Mental health - 787 entries found
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Shimazu A., Schaufeli W.B.
Is workaholism good or bad for employee well-being? The distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement among Japanese employees
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the empirical distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement by examining their relationships with well-being in a sample of 776 Japanese employees. Questionnaires were used to measure workaholism, work engagement and well-being. Structural equation modeling showed that workaholism was positively associated with ill-health and negatively associated with life satisfaction and job performance. In contrast, work engagement was negatively associated with ill-health and positively associated with life satisfaction and job performance.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.495-502. Illus. 45 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_495.pdf [in English]
Bara A.C., Arber S.
Working shifts and mental health - Findings from the British Household Panel Survey (1995-2005)
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of shift work on mental health. Longitudinal data (1995-2005) from the British Household Panel Survey were analyzed. Controlling for age, marital status, education, number of years working and baseline mental health, logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of night work and shift patterns on mental health. The type of shift work was found to have a differential impact on mental health according to gender. Women's mental health was primarily affected by varied shift patterns, while among men, night work had the greater negative impact.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.35, No.5, p.361-367. 40 ref.
Occupational well-being of construction site foremen. Findings of a survey in France's Languedoc-Roussillon region
Le bien-être au travail chez les conducteurs de travaux. Résultats d'une action menée en Languedoc-Roussillon [in French]
Although the taking into account of psychosocial hazards is a difficult issue, it does appear an attractive option for the case of middle management personnel: such an exercise enables anticipating the compounding effect of prevention measures, especially for risks conventionally confronted by operators whose work is organized by these middle managers. This article describes an approach set up for building and civil engineering general foremen, stemming from the so-called wellbeing approach developed at INRS. An action was developed based on a health/well-being questionnaire designed for integration into healthcare service routine activity. This effectively provided data on group health and organizational aspects. These data were subsequently exploited within a group discussion framework, in this case involving health services representatives and prevention professionals of the sector at the regional level.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.41-51. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202315/$File/ND2315.pdf [in French]
Mental health - Towards a redefinition of the recognition/belonging pair
Santé mentale - Vers une redéfinition du duo reconnaissance/appartenance [in French]
The need for recognition is by far not only a spoilt child's whim. It is an inseparable complement of the sense of belonging and therefore essential to the cohesion of all human groups. The unstoppable growth of organization size and the longing for mobility among young workers nonetheless require us to consider new forms of expression of this inseparable mobilizing pair of factors.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.14-17. Illus. 1 ref.
Economic crisis and health
Gesund durch die Wirtschaftkrise [in German]
Superare la crisi economica senza rimetterci in salute [in Italian]
Crise économique et santé [in French]
This article addresses the issue of the physical and mental health of workers of struggling enterprises as well as of unemployed workers. Economic crisis generates stress and fear for the future among employees and increases the risk of accidents among unemployed.
Benefit, Dec. 2009, No.4, p.4-8. Illus.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/benefit_09_4_f.pdf [in French]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/benefit_09_4_d.pdf [in German]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/benefit_09_4_i.pdf [in Italian]
Vandenberghe C., Stordeur S., D'Hoore W.
An examination of the effects of job decision latitude, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction on absenteeism in nursing units
Une analyse des effets de la latitude de décision, de l'épuisement émotionnel et de la satisfaction au travail sur l'absentéisme au sein des unités de soins infirmiers [in French]
This study examined the role of work satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and job decision latitude as predictive variables of absenteeism among nursing staff at a Belgian university hospital. Usable data were collected from 625 nurses from 51 care units. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. In univariate models, absenteeism was found to be significantly related to emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and job decision latitude. In multivariate logistic regression models however, emotional exhaustion was no longer related to absenteeism, contrary to job decision latitude and job satisfaction. These relationships were examined in greater detail by means of causal pathway analyses. The best fit was found for the model in which job decision latitude and job satisfaction were the determinants of absenteeism. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Travail humain, July 2009, Vol.72, No.3, p.209-228. Illus. 73 ref.
Dejours C., Bègue F.
Suicide at work: What can be done?
Suicide au travail: que faire? [in French]
This manual consists of a compilation of the main clinical and theoretical data on suicide at the place of work. Using the example of an intervention carried out in an aerospace enterprise after multiple suicides on a single site, it proposes a series of principles on which a preventive actions programme can be built.
Presses Universitaires de France, 6, avenue Reille, 75685 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2009. 130p. 13 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.
Park S.G., Min K.B., Chang S.J., Kim H.C., Min J.Y.
Job stress and depressive symptoms among Korean employees: The effects of culture on work
This study was conducted to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and job stress among Korean employees in small and medium-sized enterprises, and examined which components of stress are involved in the risk for depression. Data were collected from a work-stress survey of 3013 full-time employees in a Korean metropolitan area. An increased risk of depressive symptoms was found for job insecurity, occupational climate, job demands, inadequate social support, lack of rewards and organizational injustice.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.397-405. 43 ref.
Vanroelen C., Levecque K., Louckx F.
Psychosocial working conditions and self-reported health in a representative sample of wage-earners: A test of the different hypotheses of the demand-control-support model
This article presents an in-depth examination of Karasek's demand-control-support-model, using data from the questionnaire survey of a representative sample of 11,099 workers in Belgium. The outcome measures were self-reported persistent fatigue, musculoskeletal complaints and emotional well-being. Quantitative job demands and supervisor support had the strongest effects. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.329-342. 68 ref.
van Daalen G., Willemsen T.M., Sanders K., van Veldhoven M.J.P.M.
Emotional exhaustion and mental health problems among employees doing "people work": The impact of job demands, job resources and family-to-work conflict
This study investigated the relationship between various job characteristics and family-to-work conflict, and emotional exhaustion and mental health problems. Multiple regression analyses were performed using data from 1,008 employees of ten Dutch mental care institutions. It was found that different job characteristics as well as family-to-work conflict were associated with emotional exhaustion and mental health problems in each job type. The relationship between family-to-work conflict and emotional exhaustion was furthermore mitigated by social support from colleagues for those who worked in low patient interaction jobs. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.291-303. 65 ref.
Kim H.C., Park S.G., Min K.B., Yoon K.J.
Depressive symptoms and self-reported occupational injury in small and medium-sized companies
To determine whether depressive symptoms had an effect on the risk of occupational accidents, a survey of 1350 workers at 44 small and medium enterprises in Korea was carried out by means of questionnaires. A first survey requested information regarding personal characteristics, work characteristics, and depressive symptoms; the second questionnaire queried participants about occupational injuries (including minor scratches or cuts) experienced in the previous four months. Risk ratios (RRs) of injuries were calculated through Poisson regression analysis. After adjustment for demographic factors, the RRs were 1.75 and 2.68 in men and women, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.715-721. 37 ref.
Bonafons C., Jehel L., Coroller-Béquet A.
Specificity of the links between workplace harassment and PTSD: Primary results using court decisions, a pilot study in France
France is one of the first countries to have passed specific legislation concerning "mental harassment" (bullying) in the workplace. The objective of this study was to clarify the criteria that French courts consider as characteristic of mental harassment, and to check whether the specific links between mental harassment at work and post-traumatic stress disorder reported in recent international studies have been taken into account. The study was based on a sample of 22 persons who were legally recognized as having been mentally harassed at work, selected from the French Ministry of Justice Website. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.663-668. Illus. 20 ref.
Sinokki M., Hinkka K., Ahola K,, Koskinen S., Klaukka T., Kivimäki M., Puukka P., Lönnqvist J., Virtanen M.
The association between team climate at work and mental health in the Finnish Health 2000 study
This study investigated whether team climate at work was associated with DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication in a random sample of 3347 Finnish employees aged 30-64 years. Data on team climate and depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were collected during interviews. Data on the use of antidepressant medication in a three-year follow-up period were collected from the national social insurance register. Poor team climate at work was significantly associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio (OR) 1.61) but not with alcohol use. Poor team climate also predicted antidepressant medication (OR 1.53), but not anxiety after adjustment for job demands and control.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.523-528. 51 ref.
Ahola K., Gould R., Virtanen M., Honkonen T., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Occupational burnout as a predictor of disability pension: A population-based cohort study
The aim of this study was to investigate whether burnout predicts new disability pension. It involved a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3125 employees in Finland. The data collection in 2000-2001 comprised an interview, a clinical health examination including a standardised mental health interview, and a questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Disability pensions and their causes until December 2004 were extracted from national pension records. The association between burnout and new disability pension was analysed with logistic regression models. Findings are discussed. Burnout predicts permanent work disability and could therefore be used as a risk marker of chronic health-related work stress.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.284-290. 50 ref.
Date Y., Abe Y., Aoyagi K., Ye Z., Takamura N., Tomita M., Osaki M., Honda S.
Depressive symptoms in Chinese factory workers in Nagasaki, Japan
This study examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers in Japan and attempted to identify the determining risk factors. Subjects completed self-administered questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, working conditions, health administration, social support (including the presence of interpreters at workplace), and health behaviour. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with a high CES-D score, while older age (30-49 years) was only marginally associated with a high CES-D score. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.376-382. 40 ref.
Hannerz H., Tüchsen F., Holbaek Pedersen B., Dyreborg J., Rugulies R., Albertsen K.
Work-relatedness of mood disorders in Denmark
All employed persons in Denmark 20-59 years in 2001 were followed until 2005 for hospital admissions for mood disorders. Gender-stratified standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated by industry. A total of 10,731 cases of mood disorder were observed among women and 8,305 among men. There were four industries among women and 13 among men that showed elevated SIR. A substantial proportion of mood disorders among working people can be regarded as work-related.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.4, p.294-300. 45 ref.
Siegrist J., Wege N., Pühlhofer F., Wahrendorf M.
A short generic measure of work stress in the era of globalization: Effort-reward imbalance
This study evaluates the psychometric properties of a short version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. It was tested on a representative sample of 10,698 employed men and women in Germany. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression analysis were applied. In addition to satisfactory internal consistency of scales, a model representing the theoretical structure of the scales provided the best data fit in a competitive test. Scoring high on the ERI scales was associated with elevated risks of poor self-rated health. This short version of the ERI questionnaire reveals satisfactory psychometric properties, and can be recommended for further use in research and practice.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.1005-1013. Illus. 38 ref.
Magnusson Hanson L.L., Theorell T., Bech P., Rugulies R., Burr H., Hyde M., Oxenstierna G., Westerlund H.
Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees
To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women, a representative sample of 5985 gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age was surveyed by means of a questionnaire on work demands, decision authority, and support and conflicts. Depressive symptoms were recorded by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Data were subjected to linear regression analyses. Depressive symptoms were found to be associated with conflicts with fellow workers among men. Other important associations included decision authority in both men and women, job demands in men and support from fellow workers in women.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.951-960. 52 ref.
Tsutsumi A., Nagami M., Yoshikawa T., Kogi K., Kawakami N.
Participatory intervention for workplace improvements on mental health and job performance among blue-collar workers: A cluster randomized controlled trial
To explore the effect of participatory intervention for workplace improvement on mental health and job performance, 11 assembly lines were randomly allocated to six intervention and five control lines (47 and 50 workers, respectively). Participants were surveyed by means of questionnaires at baseline and at the end of the intervention. General Health Questionnaire scores significantly deteriorated in the control group, whereas the score remained at the same level in the intervention group. Health and Work Performance Questionnaire scores increased in the intervention group, but decreased in the control group. Participatory intervention for workplace improvement appears effective against deterioration in mental health and for improving job performance.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.554-563. Illus. 46 ref.
Cohidon C., Imbernon E., Goldberg M.
Prevalence of common mental disorders and their work consequences in France, according to occupational category
The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of the common mental disorders according to occupational category in France and to describe the consequences of these disorders on their work. The study was carried out from 1999 to 2003. The sample consisted of approximately 36,000 persons aged 18 years and older. Data were collected using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Anxiety disorders were most common (in 17% of men and 26% of women), followed by mood disorders (in 10% of men and 14% of women). Prevalences of disorders were consistently higher among those in the lowest occupational categories. Among those reporting mental disorders, about 50% said that their work was affected. The repercussions on the job varied by occupational category and differently for men and women. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.52, No.2, p.141-152. 49 ref.
Tokuda Y, Hayano K., Ozaki M., Bito S., Yanai H., Koizumi S.
The interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among hospital physicians in Japan: A path analysis
In Japan, a growing number of physicians are leaving their hospitals because of difficult working conditions in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 for hospital physicians throughout Japan to analyze the interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among physicians using various standardized questionnaires. Of 336 physicians invited to participate in the study, 236 responded (response rate 70%). Sixty physicians (25.4%) were women with a mean age of 41 years. In the path analysis, burnout and poor mental health were related directly to job dissatisfaction and short sleeping time, while they were related indirectly to poor work control and heavy on-call duty. In the multi-group path analysis of both genders, sleeping time was related to job satisfaction more likely among female physicians but less among male physicians. Immediate, extensive and decisive measures need to be implemented to improve work condition and to reduce overwork among hospital physicians.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.166-172. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/166/_pdf/-char/ja/ [in English]
Phelps A., Lloyd D., Creamer M., Forbes D.
Caring for carers in the aftermath of trauma
The potential impact on psychological well-being of working in the caring professions in the aftermath of trauma and disaster has been recognized for many years. These stress-related conditions include burnout, compassion fatigue and vicarious traumatization. Although prevalent, these conditions do not affect all workers in the field. Various studies have investigated potential risk and protective factors. It is argued that the outcomes of this research should be used to guide practical interventions in the workplace designed to minimize stress-related problems. A framework that incorporates interventions at the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels is outlined, and research investigating the efficacy of interventions at each of these levels is recommended.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.18, No.3, p.313-330. 72 ref.
Otsuka Y., Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Mori I.
Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers
This study examined the relationships between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly-selected sample of 2000 workers, among whom 1821 responded (a response rate of 91.1%). Data were subjected to covariance analyses. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration levels. High levels of social support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue and concentration difficulty levels. These findings suggest that improving coping skills such as using social support or positive reframing may mitigate the adverse health effects of long working hours.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_22.pdf [in English]
Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-4-4.pdf [in English]
Hilton M.F., Staddon Z., Sheridan J., Whiteford H.A.
The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance
There is a high level of psychological distress in full-time heavy goods vehicle drivers (HGV) in Australia (incidence rate: 4.5% per month). A questionnaire survey was carried out among Australian HGV drivers using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaires (completed answers received: 1324). Depression, anxiety and stress had no significant effect on driver absenteeism or self-rated driving performance. However, where there was severe (1.5%) or very severe (1.8%) depression, there was an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near-miss in the past 28 days, a result similar to that obtained when driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. It is suggested that an action plan focusing on drivers' mental health status be developed in order to reduce accidents and driver fatalities.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2009, Vol.41, No.3, p.453-461. 90 ref.
The meaning of work, mental health and organizational commitment
By means of questionnaires, data were collected among employees of four organizations: a hospital, a health and social services centre, a research centre and an engineering consulting firm. The objective was to demonstrate that characteristics such as the usefulness and moral rectitude of the work, the learning and development opportunities, autonomy, recognition and the quality of human relations were linked to the meaning that people give to their work. A theoretical model was developed that presents work organization as a determinant of employees' health, attitudes and performance. Recommendations regarding the prevention of symptoms of psychological distress and the reduction of stress are included.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. iii, 54p. Illus. Approx. 150 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-585.pdf [in English]
Brun J.P., Biron C., Ivers H.
Strategic approach to preventing occupational stress
This report presents an occupational stress diagnostic tool, documents the steps required for preventing occupational mental health problems and proposes a strategic occupational stress prevention process.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. xii, 61p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-577.pdf [in English]
Stansfeld S.A,, Clark C., Caldwell T., Rodgers B., Power C.
Psychosocial work characteristics and anxiety and depressive disorders in midlife: The effects of prior psychological distress
This study examines the extent to which the association between work stressors and adult psychiatric diagnoses is explained by earlier psychological distress. It involved the follow-up at 45 years of age of 8243 participants in paid employment from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. It was found that childhood and early adulthood psychological distress predict work characteristics in mid-adulthood but do not explain the associations of work characteristics with depressive episode and generalised anxiety disorder in midlife.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.634-642. 42 ref.
O'Neill E., McNamee R., Agius R., Gittins M., Hussey L., Turner S.
The validity and reliability of diagnoses of work-related mental ill-health
A United Kingdom surveillance scheme for work-related ill-health involving occupational physicians suggests that mental ill-health incidence is increasing by around 13% per year, with anxiety, depression and work-related stress being the most common diagnoses. However, there have been no studies of the validity and reliability of such diagnoses. Given the existence of a large network of psychiatrists also involved in surveillance of work-related ill-health, this study measured the validity and reliability of work-related mental ill-health diagnoses. 100 anonymous summaries of previously-reported cases were sent to five psychiatrists and five occupational physicians, who assigned a diagnosis and judged whether the case was work-related. While there was overall agreement on mental ill-health diagnoses, there were differences on the diagnosis of stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.726-731. 20 ref.
Ertel K.A., Koenen K.C., Berkman L.F.
Incorporating home demands into models of job strain: Findings from the work, family, and health network
The purpose of this study was to integrate home demands into the demand-control-support model to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child younger than 18 years in the household signified home demands. The presence of depressive symptoms was determined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household. There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Job strain may therefore be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1244-1252. Illus. 39 ref.
Hilton M.F., Scuffham P.A., Sheridan J., Cleary C.M., Whiteford H.A.
Mental ill-health and the differential effect of employee type on absenteeism and presenteeism
This study examined the relationship between employee psychological distress, employee type (white-collar and blue-collar) and productivity. Using the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire in a sample of 60,556 full-time Australian employees, it examined the impact of psychological distress according to the Kessler scale (K6) on employee productivity. High K6 score resulted in a presenteeism increase of 6% in both blue and white-collar employees. Among white-collar workers, there was no statistically significant difference in absenteeism rates by low and high psychological distress. However, the same comparison for blue-collar workers showed that high psychological distress results in an 18% increase in absenteeism rates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1228-1243. Illus. 85 ref.
Billings D.W., Cook R.F., Hendrickson A., Dove D.C.
A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia health promotion programme for the workplace, designed to help reduce stress and the risk of depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 309 working adults were randomly assigned to the web-based intervention group or to a control group. All participants were assessed on multiple self-reported outcomes before and after the intervention. Relative to controls, the web-based group reduced their stress, increased their knowledge of depression and anxiety, developed more positive attitudes toward stress treatment and adopted a more controlled approach to alcohol consumption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.960-968. 44 ref.
Duijts S.F.A., Kant I., van den Brandt P.A., Swaen G.M.H.
Effectiveness of a preventive coaching intervention for employees at risk for sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints: Results of a randomized controlled trial
Employees of three health care and educational institutions in the Netherlands were screened for the risk for sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints. Retained subjects were identified and randomized into two groups. The intervention group received the preventive coaching program, while the control group received usual care. No effect of coaching on self-reported sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints was found. However the intervention group reported statistically significant improved health, less psychological distress, less burnout, less need for recovery and an increased satisfaction with life.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.765-776. Illus. 32 ref.
Cho J.J., Kim J.Y., Chang S.J., Fiedler N., Koh S.B., Crabtree B.F., Kang D.M., Kim Y.K., Choi Y.H.
Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine which components of occupational stress or job characteristics were associated with depression among Korean workers. It involved a nationwide sample of 8522 workers, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographics, job characteristics, depressive symptoms and occupational stress. Multivariate analyses show that inadequate social support (odds ratio (OR) 1.58) and discomfort in occupational climate (OR 1.25) were more important risk factors for depression than organizational injustice, job demand and job control. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.47-57. 63 ref.
de Graaf R., Kessler R.C., Fayyad J., ten Have M., Alonso J., Angermeyer M., Borges G., Demyttenaere K., Gasquet I., de Girolamo G., Haro J.M., Jin R,, Karam E.G., Ormel J., Posada-Villa J.
The prevalence and effects of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative
To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an ADHD screen was administered to 18-44-year-old respondents in 10 national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Participants included 7075 employed persons, with response rates of 45.9-87.7% across countries. An average of 3.5% of workers was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD. ADHD was more common among men than women and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was found to be a relatively common condition and is associated with high work impairment. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.65, No.12, p.835-842. 51 ref.
Counsellor wellbeing as an OSH issue
This article presents the results of a research project designed to protect the wellbeing and prevent burnout among social workers. Key issues identified included the lack of recognition of their wellbeing as an OSH issue; the impact of occupational stress on their home life; burnout; organizational factors, including the role of managers and supervisors. Recommendations are made for reducing the exposure of social workers to psychosocial risk factors. The article offers both employers and social workers ideas to help manage job stress.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.353-363. 42 ref.
Pead J., Fletcher S., Creamer M.
Ten challenges in post-traumatic mental health
This article outlines ten key challenges associated with managing the mental health of persons having been exposed to traumatic events. Three relate to individual needs, including causation, recovery and early problem recognition. Four relate to best practice interventions, including psychological debriefing and other immediate responses, evidence-based treatment, finding effective health practitioners and maintaining quality of care. The final challenges relate to outcomes, emphasizing physical, social and occupational goals in the context of mental health treatment. Solutions for each of these key challenges are described.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.531-539. 20 ref.
Maguire P., Raphael B., Martinek N.
Health workforce: Challenges for occupational mental health
Nursing personnel, which constitutes the bulk of the health workforce, is exposed to many risk factors for their mental health and wellbeing. These include burnout, long hours, violence, feelings of helplessness, stress associated with increasing and new demands, an ageing workforce and high expectations from the public. A range of issues also confront medical practitioners, both in general practice and hospital-based care sectors. This article proposes key principles for protecting the mental health of health workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.519-530. 61 ref.
Cleary C., Hilton M., Sheridan J., Whiteford H.
Organisational barriers preventing the initiation of mental health programs
Despite strong evidence of the usefulness of mental health programmes in the workplace, their adoption rate by organizations has been slow. This article analyzes the reasons provided by 58 large organisations in Australia for not adopting such programmes. The primary reasons provided include: logistics and costs; organisational structure; adverse union or media repercussions; not an organizational priority. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.507-517. 65 ref.
Van den Broeck A., Vansteenkiste M., De Witte H., Lens W.
Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.277-294. Illus. 71 ref.
Sonnentag S., Mojza E.J., Binnewies C., Scholl A.
Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect
Although work engagement is associated with positive outcomes for the employee and the organization, this article suggests that employees also need time periods for temporarily disengaging from work. It is hypothesized that psychological detachment from work during off-job time is particularly important when work engagement is high. Over the course of four working weeks, 159 employees from five German organizations from various industries completed surveys twice a week. Hierarchical linear modelling showed that work engagement moderated the relationship between psychological detachment and positive affect. These findings suggest that both engagement when being at work and disengagement when being away from work are most beneficial for employees' affective states.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.257-276. Illus. 72 ref.
Hakanen J.J., Schaufeli W.B., Ahola K.
The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement
The objective of this study was to test the motivational and health impairment processes of the job demands-resources model. Subjects consisted of a representative sample of 2555 Finnish dentists, who responded to two questionnaires at a three-year interval. Findings supported both the motivational process and the health impairment process. Job resources influenced future work engagement, which, in turn, predicted organizational commitment, whereas job demands predicted burnout, which, in turn predicted later depression. Non-occupational demands and resources did not influence the motivational or health impairment process over time.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.224-241. Illus. 57 ref.
Bakker A.B., Schaufeli W.B., Leiter M.P., Taris T.W.
Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupation health psychology
This review article presents the emerging concept of work engagement: a positive and fulfilling state of work-related well-being that is characterized by vigour, dedication and absorption. Although there are different views of work engagement, most scholars agree that engaged employees have high levels of energy and identify strongly with their work. The most often used instrument to measure engagement is the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, a self-report instrument that has been validated in many countries across the world.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.187-200. 72 ref.
Violanti J.M., Charles L.E., Hartley T.A., Mnatsakanova A., Andrew M.E., Fekedulegn D., Vila B., Burchfiel C.M.
Shift-work and suicide ideation among police officers
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between shift work and suicide ideation among police officers. Shift work was based on daily payroll records over five years for 41 women and 70 men. Standardized psychological measures were employed. ANOVA and Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations. Among policewomen with increased depressive symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 116% for every 10-unit increase in percentage of hours worked on day shift (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.16). Among policemen with higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 13% with every 10-unit increase in the percentage of hours worked on afternoon shift (PR 1.13).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.758-768. 57 ref.
Brenninkmeijer V., Houtman I., Blonk R.
Depressed and absent from work: Predicting prolonged depressive symptomatology among employees
The objective of this study was to identify factors which may help to reduce depressive symptoms among employees with mental health problems. Employees sick listed for 12-20 weeks due to mental health problems were followed for one year. After a screening questionnaire, standardized interviews were conducted by telephone, assessing individuals' mental health, work characteristics and possible actions undertaken by employers. A total of 555 employees commenced the study and 436 participated in the second interview. Individuals with low education and sole breadwinners showed a less favourable course of depressive symptoms, while work resumption and changes in the employee's tasks promoted a more favourable course.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.295-301. 24 ref.
Gulalp B., Karcioglu O., Sari A., Koseoglu Z.
Burnout: need help?
The objective of this study was to characterize staff of the emergency departments of all state hospitals of a region of Turkey with respect to burnout. Participants including physicians, nurses and assistant nurses responded to a questionnaire that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory together with other items. Scores were analyzed with regard to individual characteristics, namely overtime work, marital status, the number of children, occupation, salary, career satisfaction, satisfaction in private life. The only factor which was statistically significantly related to burnout was job dissatisfaction. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2008, Vol.3, No.32, 5p. 14 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-32.pdf [in English]
Lee T.K., LaBrie R.A., Rhee H.S., Shaffer H.J.
A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems
The objective of this study was to identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes among casino employees in South Korea depending upon whether or not they reported any gambling problems. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 388 employees on the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems were compared to those who reported any gambling problems. Exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems reported more smoking, alcohol consumption and depression compared to employees who did not report gambling problems. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.191-197. 23 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/191 [in English]
Kivistö M., Härmä M., Sallinen M., Kalimo R.
Work-related factors, sleep debt and insomnia in IT professionals
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of sleep debt, insomnia and long working hours among Finnish IT professionals and to analyse which specific work-related factors are associated with shortened sleep. A total of 2334 IT professionals responded to a questionnaire survey. Thirty-seven per cent reported sleep debt of at least 1h and 6% of at least 2h, while 16% reported insomnia. Twenty-seven per cent worked for a minimum of 50h per week. Hierarchical regression analyses were applied to investigate risk factors of sleep debt and insomnia. The most important factors associated with both sleep debt and insomnia were work-related demands requiring long hours, mental stamina, problem solving and positive perceptions of work, such as job control and importance of the respondents' own work in their life.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.138-140. 9 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/138 [in English]
Brousse G., Fontana L., Ouchchane L., Boisson C., Gerbaud L., Bourguet D., Perrier A., Schmitt A., Llorca P.M., Chamoux A.
Psychopathological features of a patient population of targets of workplace bullying
The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of stress and anxiety-depression disorder developed by targets of workplace bullying and to characterize this population in terms of psychopathology and socio-demographic features. Forty-eight patients (36 women and 12 men) meeting Leymann criteria for bullying were included in a prospective study. Evaluations were performed at first consultation and at 12 months using a standard clinical interview and several tests for stress, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Stress at work and depression significantly influenced capacity to return to work. At 12-month assessments, subjects working showed a significantly better score on the HAD scale than those still not working. Over half the targets presented a neuroticism-related predominant personality trait. Workplace bullying can have severe mental health repercussions, triggering serious and persistent underlying disorders.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.122-128. 34 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/122 [in English]
Spreeuwers D., de Boer A.G.E.M., Verbeek J.H.A.M., van Beurden M.M., van Dijk F.J.H.
Diagnosing and reporting of occupational diseases: A quality improvement study
The objective of this study was to assess the need of quality improvement in the diagnosis and reporting of noise-induced occupational hearing loss and occupational adjustment disorder. Questionnaires were sent to occupational physicians in the Netherlands. Twenty-three questionnaires on noise-induced hearing loss and 125 questionnaires on adjustment disorder were available for analysis. For noise-induced hearing loss, there was a need for quality improvement of the aspects of medical history, audiometric measurement, clinical diagnosis of the disease and reporting. For adjustment disorder, the assessment of other non-occupational causes needed improvement. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.115-121. 23 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/115 [in English]
Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/107 [in English]
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