed.
Salud de los Trabajadores, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.15, No.2, p.71-87. Illus. 35 ref
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