Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found
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Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels (1993) [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1993) [in Japanese]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 174 chemical products (nine additions or updates since 1992) and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.323-345. Illus.
Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer
This overview of epidemiological research examines the potential role of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the aetiology of cancer. Long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, selected electrical appliances, and workplace exposures to energised equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer. Subsequent studies have tended to confirm an association between magnetic fields and cancer, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal link. Exposures from electrical appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestion of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF and cancer. Certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukaemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other workplace agent.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1993, Vol.54, No.4, p.197-204. 64 ref.
Biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields - In vivo studies
This paper discusses the biological effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields observed in animal studies. Three areas of investigation are reported: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behaviour and neuroendocrine function; (2) experiments on cancer development in animals; and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. An attempt is made to evaluate experimental results and interpret them with respect to potential health implications.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1993, Vol.54, No.4, p.186-196. 116 ref.
A review of in vitro studies - Low-frequency electromagnetic fields
In-vitro studies of the effects of low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic (EM) fields have reported on: (1) DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis; (2) cell proliferation; (3) cation fluxes and binding; (4) immune responses; and (5) membrane signal transduction. Typically, such effects occurred as a result of short-term exposure of cells to EM at frequencies of 100Hz or less and at low field intensities. Because of confounding interpretations of the results use of these data to assess human health effects is limited. This paper reviews selected published reports of LF EM fields on in-vitro systems. Where possible, relevance of the findings to occupational exposures will be assessed, principally by considering the consistency of in-vitro and in-vivo EM exposure effects and comparison of EM field intensities that affect in-vitro systems with occupational EM exposure intensities. Finally, suggestions will be made for the direction of future in-vitro research of direct pertinence to occupational exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1993, Vol.54, No.4, p.178-185. 62 ref.
Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safety in the use of inks, varnishes and lacquers cured by ultraviolet light or electron beam techniques
This revised guidance note (see CIS 85-1019 for previous edition) covers: description and process details; hazards (skin irritancy and sensitisation, ink mist, ozone and UV light); application of COSHH Regulations; prevention of skin and eye contact and inhalation; use of control measures including enclosed handling systems and personal protective equipment; cleaning and spillages; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; first aid; protection against UV light; precautions in the use of self-contained electron beam curing machines; list of chemicals not to be used in UV cured formulations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1993. iv, 16p. 37 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Krösche M., Höner P., Kreutz E.W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Ignition of explosive atmospheres by high-frequency sparks
Zündung explosionsfähiger Atmosphären durch Hochfrequenzfunken [in German]
High-frequency electromagnetic radiation from radiofrequency transmitters may produce sparks on metallic constructions. At high energy the sparks are capable of igniting explosive atmospheres at gas stations or in chemical plants. The minimum spark energy required for ignition of explosive atmospheres was determined in experiments using stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. A new test apparatus was used for the measurements. No significant frequency dependence in the range 10 to 70MHz was observed. The minimum spark energy of 40µJ was reported in the literature for low frequencies also.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 97p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: DEM 21.00.
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
Radiation protection slide sets 4-7
Four slide sets, based on the NRPB At-a-Glance series of broadsheets (see CIS 94-365), aimed at providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. Sets 1-3 were abstracted under CIS 94-366. The sets are: (4) Transport of radioactive materials; (5) Nuclear emergencies (occurring when radioactive material is released in a nuclear accident); (6) Non-ionizing radiation (solar, ultraviolet, infrared, microwave and radiofrequency radiation; visible light; electromagnetic, electric and magnetic fields); (7) Ultraviolet radiation. A copy of the relevant broadsheet as well as a caption of each slide are included with each slide set.
Information Services, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 4 slide sets (Sets 4, 5 and 7, each with 20 slides; Set 6, with 40 slides; all with captions). Price (Sets 4, 5 and 7, per set): GBP 25.00 + VAT (UK); GBP 25.00 (Europe); GBP 35.00 (elsewhere). Price (Set 6): GBP 50.00 + VAT (UK); GBP 50.00 (Europe); GBP 70.00 (elsewhere).
Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection
This handbook addresses the application of ionizing and non-ionizing protection standards and the quantitative methods for evaluating and designing engineering controls to meet those standards. Part 1 covers ionizing radiation: physical characteristics and units of measure; biological effects; standards of protection; control of external and internal radiation exposures. Part 2 covers the characteristics, biological effects, standards of protection and control methods for non-ionizing radiation (microwave and radiofrequency radiation, optical frequency radiation, extremely low-frequency radiation, laser radiation and magnetic fields).
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, USA, 1992. Available from: Simon and Schuster International Group, Campus 4000, Maylands Avenue, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire HP2 7EZ, United Kingdom. xv, 221p. Illus. about 125 ref. Index. Price: USD 77.30.
Ultraviolet radiation emitted by tungsten halogen lamps
Ultraviolett-Strahlung von Halogen-Glühlampen [in German]
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can damage the eye (cataract, conjunctivitis) and the skin (erythema, cancer). Published values for the UV emission of different models of tungsten halogen lamps show that some of them can expose users to levels above typical exposure limits at distances less than 1m. Excessive exposure can be prevented by fitting the lamps with screens or by mounting them more than 1m from potentially exposed persons.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Jan. 1992, No.1, p.4-6. Ilus. 8 ref.
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
Radiation protection slide sets
Three slide sets, based on the NRPB At-a-Glance series of broadsheets (see CIS 94-365), aimed at providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. The sets are: (1) Radiation doses - Maps and magnitudes; (2) Radon (characteristics of the gas, how it accumulates in buildings, nature and level of the risk, prevention); (3) Medical radiation (production and use of X-rays in diagnosis, protection of staff and patients, use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy, use of magnetic resonance imaging). A copy of the relevant broadsheet is included with each slide set.
Finance and Accounts Office, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 3 slide sets (each of 20 slides with captions). Price (per set): GBP 25.00 + VAT (UK); GBP 25.00 (Europe); GBP 35.00 (elsewhere).
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
A series of nine broadsheets (illustrated posters), providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. The broadsheets are: (1) Radiation doses - Maps and magnitudes; (2) Radon; (3) Radiation protection; (4) Transport of radioactive materials; (5) Non-ionizing radiations; (6) Nuclear emergencies; (7) Medical radiation; (8) Partners in protection (the role of industry, various levels of government, professional bodies and interest groups in radiation protection); (9) The NRPB at a glance. Three slide sets on the same topic are also available (see CIS 94-366).
Publication Office, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 1992. 9 broadsheets (posters). Illus. Price: GBP 0.15 per broadsheet.
Murray W.E., Conover D.L., Edwards R.M., Werren D.M., Cox C., Smith J.M.
The effectiveness of a shield in reducing operator exposure to radiofrequency radiation from a dielectric heater
The objective of this study was to design and install a shield on a radiofrequency (RF) dielectric heater used in the water bed industry and to determine its effectiveness in reducing worker exposures. The mean-squared (ms) RF electric (E2) and magnetic (H2) field strengths, the root-mean-squared (rms) RF-induced foot current and the heater frequency were measured for each unit. A heater utilizing a common sealing process and producing high worker exposures was selected for the study. The water bed mattress was too large to be contained inside the shield. Thus, the shield required a slot to allow passage of the material between the applicator plates for sealing while minimizing the leakage of RF radiation. Average exposure reduction factors were calculated: ms E-field strength - 213 times; ms H-field strength - 10.8 times; rms foot current - 4.3 times. Thus, the shield was effective in reducing the operator's exposure to RF radiation from the heater.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1992, Vol.7, No.9, p.586-592. Illus. 12 ref.
Occupational health effects of nonionizing radiation
The forms of non-ionizing radiation are described along with their physical characteristics, occupational sources, biological effects and exposure criteria. Discussed are: electromagnetic energy, ultraviolet and infrared radiation, microwave and radiofrequency radiation, very low frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic and electric fields.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.543-566. 90 ref.
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1992) [in Japanese]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 168 chemical products and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.363-384. Illus.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Skin hazards due to ultraviolet radiation emitted by tungsten halogen lamps
Risques cutanés présentés par le rayonnement ultraviolet émis par les lampes tungstène halogène [in French]
This article (to be read in conjunction with CIS 93-302) identifies and quantifies long-term dermatological risks related to various models of tungsten halogen lamps of various power and it assesses, in terms of risks, the efficiency of protective glass shields mounted on these lamps. Results show that risks, when tungsten halogen lamps are used under abnormal conditions (i.e. for direct lighting without protective glass shields), are not negligible. Aside from accidents or dangerous incidents, chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiations emitted by these lamps seems to be the most dangerous in the long-run. On the other hand, when used for direct lighting, these lamps apparently represent no particular health risk when equipped with protective glass shields.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.51, p.295-301. 7 ref.
Provisional guide for setting exposure limit values for electric and magnetic fields in the 50-60Hz frequency range
Guide provisoire pour l'établissement de limites d'exposition aux champs électriques et magnétiques aux fréquences de 50/60Hz [in French]
This document, issued by the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), defines the quantities measured and units used, the limits for occupational and general public exposure (excluding the deliberate exposure of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes), the methods for evaluating fields and the recommended protective measures. It also presents the arguments in favour of setting such exposure limits (based inter alia on studies already completed) and examines the particular case of the exposure of pacemaker users to "extremely low frequency" electric or magnetic fields. Originally published in the journal Health Physics (1990, Vol.58, No.1, p.113-122).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1992, No.149, Note No.1897-149-92, p.487-495. 43 ref.
Moody R.P., Nadeau B.
Effect of the mosquito repellent DEET and long-wave ultraviolet radiation on permeation of the herbicide 2,4-D and the insecticide DDT in natural rubber gloves
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of a commonly used insect repellant, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), on the permeability of rubber gloves used for protection by pesticide applicators. The glove percentage permeation data obtained with 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and DDT showed no significant difference between the chemicals in glove permeability caused by the presence of DEET. Scanning electron microscopy of the natural rubber glove material, however, demonstrated disruption of the surface structure following a 24-hour treatment with DEET. Glove permeation analysis also suggested that exposure of the glove material to long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) radiation enhanced the glove permeability to 2,4-D but had no effect on the permeation of DDT. Because the gloves of pesticide applicators are commonly exposed to solar UVA, this finding may raise safety concerns.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.436-441. Illus. 12 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Solar and ultraviolet radiation
This publication contains data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 11-18 Feb. 1992). IARC overall evaluation: solar radiation is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); ultraviolet A, B and C radiations are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); use of sunlamps and sunbeds entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); exposure to fluorescent lighting is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans (Group 3). Glossary.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 316p. Illus. ca. 900 ref. Price: CHF 65.00.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Tungsten halogen lamps. Optical radiation hazards and limits for use
Lampes tungstène halogène - Risques et limites d'utilisation [in French]
This study identifies and quantifies on the one hand the risks related to the use of 11 tungsten halogen lamps for direct lighting, and on the other hand, sets limits for their use (taking into account the distance from and duration of daily exposure to these lamps). The spectral irradiance of the lamps was measured from ultraviolet to infrared (200-3,000nm) and their mean spectral radiance was determined in the visible range of the spectrum (400-700nm). The risks when tungsten halogen lamps are used in "abnormal" conditions, i.e. for direct lighting without protective glass shields, are not negligible. Chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiation these lamps emit is dangerous in the long term. Projectors equipped with protective glass covers and tungsten halogen lamps with double envelopes represent no particular health risk, except under direct viewing conditions. Appendices: Effects of optical radiation; calculation of MED (minimal erythemal doses).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1888-148-92, p.329-343. Illus. 12 ref.
International Radiation Protection Association
Guidelines on limits of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 100kHz to 300GHz [IRPA]
Guide pour l'établissement de valeurs limites d'exposition aux champs électromagnétiques de radiofréquences comprises entre 100kHz et 300GHz [AIRP] [in French]
In 1988 the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee set up by the International Radiation Protection Association published guidelines on limits of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 100kHz to 300GHz. This translation is a reference for the protection of workers and the general public from the dangers of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. This document defines the purpose and scope of the guidelines (exposure to radiofrequency radiation of therapeutic purposes, for example, is not covered), the quantities and units used, exposure limit values (for workers, the general public, special cases of electric shocks or burns, multiple exposures, etc.). Appendices: justification for the exposure limits and recommended protective measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No. 1887-148-92, p.319-327. Illus. 34 ref.
Notes on protection against laser radiation in the laboratory
Contents of this training manual: basic physics of laser radiation; biological effects on the eyes and the skin; review of British Standard BS EN60825 (Radiation safety of laser products: equipment classification requirements and user's guide); application of the guidance (hazard evaluation; administrative procedures; laser-controlled areas; records; ophthalmic examinations; engineering controls; eye protection; teaching and research applications; entertainment and displays).
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 62p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 14.00 (surface mail); GBP 17.00, USD 34.00, CAD 40.00 (airmail).
Pastides H., Miller J.R., Mundt K.A., Klar J., Adams R.F., Olendorf T.
A characterization of occupational static magnetic field exposures at a diaphragm-cell and a mercury-cell chlor-alkali facility
Static magnetic field levels from direct current were studied in two settings where chlorine is manufactured electrolytically, in either a diaphragm-cell or mercury-cell process. At the diaphragm-cell facility, static magnetic fields ranged from 1.0 to 173.2 Gauss (G), with an average of 82.3G. At the mercury-cell facility, levels ranged from 4.1 to 182.9G, with an average of 46.8G. In both facilities, field strengths were higher at sampling locations closer to the electrical buss bar. Static magnetic field strengths at the property lines were comparable to expected background levels. Measurements near the cell building (25-45 feet away) were slightly higher and ranged from 0.4 to 15.0G. All measurements inside and outside the cell buildings were below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ceiling guideline (600G). However, levels inside and near the cell buildings were greater than the guideline of 10G for persons with implanted cardiac pacemakers.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 1992, Vol.7, No.1, p.42-48. Illus. 17 ref.
Contrast rendering factor: Comparison of measurements using different tasks
Measurements of the contrast rendering factor (CRF) using the B&K luminance standard were compared with CRF measurements using other tasks. CRF values obtained for the ballpoint pen task and dry-transfer task were very similar to those for the B&K reflectance standard. Since this standard is durable and manufactured to a high degree of technical accuracy, it can be used to replace other tasks in future CRF or similar measurements.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1992, Vol.24, No.2, p.81-91. Illus. 18 ref.
Williams P., Hansson Mild K.
Guidelines for measurements of RF welders
The radiofrequency (RF) radiation leakage from a plastic welder depends on measurement position, electrode size, the plastic being processed and the tuning of the welder. These factors, and the presence of nearby metallic objects or RF emitters, must be recorded when measurements are made if subsequent measurements are to be comparable. The conditions of measurement should be as close as possible to normal operating conditions. As the only Swedish RF standard applies to operator exposure, the points of measurement should represent the position of the operator's eyes, lowest ribs and gonads; the methods of appropriate Australian or US standards should be used, according to the protocol presented in this report.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 55p. Illus. 27 ref.
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2: Particular requirements for the safety of diagnostic and therapeutic laser equipment
Appareils électromédicaux - Partie 2: Règles particulières de sécurité pour les appareils thérapeutiques et de diagnostic à laser [in French]
The requirements of this standard have to be taken as the minimum to comply with, in order to achieve a reasonable level of safety and reliability during operation and application of medical laser equipment. Hazards considered include electric shock, light radiation and liquid spillage.
International Electrochemical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, Genève, Switzerland, 1992. 43p. Illus.
Ordinance No.495 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 21 October 1991 modifying the Ordinance respecting maximum allowable concentrations and levels of harmful factors in the working environment [Poland]
Rozporządzenie 495 Ministra Pracy i Polityki Socjalnej z dnia 21 października 1991 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie najwyższych dopuszczalnych stężeń i natężeń czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy [in Polish]
This directive (effective from date of publication) modifies the exposure limits for five of the chemical products listed in Ordinance 417 of 1 Dec. 1989 (see CIS 93-1402) and adds 28 more. Provisions for two categories of inorganic dust are modified and six more are added. The paragraphs on noise and microclimate are modified. New paragraphs and tables of exposure limits are added for infrared, ultraviolet and laser radiation. The National Health Inspectorate is empowered to make or delegate measurements and to define test methods in the absence of Polish standards.
Dziennik Ustaw, 1991, No.114, p.1558-1563.
International colloquium on safety in the application of laser equipment in research, industry and medicine
Proceedings of an international colloquium on safety in the application of laser equipment in research, industry and medicine held in Xi An, China, 7-12 October 1991. Papers are presented under the following headings: fundamentals, metrology and classification; potential hazards inherent in laser equipment (eye and skin injuries, harmful products of chemical reaction, air pollution); occupational safety and health in industrial laser application (accident statistics, reports of eye injuries, use of lasers in construction and in the food, beverage and tobacco industries, effect on the female reproductive system, safe distances, competence of personnel, advances in safety measures); safety aspect of medical laser application.
Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann Ufer 130, 50968 Köln, Germany, 1991. 207p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer - The epidemiologic evidence
The paper reviews the epidemiological evidence that low-frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may cause cancer. Residential exposure studies as well as studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiological criteria for inferring causal associations, the evidence strongly suggests that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukaemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Nov. 1991, Vol.95, p.147-156. 56 ref.
Walsh M.L., Harvey S.M., Facey R.A., Mallette R.R.
Hazard assessment of video display units
This report describes the results of a study of potential health hazards of video display units (VDUs). The specific elements of the study included characterising the emissions of ionising and non-ionising radiation and exposures to electromagnetic fields. There was no evidence that operators are exposed to electric, magnetic, or ionising radiation fields significantly above ambient levels. Significant X-ray leakage cannot occur under any credible conditions. In addition to the ergonomic aspects of VDU work, reports on the health aspects of VDU operators were investigated. The results of the study, based on the specific hazards evaluated, do not support allegations that VDU operation is hazardous beyond the identified transient discomforts associated with characteristics of the work performed. A high-profile employee education programme was initiated to minimise discomforts and unwarranted concerns.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.324-331. Illus. 24 ref.
Working with industrial lasers: Exploratory study of safety and health hazards during the use of lasers in metalworking
Werken met industriële lasers: een verkennende studie naar veiligheids- en gezondheidsaspecten bij werken met lasers voor materiaalbewerking [in Dutch]
Report on a study of the safety and health risks of working with high-energy lasers used in the metalworking industry. The major hazards are: the laser beam (radiation effects); laser equipment (high-voltage electric current, gases and fluids at various temperatures, fluids and gases under pressure, radiation, toxic substances); work processes (spattering parts, hot workpieces). Attention is also given to: standards for maximum levels of radiation from lasers; appropriate preventive measures.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1991. 85p. Illus. 46 ref.
Okuno T., Jonai H., Kawakami T.
Exposure of workers to electric and magnetic fields from radiofrequency dielectric heaters for processing polyvinyl chloride material
Pori enka biniru kakō yō kōshuha yūden kanetsu setsubi ga hassei suru denjiba e no sagyōsha no bakuro [in Japanese]
Exposure to electric and magnetic fields from radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RF heaters) used to process polyvinyl chloride was measured for 10 workers operating seven RF heaters at three plants in Japan. Six of the RF heaters were of the sewing machine type and the other of the shuttle tray type. The frequency of all the radiofrequency generators was 40MHz. The power output was 0.83-1.8W for the sewing machine type and 2.4W for the shuttle tray type. Measurements were made at 5cm from the surface of the hand, eye, chest, waist, knee and foot. The meter readings were converted to equivalent plane wave power density and corrected for duty cycle. All the workers surveyed were exposed to electric and magnetic fields of greater than 1mW/cm2 (the ACGIH TLV). For the hand, eye, chest, waist, knee and foot, 95%, 63%, 32%, 47%, 36% and 27% of the measured fields exceeded 1mW/cm2, respectively. For the sewing machine type, 100%, 75% and 38% of the electric fields measured at the hand exceeded 1mW/cm2, 10mW/cm2 and 100m/cm2, respectively, and 88% and 25% of those at the eye exceeded 1mW/cm2 and 10mW/cm2, respectively.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 20 Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.491-500. 11 ref.
Rosenthal F.S., Abdollahzadeh S.
Assessment of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields in microelectronics fabrication rooms
Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields were measured in four microelectronics fabrication rooms that utilised a variety of electrical devices. Magnetic field levels measured in the aisles of the workrooms ranged from 0.2-7.0mG; electric field levels ranged from 0.1-5.0V/m. At 2" (ca. 5cm) from the surfaces of various workroom devices, magnetic field levels ranged from 5.0-400mG; at 2ft (ca. 60cm) from the device surfaces, levels ranged from 0.5-70mG. From the measured levels and information obtained on typical work patterns, 8-hour time-weighted average personal exposures were estimated for various work scenarios.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.9, p.777-784. Illus. 21 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Protection from sunlight
Illustrated brochure usable for the safety training of workers on how to avoid excess exposure to sunlight in outdoor occupations and how to protect oneself against the risks of such exposure (skin cancer, other kinds of skin damage, eye damage).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1991. 6p. Illus. 1 ref.
Lasers for medical purposes
Medizinische Anwendung des Lasers [in German]
This safety guide deals with: lasers (design, labelling, types, safety devices), laser hazards, safety by design, laser operating theatres, surgery teams, patients, laser safety officers (training tasks), relevant standards and publications. Update of Merkblatt M 17 abstracted under CIS 89-989.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhügung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1991. 20p. Illus. 13 ref.
Hocking B., Joyner K.H., Fleming A.H.J.
Implanted medical devices in workers exposed to radio-frequency radiation
Discussion of the issue of medical devices implanted in workers exposed to radio-frequency radiation in the course of their work. The implants discussed include orthopedic devices, cardiac pacemakers, and cochlear implants, but exclude dental work. The effect of radio-frequency radiation on such devices may be to increase heat load and/or produce signal interference. The mechanics of interaction are outlined and protocols for managing cases are described. The implications for safety standards are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 25 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission
Guidance note for the protection of workers from the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight
Contents of this guidance note: adverse health effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (sunburn, effects on the eyes, keratoses, skin cancers, exposure to photosensitising substances); prevention (employer and employee responsibilities, exposure assessment, control strategy, personal protection); health surveillance; training and education. Appendices include: characteristics of solar ultraviolet radiation; some substances which cause photosensitivity; solar ultraviolet radiation exposure checklist; examples of exposure assessments.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, Oct. 1991. vii, 26p. 18 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/CDEC7019-B9BB-46B7-B022-DE5A16733A80/0/UVRadiationSunlight.pdf [in English]
Abenhaim L., Lert F.
Methodological issues for the assessment of clusters of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the workplace: The case of video display terminal users
The paper reviews the consecutive methodological steps to follow when assessing clusters of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in the workplace and the decisions to be taken at each step. The example of clusters of APO reported in VDT users in 1979 to 1982 is taken to illustrate each point. It appears that the number of "expected-unexpected" clusters of APO in VDT users has been largely overestimated when checked against observations and that this might be due to inadequate choices in the models used.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1091-1096. 14 ref.
Rosenthal F.S., West S.K., Munoz B., Emmett E.A., Strickland P.T., Taylor H.R.
Ocular and facial skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight: A personal exposure model with application to a worker population
A model of eye and facial skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is presented that combines interview histories of work activities, leisure activities, eyeglass wearing, and hat use with field and laboratory measurements of UV radiant exposure. Site-specific exposure is expressed as the product of personal ambient exposure, defined as the ambient exposure while an individual is exposed to sunlight, and factors that describe the ratio of site-specific to personal ambient exposure. Ocular exposure is further corrected by the UV attenuation of typical eyewear. The model was used to compute cumulative and yearly exposures in a population of 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay (State of Maryland, United States) and are highly exposed to sunlight. The model was found to be predictive of conditions known to be caused by excessive sun exposure--skin elastosis, climatic droplet keratopathy, and squamous cell carcinoma--and has been useful in several epidemiological studies.
Health Physics, July 1991, Vol.61, no.1, p.77-86. Illus. 18 ref.
ELF: Exposure levels, bioeffects, and epidemiology
The paper provides an overview of recent research in extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, including work on dosimetry of the fields, laboratory animal studies, cellular research, and epidemiology. It is concluded that although ELF electromagnetic fields do produce alterations in certain biological systems, the changes are often quite subtle and usually occur within the normal range of biologic variation. To date, no laboratory research has clearly demonstrated deleterious effects of ELF exposure. However, laboratory research is not complete enough to dismiss the range of observed biological effects as unimportant to human health. In addition, although not strongly persuasive of adverse human health effects, accumulating epidemiological data suggest possible ELF impacts on health, particularly on cancer risk.
Health Physics, July 1991, Vol.61, No.1, p.41-46. Illus. 27 ref.
Saunders R.D., Kowalczuk C.I., Sienkiewicz Z.J.
National Radiological Protection Board
Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation. III Radiofrequency and microwave radiation
The biological effects of experimental exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation above 100kHz are reviewed and the biological bases for restricting exposures are briefly discussed. It is concluded that most of the biological effects of acute exposure to these radiations are consistent with responses to induced heating, resulting in either rises in tissue or body temperature of about 1°C or more, or in responses for minimising the total heat load. Evidence suggests that restriction of the whole-body specific energy absorption rate (SAR) for healthy people to 0.4W/kg (0.1W/kg for less heat tolerant people) should result in body temperature rises of less than 1°C without the need to account for additional environmental factors, work loads and possibly deep-body heating.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 140p. Illus. 423 ref. Price: GBP 8.00.
Sienkiewicz Z.J., Saunders R.D., Kowalczuk C.I.
National Radiological Protection Board
Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation. II. Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields
This report concludes that most of the established effects of expousre to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields result from acute responses to surface charge (electric fields only) and induced current density; these effects become annoying and stressful if sufficiently intense. Consideration of these responses and the results of neurophysiological studies suggests that subtle central nervous system functions, such as reasoning and memory, may be affected by current densities above 10mA/m2. Other biological effects have been reported, but most are not sufficiently well established to justify limits of human exposure.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1991. 101p. Illus. 313 ref. Price: GBP 7.00.
Kowalczuk C.I., Sienkiewicz Z.J., Saunders R.D.
National Radiological Protection Board
Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation. I. Static electric and magnetic fields
This report concludes that there is no experimental evidence of any adverse effects on human health due to exposure to static electric fields or to short-term exposure to static magnetic fields of up to about 2T, although effects on cardiac function and behaviour from exposure to much higher flux densities cannot be ruled out. Evidence suggests that restricting occupational exposure to magnetic fields to less than about 2T will avoid acute responses such as vertigo or nausea. There is little experimental information describing the possible effects of chronic exposure; so far no long-term effects have become apparent.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1991. 32p. 129 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Day R., Bailey S.
Lighting at work
Contents of this module usable for an OSH training course or for private study, accompanied by question-and-answer tests: light and visual performance (basic concepts, the human eye and the sense of sight, visual performance parameters and tests); sufficient light (the British Industrial Code for interior lighting, variations in illuminance); instrumentation, measurements and surveys (basic instrumentation for measuring light, illuminance surveys); suitable lighting (suitable safe lighting, suitable task lighting, a suitable visual environment).
OHSOL Unit, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE, United Kingdom, 1991. 45p. Illus.
Radiofrequency/microwave protection guides
Limits for exposure to electromagnetic fields at radiofrequency (RF) and microwave frequencies have been subject to controversy, as demonstrated by the wide disparity between the limits adopted by different countries. This paper reviews the exposure criteria developed during the last decade by the American National Standards Institute and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and places particular emphasis on the rationale according to which the limits were developed. During the past decade the limits have been modified extensively to reflect both the increase in knowledge of bioeffects associated with exposure to electromagnetic energy and the advances in dosimetry.
Health Physics, July 1991, Vol.61, No.1, p.59-67. Illus. 11 ref.
Allen S.G., Bernhardt J.H., Driscoll C.M.H., Grandolfo M., Mariutti G.F., Matthes R., McKinlay A.F., Steinmetz M., Vecchia P., Whillock M.
Proposals for basic restrictions for protection against occupational exposure to electromagnetic non-ionizing radiations - Recommendations of an international working group set up under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities
Non-ionising radiations considered in these proposals include: static and extremely slowly time-varying electric and magnetic fields (0-1Hz); time-varying electric and magnetic fields (1Hz-100kHz); radiofrequency fields (100kHz-300GHz); infrared and visible radiation; ultraviolet radiation; laser radiation. The biological effects of each type of radiation are described. The measurement methods, basic restrictions and protective measures are also given.
Physica Medica, Apr.-June 1991, Vol.VII, No.2, p.77-89. 20 ref.
Bierbaum P.J., Peters J.M.
Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop on the Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Workers
Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop on the Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Workers held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 30-31 January 1991. Five papers were presented: in vitro studies on low frequency electromagnetic fields; in vivo studies on biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields; epidemiologic studies on health effects of electromagnetic radiation in workers; occupational exposure assessment for electric and magnetic fields in the 10-1000Hz frequency range; magnetic field management and methods for reducing exposures. Major research needs in each of these five programme areas are also discussed. Glossary.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1991. xiii, 229p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health and Welfare Canada, Health Protection Branch, Environmental Health Directorate
Limits of exposure to radiofrequency fields at frequencies from 10kHz - 300GHz
Safety requirements for the installation and use of radiofrequency (RF) devices that operate in the 10kHz to 300GHz frequency range are established by the Code. The exposure criteria are not intended to apply to exposure for medical treatment purposes. The Code (1) specifies maximum levels and durations of exposure, (2) recommends procedures for achieving these levels, (3) specifies maximum contact currents for conducting objects in RF fields to prevent perception for the general population and pain for RF workers, (4) recommends working conditions which will lead to higher safety standards for all personnel engaged in the manufacture, operation and maintenance of RF devices. The publication is also available in a French language version.
Canada Communication Group - Publishing, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S9, Canada, 1991. 60p. Illus. 19 ref.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Optical radiation during manual arc welding with coated electrodes. Hazards and preventive measures
Rayonnements optiques émis lors du soudage manuel à l'arc avec électrodes enrobées - Risques et moyens de prévention [in French]
This article presents the results of spectroradiometric measurements carried out on 109 coated electrodes. The aim of the study was to identify and measure the health hazards of welding with coated electrodes and also to work out minimum recommendations for protective filters. The results of the study are: major health hazards are due to actinic ultraviolet and visible radiations; filter efficiency depends entirely on the level of visible radiation hazard; for a given welding power, protection levels recommended in France are in general 0-4 degrees higher than those related to eye hazards.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.143, Note No.1827-143-91, p.223-233. Illus. 13 ref.
Broadsheet in A3 format presenting summary information on: sources; regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; biological effects and protection against them; emissions and exposures.
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 ORQ, United Kingdom, 1991. 1p. Illus. Single copies gratis.
Clean room safety and health management
Kurīn rūmu no anzen eisei kanri [in Japanese]
Clean rooms are especially important in four sectors of Japanese industry: precision instruments, electronics, food and pharmaceuticals. In addition describing the environmental conditions that must be met for a clean room to meet applicable criteria in Japan and elsewhere, this report explains the physical, chemical and biological hazards due to the clean-room environment and to the processes conducted in clean rooms, presents typical management structures for clean-room operations in the four industrial sectors, summarizes applicable Japanese safety and health regulations and lists hazardous substances and their properties. Annexes list (1) hazardous reactions of substances used in the processes typical of clean rooms, and (2) permissible levels of contaminants in wastes for land fill or disposal at sea.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, Sep. 1990. 128p. Illus. 36+3 ref.
Ballesio P., Delia R., Lanfranchi M.L., Pascale W., Rihaoui A.
Risks and safety requirements in the surgical use of lasers - Measurement problems
Rischi e condizioni di sicurezza nell'uso dei laser in chirurgia: problemi metrologici [in Italian]
An examination of the various technologies involved in the use of lasers in medicine, with special emphasis on surgery. Analysed are the various types of lasers emitting electromagnetic radiation in the infrared to ultraviolet spectrum (non-ionising radiation). Other aspects covered: protective equipment; safety standards; recommendations; safe methods of use.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.2, No.3, p.7-16. 6 ref.
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