Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found
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Ballesio P., Delia R., Lanfranchi M.L., Pascale W., Rihaoui A.
Risks and safety requirements in the surgical use of lasers - Measurement problems
Rischi e condizioni di sicurezza nell'uso dei laser in chirurgia: problemi metrologici [in Italian]
An examination of the various technologies involved in the use of lasers in medicine, with special emphasis on surgery. Analysed are the various types of lasers emitting electromagnetic radiation in the infrared to ultraviolet spectrum (non-ionising radiation). Other aspects covered: protective equipment; safety standards; recommendations; safe methods of use.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.2, No.3, p.7-16. 6 ref.
Laser radiation - Directive [Switzerland]
Laserstrahlung - Richtlinie [in German]
Radiazione laser - Direttive [in Italian]
Rayonnement laser - Règles [Suisse] [in French]
Safety rules applicable to the manufacturing, use and maintenance of laser equipment. They concern: definitions; authorisations and users' manuals; manufacturing and installation rules; safe use (operating controls, training of operators, safety devices, personal protection, emergency switch-off, special rules for laser equipment used in manufacturing). List of other applicable legal texts and standards. Extensive commentary. Sample danger signs and labels.
Eidgenössische Koordinationskommission für Arbeitssicherheit, Richtlinienbüro, Fluhmattstrasse 1, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1990. 30p. Illus.
Hartmann E., Buser A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
The effects of illuminating workplaces with fluorescent lamps
Einflüsse der Beleuchtung mit Leuchtstofflampen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Experimental studies with volunteers were carried out in order to find out whether fluorescent lighting leads to visual accommodation fluctuations and ensuing premature fatigue, whether cortical activity resulting in subjective complaints is affected by flickering, and whether this type of lighting results in increased radiation exposure and possible skin damage. Ultraviolet radiation levels emitted by various types of fluorescent lamps were at most 0.25% of the outdoor levels on a sunny day, i.e. far below hazardous levels. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. v, 114p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: DEM 20.50.
Sunlight and skin cancer - The occupational health concern
This information note summarises the effects of sunlight on skin (in particular, the risk of skin cancer). Risk factors and jobs where workers are at risk are listed. Precautions to prevent hazardous exposure to sunlight are outlined.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 7p. 8 ref. Price: CAD 3.00 (Canada).; USD 3.50 (USA).; USD 4.00 (elsewhere).
Marraccini P., Giorgi I., Valoti E., Bressan M., Fantinato D., Tettamanti F., Vittadini G.
Evaluation of neuropsychological factors in a group of workers occupationally exposed to radiofrequencies
Valutazione di alcuni parametri neuropsicologici in un gruppo di lavoratori metalmeccanici professionalmente esposti a radiofrequenze [in Italian]
The effects on behaviour of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (magnetic field-strength range: 0.08-2.00A/m) were studied in a group of foundry workers following prolonged exposure to radiofrequencies. The results of behavioural tests revealed significant differences between the exposed and control groups as regards neuropsychological performance. Anxiety and depression tests, however, indicated no pathological alterations, in contrast to previous observations.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.81, No.5, p.414-421. Illus. 12 ref.
Electromagnetic field levels around RF and MW electromedical devices
Livelli di campo elettromagnetico nelle vicinanze di apparati terapeutici a RF e MW [in Italian]
The paper presents the results of an analysis made on the electromagnetic field levels around RF and MW equipment used for medical purposes to achieve induced thermogenesis in body areas affected by disease. An irradiation diagramme was constructed for some of the most widely used devices in clinical practice and measurements were made on RF devices to identify the influence of obstacles in determining electric field levels, such as accessories or persons present in the working environment. Electric field and power density levels were checked at a distance of 100cm during a typical "lumbar-dorsal spine" treatment using different types of RF and MW devices, in order to identify the different degrees of exposure to electromagnetic radiation that each of the devices causes.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.81, No.1, p.335-340. Illus. 9 ref.
Dehoff P., Zembrot D.
Computer simulation of lighting systems - Applying the proper light
Computersimulation von Beleuchtungssystemen - Ins rechte Licht gerückt [in German]
The luminances in a room were compared by volunteers with those in a computer graphic. A laboratory set-up was used to facilitate the comparison. Direct and indirect lighting were assessed. The actual luminances were transformed into simulated luminances by linear and logarithmic transformation. The linear transformation brought good agreement in the case of direct lighting. For indirect lighting logarithmic transformation according to Fechner's law gave better conformance.
Technische Rundschau, 14 Sep. 1990, Vol.82, No.37, p.150-155. Illus. 16 ref.
Lighting for office and display screens
Beleuchtung für Büro- und Bildschirmmix [in German]
Illumination levels and satisfaction of employees with the illumination in offices were investigated. In the offices studied, CRT display work and conventional office work were done. Based on the results of the investigation, recommendations for proper lighting are made: there should be individual halogen desk lamps with a light refraction grid in addition to ceiling lamps.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Sep. 1990, Vol.21, No.9, p.40-42. Illus.
Current issues in radiation safety: A seminar
This publication contains the proceedings of a seminar on radiation safety. The following topics are covered: introduction to both ionising and non-ionising radiation; an update on the safety issues concerning video display terminals (VDTs); a review of the relation between powerlines and cancer; radon gas; the hazards and benefits of nuclear power; radiation safety in uranium mines. Questions from the floor are included together with the speakers' responses.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 82p. Illus.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields
This draft document summarises and evaluates the available literature relating to the potential carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 3Hz to 30GHz. Although made available to the public as a discussion paper for hearings in Jan. 1991, the report is not a statement of the views of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Agency discourages quotation or citation of the document. Topics covered: human epidemiological studies relating in some way to carcinogenesis, chronic animal studies, and short-term and in-vitro studies related to the carcinogenic effects of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation. Extremely low frequency (3-3000Hz) and radiofrequency (0.003-30,000MHz) fields are emphasised. There are epidemiological studies that indicate an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and certain types of cancer, but other epidemiological studies have failed to substantiate them, and laboratory studies to date are insufficient to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and cancer.
Office of Research and Development Publications Office, CERI-FRN, USEPA, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA, Oct. 1990. 1 vol. Illus. ca. 200 ref. Not officially published.
Types of laser-related risks - Survey conducted on two categories of users
Représentation des risques du laser - Etude auprès de deux catégories d'utilisateurs [in French]
The increasing use of lasers in industry and research confronts risk prevention specialists with a new problem: laser-related hazards, about which little is known. In order to provide users with more information, a preliminary survey was carried out to assess risk awareness (and risk representation) in a sample group of 108 operators divided into two categories: manufacturing industry and research laboratories. The field survey revealed considerable differences in the degree of user information and equipment operating safety, as well as differences in the extent of risk awareness in the users. Safety messages (posters, for example) should be formulated bearing these differences in mind and they should be designed as an integral part of broader preventive measures (training, workplace,layout, work organisation).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1801-141-90, p.787-798. Illus. 11 ref.
Pawlak U., Roll K.F.
Luminance levels of glare on visual displays
Reflexleuchtdichten auf Bildschirmen [in German]
Experiments with 50 randomly selected volunteers for determining the disturbance threshold of glare on visual displays are described. The thresholds obtained are used to characterise the quality of visual displays. Two classes of visual displays are distinguished: class A, with little glare protection suitable for light levels up to 200cd/m2, and class B, suitable for light levels up to 1000cd/m2, representing the latest state of the art.
Siemens-Zeitschrift, 1990, Vol.64, No.2, p.32-35. Illus.
Light, ultraviolet and infrared radiation
Lys, ultraviolet og infrarød stråling [in Danish]
This safety guide provides information on the health hazards associated with harmful optical radiation, except laser radiation (especially eye and skin injuries). It explains the physical properties of light, ultraviolet and infrared radiation and presents the TLVs for optical radiation established by the American Conference of Government Hygienists, used as guidelines (Denmark has not yet established its own exposure limits for optical radiation). The report gives advice on preventive measures and provides several practical examples of common radiation sources, their health hazards and suggested safety measures.
Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, May 1990. 24p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Laserstråling [in Danish]
This safety guide provides information on the health hazards associated with laser radiation (especially eye and skin injuries). It explains the physical properties of optical and laser radiation, and the four different classes of lasers (in accordance with the 1984 classification published by the International Electrotechnical Commission in IEC 825). The exposure limits established by the IEC, used as guidelines in Denmark, are presented. The report also gives guidance on preventive measures (including a check list for class 4 lasers) and eye protectors. Some practical examples of laser radiation protection are included, as well as examples of private, industrial and military uses of lasers.
Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1990. 32p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Proposed change to the IRPA 1985 guidelines on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation
Topics: directive; IRPA; limitation of exposure; non-ionizing radiation; threshold limit values; ultraviolet radiation.
Health Physics, June 1989, Vol.56, No.6, p.971-972. 4 ref.
Suess M.J., Benwell-Morison D.A.
Nonionizing radiation protection
This publication covers both public and occupational health issues concerning non-ionizing radiation. Each section describes the characteristics, exposure sources, biological effects, hazard evaluation, safety standards and control measures of a particular type of radiation: ultraviolet radiation; optical radiation and lasers; infrared radiation; radiofrequency radiation; electric and magnetic fields at extremely low frequencies; ultrasound. A final section presents regulation and enforcement procedures. (See CIS 86-996 for previous edition).
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 2nd ed., 1989. xiv, 346p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 43.00.
Directive concerning safety and health in workplaces where non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation may be produced [Mexico]
Instructivo No.13 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se generen radiaciones electromagnéticas no ionizantes [in Spanish]
Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains provision for the identification, evaluation and control of hazards connected with exposure in the workplace to non-ionizing radiation. In annex: exposure limit to radiofrequency and microwave radiation (10mW/cm2 based on an 8h day); exposure limits (in mJ/cm2), by wavelength, to pulsating and continuous laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectrum; exposure limits to infrared, visible and ultraviolet light; glossary of terms and list of symbols and units used.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 12p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 30 May 1989.
ACTU-VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit (Australia)
Prevention of occupational skin cancer and other ultraviolet radiation hazards: Outdoor workers
This is an Occupational Health and Safety Standard produced by 2 Australian trade union organisations and aimed at all workers who spend some of their working time in outdoor occupations. Contents: list of affected professions; characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (essentially from the sun) and health effects of exposure to it (premature aging of the skin, retina damage, cataracts, keratoses, skin cancer); prevention measures (limitation of exposure, appropriate clothing, sunscreens, hats, sunglasses); health surveillance; the ACTU Code of Practice (scope; nature of the hazard; responsibilities of employers and workers; exposure assessment; control measures; training and education; health surveillance). In annex: sample exposure assessments and control measures (telecommunications; petroleum docks and pumps; tree felling; sports ground maintenance); list of common photosensitising agents (industrial chemicals; plants).
Health and Safety Bulletin, June 1989, No.61, 37p. Illus. 20 ref.
McKinlay A.F., Whillock M.J., Meulemans C.C.E.
National Radiological Protection Board
Ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from spotlights incorporating tungsten halogen lamps
This report summarises measurements of the ultraviolet radiation and blue-light emissions from 12 tungsten halogen (quartz) lamps available in the UK. It is concluded that the safety design of some desk-top tungsten halogen lamps is inadequate to prevent unnecessary exposure of the skin to potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is recommended that all such lamps should have sufficient filtration to reduce their ultraviolet emissions to an acceptably low level.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1989. 13p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
National Radiological Protection Board
Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee
This document contains the advice of the National Radiological Protection Board in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionising Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100kHz to 300GHz. The Board advises that, with certain additions and modifications, the basic limitations recommended by the INIRC for protection against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and the possibilities of electric shock and burn should be adopted. There is at present insufficient data to make an assessment of any potential health risk with regard to athermal effects of electromagnetic fields.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 22p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Friedberg W., Faulkner D.N., Snyder L., Darden E.B., O'Brien K.
Galactic cosmic radiation exposure and associated health risks for air carrier crewmembers
The dose equivalent to air carrier crewmembers from galactic cosmic radiation was estimated for each of 32 nonstop flights within the USA. Flying times were from 0.4 to 13 hours. The annual dose equivalents received on the flights ranged from 0.2 to 9.1mSv (20 to 910mrem), or 0.4 to 18% of the recommended annual limit for occupational exposure of an adult. Characteristics of galactic and solar cosmic radiation are reviewed and examples given of calculations for estimating radiation-induced risks of fatal cancer, genetic defects and harm to an embryo or foetus.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.60, No.11, p.1104-1108. 14 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Technical Report of the Study Group on Radiation and Visual Display Units
Report of an expert group on present-day knowledge concerning radiation hazards associated with visual display unit (VDU) work. Topics discussed: radiation from VDUs; standards relating to VDUs; measurements of radiation from VDUs; quality control of VDUs; installation and maintenance; VDUs and pregnancy outcome; in-service testing of VDUs.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. v, 18p. 7 ref.
Highway construction work at night - Illumination requirements
Strassenbauarbeiten auf Autobahnen bei Dunkelheit - Ein Beitrag zu den Anforderungen an die Beleuchtung [in German]
Illumination levels for construction sites on highways were determined by field tests in Nuremberg (Germany). From the results an illumination plan for construction work on Bavarian highways was derived. It requires illumination levels of 120lux for the construction site itself, while illumination levels on lanes open to traffic may not exceed 2lux.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1989, Vol.101, No.12, p.834-836. Illus. 7 ref.
Bhattacharya S.K., Tripathi S.R., Kashyap S.K.
Evaluation of lighting conditions in relation to visual comfort in workplaces of weavers in a textile mill
The present investigation was undertaken to examine the lighting conditions in a weaving shed to assess visual comfort of the 95 weavers and their visual preferences to the lighting levels. The illumination levels were very low compared to the Indian Standard (1966) or IES standard (1973). A substantial proportion of the weavers had no visual comfort at work and expressed their preferences for higher illumination levels for comfort, safety, and optimum work performance. The appropriate measures have been suggested for improved lighting in a cost-effective manner.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1989, Vol.18, No.2, p.213-221. Illus. 9 ref.
Effects of microwaves on the eye
Les effets des micro-ondes sur les yeux [in French]
Animal studies show that exposure to microwaves of sufficient intensity can cause damage to the eye, in particular, the formation of cataracts. Human studies suggest that occupational microwave exposure is involved in increasing lens aging and injury to the retina. Exposure should be kept below current limits.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, June 1989. 6p. Illus. 13 ref.
González García L., Guibelalde del Castillo E., Chevalier del Río M.
Lasers: Working principles, applications and protection
El láser: Principio de funcionamiento, aplicaciones y protección [in Spanish]
This article provides information on the physics and the different uses of lasers. It explains the health hazards associated with laser equipment (instant burns of the cornea and the retina, skin burns, skin cancer, other injuries of the retina, the appearance of opacities in the cornea or the lens) as well as other important sources of danger (provocation of chemical reactions, which can be especially dangerous in the case of toxic or inflammable gases, the risk of electrocutions when working with high-power laser equipment). The article also reviews some of the most important safety standards for lasers from the American National Standard Institute (Standards for the safe use of lasers and Laser safety in the health care environment, ANSI Z.136.1 and Z.136.3 respectively).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.34, p.23-29. 14 ref. Illus.
Pons Aglio A.
Actinic effects of optical radiation
Efectos actínicos de la radiación óptica [in Spanish]
This article reviews the possible actinic effects (both beneficial and harmful) which optical radiation can produce in man. Three large groups are distinguished: the effects on the skin (formation of vitamin D, self-protection of the skin such as tanning, increase in the thickness of the skin and effects of urocanic acid, harmful effects such as burns, acute actinic disease, erythema and skin cancer); the effects on the eye (photokeratitis, photoconjunctivitis and cataracts); the effects on the body as a whole (effects produced by the lack of optical radiation, endocrinal effects).
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1989, No.33, p.15-22. 10 ref. Illus.
Salsi S., Barliev A.
Optical radiation in hand-blown glass factories - Study of protective measures
Rayonnements optiques dans les verreries à main - Etude des moyens de prévention [in French]
Results of the 2nd part of a general survey carried out in 4 hand-blown glass factories, in which 21 workplaces were studied. (For the 1st part, see Note No.1617-126-87 under CIS 87-1057). The aim of the survey was to control the efficiency of the preventive measures used and to make recommendations based on French Standards NF S 77-104 and NF S 77-106. The results show that except for those using 'bleu fondeur' filters, all protective measures were effective. Standards defining welding (NF S 77-104) and infrared (NF S 77-106) filters are not adapted for the measurement of radiation in hand-blown glass factories (in particular, the spectral band widths covered are not broad enough).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1989, No.137, Note No.1757-137-89, p.639-654. Illus. 12 ref.
Radiofrequency radiation in the workplace
Rayonnements à fréquences radioélectriques en milieu de travail [in French]
This publication summarises the current state of knowledge concerning health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Topics covered: description of the electromagnetic spectrum and RF radiation; occupational sources of RF radiation and frequency ranges; thermal and non-thermal health effects; safety hazards; recommended exposure limits and control measures.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Nov. 1989. 15p. Bibl.
Romon-Rousseaux M., Puppinck-Talpaert P., Hache J.C., François-Druez S., François E., Boulengez C., Duwelz M.., Frimat P., Furon D.
Usefulness of screen filters for use with visual display terminals
Etude de l'efficacité des filtres anti-reflets lors du travail sur écran [in French]
To evaluate screen filters under normal working conditions, 3 kinds of filters were tested at random for 4 hours a day: glass filters, micromesh filters and, as controls, altuglas filters. The effectiveness of the filters was assessed by a questionnaire on visual fatigue and visual quality of the characters, and by visual testing in the workplace. The comparison between micromesh and glass filters showed that the display is more pleasant to look at when micromesh filters are used, but contrast vision is better when glass filters are used.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.7, p.665-669. 12 ref.
Meister A., Eggert S., Richter J., Ruppe J.
Effects of an ultra-high frequency electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) on perception, psychic performance and well-being
Die Wirkung eines höchstfrequenten elektromagnetischen Feldes (2,45GHz) auf Wahrnehmungsprozesse, psychische Leistung und Befinden [in German]
The effects of a 2.45GHz electromagnetic field with power densities of 1000, 500 and 100µW/cm2 on 8 male volunteers were investigated. The parameters used were the perceptual threshold in a tachistoscopic perception test, the total time for a number search test and the total symptoms and acute complaints registered in a questionnaire. At the highest field intensity, there was a decrease of the perception threshold and an increase in the total times and symptoms. At 500µW/cm2, the perception threshold clearly increased. At the lowest power density applied, no differences were found. A high interindividual variability was noted.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Apr. 1989, Vol.35, No.4, p.203-205. Illus. 6 ref.
Thoma P., Bittner G.
Test and evaluation of eye protection spectacles and of protection garments against microwave radiation
Microwave protection afforded by safety spectacles and overalls was studied with the help of dipole and discone antennas at 2.45 and 10.0GHz. Safety spectacles protected eyes at X-band frequencies but not at 2.45GHz. Of the 3 overalls, only 1 offered good protection. Thermographs of the spectacles and overalls taken seconds after termination of irradiation revealed gaps through which radiation penetrated.
PTB Mitteilungen - Forschen und Prüfen, 1989, Vol.99, No.3, p.168-171. Illus. 8 ref.
Adjustment of results of vision tests to visual tasks at the workplace
Umsetzung der mit Sehtestgeräten gewonnenen Befunde in die Praxis am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Difficulties faced by industrial physicians in adapting measured visual acuity to actual illumination levels, contrast, luminance and object sizes found in the workplace are discussed. These difficulties arise for instance from the limited variability of vision testing instruments.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1989, Vol.24, No.3, p.64-69. Illus. 7 ref.
Tractors for agriculture - operator's field of vision
Tracteurs agricoles - Champ de visibilité du conducteur [in French]
This International Standard specified practical mathematical methods of determining the masking effects of obstructions on the angles of vision forward, to the rear and upwards of seated operators of tractors for agriculture. It does not take account of detachable implements and mounted elements, for example front loaders, pallets, etc.
International Organisation for Standardisation, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1989. 7p. Illus.
Safety guide for the prevention of radio frequency radiation hazards in the use of commercial electric detonators (blasting caps)
This guide provides a basis for assessing the hazards associated with initiation of commercial electric detonators by radio frequency (RF) energy by indicating safe distances from commercial RF sources. Contents; basic information on the mechanism of RF initiation and its avoidance; recommended distances from radio and TV transmitters, maritime radio navigational radar and radio navigational beacons; data on common RF sources (partial list of radio transmitting stations, table of definitions).
Institute of Makers of Explosives, 1120 Nineteenth Street, NW, Suite 310, Washington, DC 20036-3605, USA, Dec. 1988. 20p. Illus.
National Radiological Protection Board
Health issues in the siting of a low frequency transmission mast
This report is based on evidence presented at a public enquiry into possible health effects resulting from the siting of a low frequency (254 kHz) transmission mast in Co. Meath, Republic of Ireland. The health effects described are those due to heating of the body, radiofrequency burns from underground objects, and effects associated with athermal mechanisms. It is concluded that there is little or no evidence for significant athermal effects of relevance to human health in the frequency range 100kHz to 1MHz.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, June 1988. 28p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Mechanisms of biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: An overview
An overview of the present knowledge of the mechanisms by which electromagnetic fields interact with tissues and an outline of current and future research projects at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine. Topics discussed include: definition of electromagnetic radiation and its measurement; concerns about adverse health effects; radiofrequency heating and its thermoregulatory consequences; fertility effects; the microwave hearing effect; dielectric properties of tissues; excitable tissues: nonthermal effects; combined effects of radiofrequency radiation and other agents; millimeter waves; cell studies.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1988, Vol.59, No.11, p.A21-A31. 91 ref.
Whillock M., Clark I.E., McKinlay A.F., Todd C.D., Mundy S.J.
Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home
A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB in order to assess the risk of inducing acute effects and malignant and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers as a result of exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. Results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps present neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from UV-B lamps used in the study, and exposure to these lamps would result in acute injury within a short time; in the absence of protective enclosures, workers should wear personal protection for the eyes and skin.
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1988. 27p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Der Nigohossian G.
Lasers in the laboratory. Practical safety and protection
Les lasers aux laboratoires. Conseils pratiques de prévention, protection [in French]
This collection of information and safety instructions was prepared by a working group responsible for laser safety at the Saclay nuclear research centre in France. A review of laser basics is followed by comments on hazards: heat, fire, pulsed radiation, hazards for the eye and skin, other possible hazards (noise, x-rays, electricity, chemicals). The design of laser laboratories and the carrying out of experiments is discussed.
C.E.N., Service de documentation, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France, 1988. 128p. Illus. 13 ref. Index.
McKinlay A.F., Harlen F., Whillock M.J.
Hazards of optical radiation: a guide to sources, uses and safety
This book reviews the sources of optical radiation - visible, ultraviolet, infrared and laser - and discusses the associated effects of each. Topics covered include biological effects, mechanisms of damage to the eyes and skin and situations where various optical radiation sources are likely to be found.
Adam Hilger Ltd., Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, 1988. 121p. Bibl. Appendices. Index. Price: GBP 15.00.
Hentschel H.J., Prahl W.
DIN 5035 Part 7: The new standard on illumination for visual displays
DIN 5035, Teil 7: Die neue Norm für die Beleuchtung an Bildschirmen [in German]
The German (Fed.Rep.) standard DIN 5035 Part 7 addresses illumination design in rooms where VDUs are used. Maximum permissible illumination levels for lamps reflected on the screen are defined with the purpose of reducing glare.
Licht, 1988, Vol.40, No.8, p.586. 1 ref.
Development of an instrument to measure infrared radiation
An instrument was developed to evaluate infrared radiation (IRR) with regard to hazards (cataractogenesis). This instrument (IRR meter) measures approximately the total irradiance in the wavelength region 770-1,400nm, effectively radiance (EI). The IRR meter indicates not only momentary EI but also detects, holds and indicates the maximum EI in any measuring time. This maximum is a very important factor in evaluating IRR varying with time. The composition of the IRR meter and its important characteristics which were investigated experimentally are described. It is concluded that the IRR meter is sufficiently applicable to measurements of IRR in the workplace in general, although some care may be required in individual measurements depending on measuring conditions and the characteristics of the IRR to be measured.
Industrial Health, 1988, Vol.26, No.3, p.159-172. Illus. 11 ref.
Swearengen P.M., Vance W.F., Counts D.L.
A study of burn-through times for laser protective eyewear
Study of the performance of laser protective eyewear currently in use at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: a goggle with a cellulose propionate filter from Glendale Protective Technologies and a goggle with a glass optical filter from Spectra Optics. A new polycarbonate optical filter material from Glendale was studied also, and its performance was compared with that of the cellulose propionate material. The author used three lasers in the study: a single-pulse (variable pulse length) Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064nm; a pulsed-copper-vapour laser with a pulse-repetition frequency of 6.08kHz and a wavelength of 510.6nm; and a pulsed xenon-fluoride laser with a repetition rate variable up to 100Hz and a wavelength of 351nm. Where possible, the output power of each laser was increased systematically to the damage threshold of the material and beyond. The results showed that the new polycarbonate optical filter suffered less damage at equivalent laser beam challenges than the cellulose propionate optical filter. The glass goggle, which was designed specifically for use at the 510.5-nm wavelength, sustained no visible damage from the specified laser light at the highest power levels the authors could achieve.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1988, Vol.49, No.12, p.608-612. Illus. 10 ref.
Gobbato F., Valentinuzzi C.
Exposure to radiowaves in physiotherapy
Esposizione a radioonde in fisioterapia [in Italian]
An assessment of the electromagnetic fields emitted from short and ultra short wave diathermy sources was made to evaluate the hazards to the operator and patient. In ultra short wave diathermy the power density depends on the direction of the emission and decreases with the square of the distance from the source. Regression functions between power density and distance were calculated and analysed statistically. It is not possible to construct a simple algorithm in short wave diathermy, so the field must be mapped from direct measurements. Operator safety is easy to achieve by following simple procedures. Particular caution must be used to protect the patient from exposure of critical biological organs.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1988, Vol.79, No.1, p.70-77. Illus. 14 ref.
Finnveden S., Ekström L.
Development of a method for the measurement of energy absorption in hand-arm vibration
Utveckling av metod för bestämning av energiabsorption vid hand-arm-vibrationer [in Swedish]
Report on a study which was made in order to determine whether measurement of hand impedance may be used for the evaluation of white finger disease. A large number of measurements were made on energy absorption and vibration velocity. Some of the measurements were analysed statistically in order to investigate the influence on hand impedance of the subject of the vibration levels, of transient contra-stationary vibrations and the static grip-and-push forces on the handle. The main conclusions were that the only parameters that largely influenced impedance were the static forces and as long as these are considered, the hand impedance method will be just as accurate as a direct method for the determination of absorbed energy.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 35p. Illus. 5 ref.
Influence of cleaning frequency on wear of protective clothing for welders
Einfluss der Reinigungshäufigkeit auf das Verhalten von Schweisserschutzkleidung [in German]
Changes in flammability, in protection against burns by hot metal droplets, in UV absorption and size due to the washing of protective overalls for welders were studied. A variety of fabrics were used. Among other effects, flame retardant properties diminished markedly after 10 washings in spite of flameproofing after each washing.
Der Praktiker, 1988, Vol.40, No.12, p.601-603. Illus.
Analysis of secondary electric shocks due to high-frequency current
Analiza zjawiska wtórnego rażenia prądem elektrycznym wielkiej częstotliwości [in Polish]
Since 1967, there have been several cases in Poland of workers receiving electric shocks due to currents induced in large metal constructions by high-frequency electromagnetic fields generated by radio stations several kilometers away. Experiments and calculations presented in this article were the basis for determining the minimum intensities of high-frequency fields which may cause shocks. Proposals are presented for standardisation concerning, among other things, limitation of the height of metal structures exposed to fields of intensities exceeding 0.15V/m in the frequency range 0.1-1MHz and -O.05V/m + 0.2V/m.f[MHz] for higher frequencies.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1988, Vol.38, No.136, p.3-14. 19 ref.
International Radiation Protection Association
Non-ionizing radiations: Physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazard assessment
Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of the International Radiation Protection Association in Melbourne, Australia, 5-8 April 1988. The 24 papers dealt with basic information on non-ionising electromagnetic radiation and its relation to ionising radiation; public perception of risk; ultraviolet radiation (properties, hazards and protection); lasers; units and techniques of measurement; extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (effects, risk assessment and standards); static electric and magnetic fields; video display terminals; a physician's view of occupational health in relation to radiofrequency radiation; standards for medical devices; international activities and development of guidelines.
Australian Radiation Laboratory, Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie, Victoria, Australia, 1988. 464p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health hazards posed by microwaves
Gesundheitsrisiko Mikrowellen [in German]
In the Federal Republic of Germany the limit value for radiation leaking from microwave ovens is 5mW/cm2 at a distance of 5cm. It is considered too high by a factor of 7 to prevent local hot spots in human tissue. The eye-ball and cartilage are particularly vulnerable. Frequent headaches, insomnia and an elevated leukaemia incidence among radar operators are some of the other possible hazards mentioned.
VDI-Nachrichten, Apr. 1988, Vol.42, No.13, p.28. Illus.
McLaughlin J.K., Malker H.S.R., Blot W.J., Ericsson J.L.E., Gemne G., Fraumeni J.F.
Malignant melanoma in the printing industry - Brief report
To evaluate a recent report of malignant malanoma among printers, use was made of the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links national cancer incidence and employment data. Employees in the newspaper printing industry had almost twice the incidence of melanoma than expected. Elevated risks were found not only among typographers and machine repairers, but also among journalists, editors, and business executives in the printing industry. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship and to identify specific exposures that may be responsible.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.2, p.301-304. 6 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Laser radiation [Federal Republic of Germany]
Laserstrahlung [in German]
These regulations (updating the document abstracted under CIS 85-89) apply to equipment generating and using laser radiation. Contents: proper design (radiation protection, hazard warning), proper use (installation notices, safety personnel, marking of the radiation zone, protective measures, prohibition of employment of young users, notification of injury). Enforcement rules and comments are given in the supplement.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 10 + 42p.
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