Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found
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Even a wallfull of television sets or computer monitors is not dangerous
Même en batterie, les écrans et moniteurs d'ordinateurs ne sont pas dangereux... [in French]
The French Research and Safety Institute (INRS) measured the levels of X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, electrical and magnetic fields and ultrasound emitted by video and computer equipment. Even when large numbers of screens are present together, as in displays in stores, the levels of radiation and ultrasound are well below exposure limits and do not constitute a hazard.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1995, No. 542, p.576-578. Illus. 13 ref.
Epidemiologic evidence of radiofrequency radiation (microwave) effects on health in military, broadcasting and occupational studies
Selected studies on the possible health effects of microwave or radar exposure are reviewed. Possible outcomes considered include: blood count changes; evidence of somatic mutation; impairment of reproductive outcomes, especially increased spontaneous abortion; and increase in cancer incidence and mortality, especially of the haematopoietic system, brain and breast. Evidence suggests that sufficient microwave exposures are associated with all four of these outcomes. It is concluded that the possible effects are qualitatively similar to those of ionizing radiation. It is recommended that more protection be provided for exposed workers. Since no negative studies were included, this review has a positive reporting bias.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.47-57. 26 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling health risks from the use of UV tanning equipment
This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 4p. 6 ref.
Salie F., Scarpino P., Clark S., Willeke K.
Laboratory evaluation of airborne microbial reduction by an ultraviolet light positioned in a modified hollow ceiling fan blade
A laboratory-scale system was constructed to simulate the airflow through a rotating hollow ceiling fan blade containing a germicidal UV light unit through which selected aerosolized test microorganisms were passed. Air sampling was conducted using modified glass impingers. For a single pass (26 msec) of the aerosol, reductions of 72.8, 3.8 and 8.6% were achieved for E.coli, M.luteus and B.subtilis bacteria, respectively. No significant reductions were observed in control runs with the UV light turned off. Results indicate that the application of UV light in this way may be used for the reduction of indoor microbial populations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.987-992. Illus. 30 ref.
Electric and magnetic fields and electromagnetic waves. A guide for the occupational physician and the OSH specialist
Champs électriques, champs magnétiques, ondes électromagnétiques. Guide à l'usage du médecin du travail et du préventeur [in French]
This guide aimed at industrial physicians and OSH specialists is a survey of the physical and biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. It provides a detailed overview of static electromagnetic radiation, extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation (such as that generated by electric power lines), electromagnetic radiation at frequencies of 10KHz-300GHz emitted by radiofrequency and hyperfrequency generators and radiation emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance generating equipment. Aspects covered: principles of operation; threshold limit values accepted in most industrialized countries; information needed by the occupational physician in order to monitor exposed workers and to recommend preventive measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Aug. 1995. 134p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Don't take off your shirt - The health hazards due to work in the sun
Peidiwch â diosg eich crys - Peryglon iechyd wrth weithio yn yr haul [in Welsh]
Booklet explaining the dangers of ultraviolet radiation from the sun received in the course of outdoor work. Preventive measures are outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 6p.
Radiation doses - Maps & magnitudes
Occupational exposure to radiation in the UK is placed in the context of all sources of natural and man-made radiation to which persons are exposed in various regions of the country.
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1995. 1 poster, 20 slides with printed key. Price: GBP 25.00 + VAT (UK), GBP 25.00 (Europe), GBP 35.00 (elsewhere).
Illumination of roads and workplaces on construction sites
Beleuchtung von Verkehrswegen und Arbeitsplätzen auf Baustellen [in German]
German regulations on the illumination of workplaces do not cover roads and temporary workplaces on construction sites. Therefore, recommendations on the design and levels of illumination for various operations such as plastering and reinforcement work on construction sites are presented. For example, for reinforcement work an illumination level of 300Lux is proposed. For outdoor communication ways on construction sites illumination levels between 20 and 50Lux are recommended. With one 100W lamp installed at a height of 3m these levels can be achieved on an area of approx. 30 to 80m2.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1995, Vol.26, No.2, p.24-29. Illus.
Study of the reduction of the signalling effect of protective clothing by wearing and cleaning
Untersuchungen zur Minderung der Signalwirkung von Warnkleidung durch Verwendung und Reinigung [in German]
The luminance and reflection of protective clothing with signalling effect was measured after washing at a temperature of 60°C, exposure to rain and to temperatures ranging from plus 50°C to minus 30°C as well as after ironing at a temperature of 170°C and dry cleaning. In addition, the luminance and reflection of protective clothing were measured prior to wearing as well as after 6 and 12 months of wear during work on roads. Using and cleaning reduced the signalling effect of protective clothing. Basic material was found to lose its luminance sooner than reflective material.
Die BG, Jan. 1995, No.1, p.6-10. Illus.
The management of protection against ionising and non-ionising radiations
This handbook describes the characteristics and sources of electromagnetic radiation, particulate ionizing radiation, optical radiation, lasers, microwave and radiofrequency radiation and low frequency radiation. Biological effects are described (cancer, eye damage, effects on the skin, thermal effects) along with recommendations for protection and relevant UK legislation.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., PO Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1995. vii, 74p. 107 ref. Index. Price: GBP 15.00; overseas airmail: GBP 17.00, USD 34.00, CAD 40.00.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Ultraviolet radiation - An authoritative scientific review of environmental and health effects of UV, with reference to global ozone layer depletion
Topics: biological effects; cataract; conjunctivitis; criteria document; dose equivalent; dosimetry; environmental pollution; erythema; immunobiological changes; inflammatory diseases of the eye; IPCS; keratitis; literature survey; melanoma; non-ionizing radiation; permissible radiation doses; personal protective equipment; photosensitization dermatitis; skin cancer; skin protection; solar radiation; ultraviolet radiation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. xvi, 352p. Illus. Approx. 800 ref. Price: CHF 51.00 (CHF 35.70 in developing countries).
Ultraviolet radiation from the sun
Rayonnement ultraviolet du soleil [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; outdoor work; protective clothing; radiation protection; solar radiation; ultraviolet radiation.
Radiation Protection Service, Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Mar. 1994. 1p. Illus.
Thermal effect of visible light and infra-red radiation (i.r.-A, i.r.-B and i.r.-C) on the eye: A study of infra-red cataract based on a model
Exposure to intense optical radiation in the workplace leads to the development of infrared cataracts. To investigate the role of the wavelength of optical radiation in infrared cataract formation, the temperature rise induced in the eye by monochromatic optical radiation (visible light and infrared (i.r.)) was calculated on the basis of a mathematical model. It is shown that, in accordance with Goldmann's theory, when visible light or i.r.-A is incident on the eye, the radiation is absorbed by the iris and converted into heat which is then conducted to the lens, inducing cataracts. When i.r.-B or i.r.-C is incident on the eye, it is adsorbed by the cornea and converted into heat which is then conducted to the lens, inducing cataracts. It is suggested that i.r. cataracts are induced by i.r.-B or i.r.-C in the workplace.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.38, No.4, p.351-359. Illus. 16 ref.
Belkić K., Savić C., Theorell T., Rakić L., Ercegovac D., Djordjević M.
Mechanisms of cardiac risk among professional drivers
This literature review indicates that professional drivers have excess cardiac risk that is not fully explained by standard risk factors. The contribution of occupation is suggested by two independent methods and by psychophysiological studies during on-the-job driving. Driving has been conceptualized as a threat-avoidance task. Stimuli encountered in traffic are not inherently aversive but become so by association with driving experiences, a formulation corroborated by laboratory studies in which stimuli such as car headlights elicit cardiovascular hyperreactivity and electroencephalographic signs of arousal in professional drivers. More advanced neurophysiological methods (event-related potentials) show higher cortical electronegativity to imperative signals among professional drivers than among non-driver referents. These data are viewed in light of reports of possible associations between event-related slow potentials and cardiac risk. A clinically and ecologically relevant neurocardiological model is proposed, and preventive strategies, including workplace interventions, are suggested.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1994, Vol.20, No.2, p.73-86. Illus. 153 ref.
Fröbner K.D., Richters T.
Analysis and ergonomic redesign of lighting in shunting yards of the Hamburg harbour railway
Analyse und arbeitwissenschaftliches Neugestaltungskonzept der Licht- und Beleuchtungssituation auf den Rangierbahnhöfen der Hamburger Hafenbahn [in German]
Measurements of the illumination levels and luminance on the shunting yards in the harbour of Hamburg, Germany, yielded values below the recommended standards. Contrasts between the tracks and railway wagons were sometimes so low that no distinction could be made. An interrogation of the harbour workers confirmed that visibility at night was poor. From the results of the measurements, the required levels of illumination, luminance and reflection were derived. The lamps and their installation sites as well as their height were selected accordingly.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.198-204. Illus. 9 ref.
Probabilistic laser safety - Ocular damage models for Q-switched neodymium and ruby lasers
International standards for eye protection from laser radiation define a distance beyond which an individual would not be expected to suffer any adverse biological effects. This nominal ocular hazard distance, and any associated hazard zones, are calculated using a deterministic technique. This technique does not consider the likelihood that an eye will be irradiated, or the probability that if any eye is exposed, then some ocular damage will result. An alternative, probabilistic, method of hazard assessment does so. An important element in this assessment is an ocular damage model which predicts the probability with which a laser exposure will cause permanent eye damage. This paper describes a rationale for the use of the minimum ophthalmoscopically visible lesion as a threshold criterion for the development of ocular damage models.
Health Physics, Apr. 1994, Vol.66, No.4, p.414-419. Illus. 23 ref.
Ultraviolet radiation - Perspectives
This information sheet contains a survey of the hazards of ultraviolet radiation, published in a special issue of the bulletin of the Indian Society of Industrial Hygiene. It covers: electromagnetic radiation in general (ionizing and non-ionizing); ultraviolet (UV) radiation (biological implications, sources, absorption by the ozone layer); effects on the skin and the eyes; carcinogenicity; TLVs recommended by ACGIH in the US (1µm W/cm2 for >103sec and 1J/cm2 for <103sec exposure to wavelengths between 0.2 and 0.315µm); monitoring and control of UV radiation; list of occupations involving potential UV exposure.
Industrial Hygiene Link, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.6, No.3, p.1-3. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Ships' radar in ports
This information sheet explains the hazard and level of risk associated with radar on civilian vessels in commercial ports. The operation of radar in ports is explained along with type of radiation and power of equipment, levels of radiation in ports and sensible precautions. It is unlikely that any port worker will be exposed to significant risks from the marine radar emissions of a commercial vessel during normal port activities.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1994. 2p.
Zelnick S.D., McKay R.T., Lockey J.E.
Visual field loss while wearing full-face respiratory protection
The loss of visual field was quantified for 21 test subjects while they wore three different full-face respirators. Changes in visual field were quantified for each type of respirator by the use of a modified Goldmann projection perimeter. The loss of visual field was determined by comparing the area under the curve with and without a respirator. Distinct patterns of visual field loss were apparent for the different style respirators. Analysis of the patterns could lead to the design of full-face respirators with improved visual qualities, which could improve worker safety for certain occupations. The technique also could be of help in the selection of models of respiratory protection when certain visual fields must be maintained.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.315-321. Illus. 19 ref.
Biological and human health effects of EM fields
A brief review is presented of the 30th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements held in April 1994 in Washington DC, USA. Separate sessions of the meeting covered dosimetry and measurement, interaction mechanisms and biological effects, epidemiology, decision making and public policy. Emphasis was on analyzing the possible biological pathways by which extremely low frequency fields could affect physiological functions and promote the development of disease.
Radiological Protection Bulletin, Aug. 1994, No.156, p.19-24. 12 ref.
Notes on exposure limits for non-ionising radiations
Contents of this handbook: basic physics of non-ionizing radiation; biological effects of ultraviolet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) radiations (effects on the eye and the skin) and of microwave, radiofrequency (RF), low-frequency (LF) and static fields; limits for UV, visible and IR radiations and for RF, LF static fields. Appendices cover pacemakers, lasers, UV lamps and spectra, and optical quantities and units.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 73p. Illus. 92 ref. Index.
Guidance notes for the protection of workers from solar ultraviolet radiation
Contents of this guide: health hazards of exposure to sunlight (sunburn, eye damage, skin cancer); duties of employers and workers; exposure assessments; minimizing exposure (work organization, use of shade, personal protection, appropriate clothing, hats, sunscreens and sunglasses); training and education; early detection of skin cancers; photosensitizing substances.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, June 1994. 14p. Illus. 2 ref.
Dyèvre P., Méreau P.
Health effects of occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation
Effets sur la santé de l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ultraviolets [in French]
The most serious side-effects of UV exposure in occupational medicine are skin cancers. However, it is difficult to establish a definite link between exposure and pathologies due to their delayed occurrence and other possible factors or exposures, including those during leisure time. Preventive measures may be put into place relatively simply and efficiently if a thorough assessment of exposure is available. Biologically, there is an action range associated with a given effect and the severity of injuries is correlated to exposure duration and total dose. In view of the IARC evaluations and of fragmented literature data, further exhaustive epidemiological studies in the workplace, both descriptive and aetiological, should be undertaken.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.57, p.3-10. Illus. 24 ref.
Optical radiation in a forge. Measurements and protective devices
Rayonnements optiques dans une forge. Mesures et moyens de protection [in French]
This study was carried out to determine the level of potentially eye-damaging optical radiations (ultraviolet, visible, infrared) in a forge. Spectral irradiance from 200 to 3,000nm and spectral radiance from 400 to 700nm were measured at different workstations (hot rolling, press forging, electrosteel furnaces, walking beam furnaces, forging furnaces, rolling furnaces). The efficiency of the preventive measures practiced at the relevant workplaces was also evaluated. Long-term exposure to infrared radiation seem to constitute a serious eyesight risk to operators at all workplaces, with none of the means of protection found to be efficient. Filter transmission characteristics were therefore defined to provide effective protection at the different workplaces studied.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1960-155-94, p.181-193. Illus. 8 ref.
National Radiological Protection Board
Health effects related to the use of visual display units
This report reviews epidemiological and laboratory studies relevant to the possible adverse health effects of electromagnetic emissions from visual display units (VDUs). The report concludes: animal and epidemiological studies offer no support to reports of increased spontaneous abortion rates nor of an increased proportion of congenital malformations in women using VDUs during pregnancy; skin diseases do not appear to be caused by electromagnetic fields from VDUs, although existing conditions may be aggravated; there is no evidence that VDU work results in a disposition to the formation of cataracts. A supplementary report reviews studies on electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. iii, 81p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Glare - Optimizing illumination of computer aided design workplaces
Geblendet - Raum-Beleuchtung lichttechnisch optimieren bei CAD-Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Computer aided design (CAD) workplaces need lighting that is not so strong that it reduces contrast on the computer screen. Yet it must be strong enough to allow reading printed manuals, drawings or diagrams. Glare is to be avoided. Great differences in luminance in the room strain the eyes and may cause headaches. Best illumination is obtained by taking into account not only the layout of the workplace, but also the arrangement of furniture, windows and light sources. German standard DIN 5035 (parts 1, 2 and 7) provides the criteria for optimized illumination of these workplaces. Some of the recommendations of this standard are reviewed.
Maschinenmarkt, Feb. 1994, Vol.100, No.6, p.28-31. Illus.
Burström L., Lundström R.
Absorption of vibration energy in the human hand and arm
The mechanical energy absorption in the hand-arm system was measured within the frequency range of 4 to 1000Hz in a group of ten subjects exposed to sinusoidal vibration. The energy absorption in the hand and arm depended mainly on the frequency and direction of the vibration stimulus; higher vibration levels, as well as firmer handgrips, resulted in higher absorption of energy. Varying hand-arm postures had only a small influence on the amount of absorbed energy, while the constitution of the hand and arm affected the energy absorption to a larger extent.
Ergonomics, May 1994, Vol.37, No.5, p.879-890. Illus. 10 ref.
Driscoll C.M.H., Whillock M.J., Pearson A.J., McKinkay A.F.
National Radiological Protection Board
A critique of recommended limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation with particular reference to skin cancer
This report reviews biological experimental data on the effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and compares them with current international and foreign (non-British) national recommendations. Compliance with the current recommendations appears to be sufficient to protect most Caucasians against acute skin effects. However, the data are less conclusive when considering protection of the eyes. Epidemiological data suggest that 40 years of occupational exposure of the skin at the limit recommended by the International Non-Ionising Radiation Committee (INIRC) may increase the normally low risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer by a factor of 3.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 19p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Visual display units: Radiation protection guidance
This ILO publication provides an overview of knowledge concerning radiation issues of work with visual display units (VDUs). Contents: principles of VDU construction; types, sources, measurements and levels of electromagnetic fields from VDUs; assessment of exposure and laboratory studies; health effects and human studies; organization of prevention and control measures. In appendix: statement of the IRCA Committee concerning alleged radiation risks from VDUs. As an overall conclusion based on current biomedical knowledge, it is stated that there are no health hazards associated with electromagnetic radiation or fields from VDUs. Further research is recommended, however, in particular in order to find out whether some skin complaints might be related to VDU work, and whether there might exist interactions between low-frequency magnetic fields and biological systems.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. viii, 53p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: CHF 15.00.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social
Official Mexican Standard - Safety and health conditions in workplaces where non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation is generated [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Relativa a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se generen radiaciones electromagnéticas no ionizantes [México] [in Spanish]
Contents of this standard: scope (all workplaces in Mexico where workers may be exposed to non-ionizing radiation); obligations of employers and workers; exposure evaluation; definitions. In annex: exposure limits for radio- and microwave, infared, visible and ultraviolet radiation.
Internet copy, 1993. 6p. 1 ref.
http://www.stps.gob.mx/04_sub_prevision/03_dgsht/normatividad/normas/nom_013.htm [in Spanish]
Kriteriegruppen för fysikaliska riskfaktorer
Criteria document for occupational health limits. Ultraviolet radiation
Kriteriedokument för gränsvärden. Ultraviolett strålning [in Swedish]
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can have adverse effects on both unprotected skin and eyes. Some effects are acute, such as erythema, increased pigmentation, photokeratitis and photoconjunctivitis. Other effects, such as elastosis and certain forms of skin cancer are regarded as irreversible. Several of these effects are common, while the more serious forms of cancer are less so, though their incidence has increased in recent years. This is probably due in part to increased exposure to UV radiation. Consequently, the International Radiation Protection Association/International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (IRPA/INIRC) has developed guidelines for the limitation of exposure to UV radiation. These limitations protect normally sensitive individuals against acute effects, and are also thought to protect against some long-term effects (e.g. certain cancers). However, several forms of malignant melanoma are thought to be a result of single episodes of heavy exposures. The Criteria Group suggests that occupational exposure limits be formulated for indoors UV radiation. The guidelines developed by the IRPA/INIRC can serve as a basis for the development of such exposure limits. Certain individuals in special risk groups should be given special advice and guidelines. For outdoor work, general recommendations should be formulated for the limitation of exposure to sunlight.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 42p. Illus. 66 ref.
Computer health hazards
A very comprehensive annotated bibliography of the (primarily English-language) scientific and popular literature on the health effects of visual display terminal (VDT) use. Vol.1 covers the field up to middle 1990, while Vol.2 covers it from late 1990 to 1992. Items are classified by broad subject area: emissions (radiation sources, VDTs); health hazards (cancer, cardiovascular, dermatological, immunological, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, repetitive strain injury, stress, vision); legal aspects (including litigation); legislative and regulatory aspects (US federal and State, international, professional societies); workers' compensation; monitoring; noise; prevention; safety; sick building syndrome; glossary. In annex: excerpts from relevant articles and reports.
Hughes Press, 2400 Virginia Ave. NW, Box C501, Washington DC 20037, USA, 1990, 1993. 2 vols. (vii, 67 + xv, 132p.). Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: USD 25.00 per vol.
Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide
Sécurité des appareils à laser - Partie 1: Classification des matériels, prescriptions et guide de l'utilisateur [in French]
This international standard (for 1984 standard, see CIS 85-1002) is applicable to the safety of laser products. Contents: Section 1 (General): Scope and object: normative references; definitions. Section 2: Manufacturing requirements: engineering specifications; labelling; other informational requirements; additional requirements for specific laser products; tests; classification. Section 3: User's guide: safety precautions; hazards incidental to laser operation; procedures for hazard control; maximum permissible exposures. Annexes: examples of calculations; medical considerations; bibliography; summary tables; high power laser considerations particularly appropriate to materials processing laser products; related IEC standards.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Nov. 1993. 207p.
McIntyre D.A., Charman W.N., Murray I.J.
Visual safety of quartz linear lamps
A quartz linear lamp (QLL) is a compact infra-red heating lamp. It consists of a tungsten filament in a quartz envelope, which runs at about 2,400K and produces infra-red radiation with a peak output at 1,200nm. This paper reviews potential hazards to the eye in the context of the ACGIH rules. The probability of retinal thermal injury from an infra-red-A image focused on the retina is examined and it is shown that there is no risk at normal viewing distances. To prevent any risk of cataractogenesis, the rules provide for an upper limit of irradiance (TLV) at the eye of 100Wm-2 in the infra-red-A band. The paper examines the potential hazard from longer wavelengths and concludes that they do not present a hazard with this type of heating, provided that the manufacturer's instructions are followed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr.1993, Vol.37, No.2, p.191-200. Illus. 23 ref.
Nelemans P.J., Groenendal H., Kiemeney L.A.L.M., Rampen F.H.J., Ruiter D.J., Verbeek A.L.M.
Effect of intermittent exposure to sunlight on melanoma risk among indoor workers and sun-sensitive individuals
A population-based case-control study was performed in the Netherlands to examine the effect of sunlight exposure and melanoma. The study group comprised 141 patients with a histologically verified melanoma and 183 controls with other malignancies. Subjects were categorized as indoor or outdoor workers on the basis of occupational exposure to the sun. Pigmentation characteristics were summarized as one sun sensitivity score. The odds ratios associated with sunbathing, vacations spent in sunny countries and sunburns were higher among the indoor workers than among the outdoor workers. After stratification by the sun sensitivity score, the effect of sunbathing, participation in water sports (swimming excluded), vacations in sunny countries and a history of sunburn was largest for the sun-sensitive subjects. The results of this study support the hypothesis that intermittent exposure to sunlight is an important risk factor for melanoma.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 1993, Vol.101, No.3, p.252-255. 9 ref.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Hazards of tungsten halogen lamps
Dangers présentés par les lampes halogène [in French]
This booklet presents the results of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation level measurements conducted on 11 office tungsten halogen lamps of different strengths. For each lamp the following information is given: technical characteristics, where it is used, limits on use. The hazards due to halogen lamps used for direct lighting without protective glass envelopes are not insignificant. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light from these lamps may be dangerous in the long run. On the other hand, lights equipped with protective glass should not present any danger, unless under direct viewing conditions (avoidance reflexes of the eye should, however, prevent this latter danger, considering the high intensity of the light emitted by these lamps).
Institut national de Recherche et de Sécurité, INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1993. 27p. Illus. 3 ref.
A practical guide to the determination of human exposure to radiofrequency fields
Contents of this guide: introduction to the radiofrequency spectrum; explanation of terms and units; electromagnetic fields and their interaction with materials and objects; dosimetry; concepts underlying measurements of electric fields, magnetic fields and specific absorption rate; procedures for evaluation of exposure; instruments and measurement techniques; recommended areas for further research and technical or engineering development. In appendices: hazard evaluation procedures for common sources; examples of radiofrequency exposure determination.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3095, USA, Dec. 1993. ix, 233p. Illus. 109 ref. Index. Price: USD 25.00.
Matanoski G.M., Elliott E.A., Breysse P.N., Lynberg M.C.
Leukemia in telephone linemen
This case-control study examines potential associations between telephone linework and the occurrence of leukaemia with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Workers with lifetime exposure scores to extremely low frequency non-ionizing radiation above the median for the population show an excess of leukaemia 2.5 times higher than workers below the median (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-8.6). Those individuals with a long duration of employment in jobs with intermittent peak exposures may be at a higher risk of leukaemia than those with a constant exposure level. Analyses that allow for a latent period suggest that the risk is associated with exposures that occurred 10 or more years before death. Workers with peak exposure scores to extremely low frequency non-ionizing radiation above the median have odds ratios of 2.4 (95% CI 0.7-9.0) and 6.6 (95% CI 0.7-58) for latent periods of 10 and 15 years, respectively. The data suggest an increasing risk with increasing exposure (p for trend = 0.05) when cumulated scores are based on peak exposure scores. The numbers in this study are small and the differences observed may be due to chance.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.6, p.609-619. 13 ref.
Information sheet on lasers
Informationsblatt über Laser [in German]
Bollettino d'informazione sui laser [in Italian]
Feuille d'information sur les lasers [in French]
This data sheet is aimed at the users of laser installations who do not have sufficient technical knowledge of lasers. The nature of laser radiation is described, along with manufacturers', suppliers' and users' obligations. Definition of terms, light propagation, quality of laser light, invisible laser radiation, classification of laser installations, identification and labelling of laser installations, personal protection.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Apr. 1993. 7p. Illus.
Cartwright C.E., Breysse P.N., Booher L.
Magnetic field exposures in a petroleum refinery
Petroleum refinery workers were classified into groups based on the type of exposure sources and work conducted. Electricians were divided into three categories: high voltage electrical distribution (HVED) workers; low voltage electrical distribution (LVED) workers; and maintenance electricians (MNTE). A total of 48 individuals, 11 HVED electricians, 12 LVED electricians, 11 MNTE workers, and 14 controls were monitored for an 8-hour shift. Both the HVED and LVED groups were found to have average full-shift mean exposures slightly greater than 10 milligauss (mG). The MNTE group and the controls exhibited lower magnetic flux density exposures, with means between 2mG and 3mG. A special group of high voltage electricians were monitored during maintenance work on large current-limiting coils in the power distribution system. Individual full-shift magnetic field means ranged from 0.06 to 2.0 gauss (G), with an overall mean of 0.93G. Peak exposures ranged from 2.1 to 18G, with an average of 12.1G.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1993, Vol.8, No.6, p.587-592. Illus. 9 ref.
Sundhedsministeriets ekspertgruppe vedrørende ikkeioniserende stråling (Danish Ministry of Health's Expert Group on Non-ionizing Radiation)
Report on cancer risk in workers exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields
Rapport om risiko for kræft ved udsættelse for ekstreme lavfrekvente magnetfelter i arbejdet [in Danish]
This report was prepared by a working group set up by the Danish Ministry of Health. It reviews the latest scientific studies within the field of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Case studies in Sweden and the USA and epidemiologic studies in the Nordic countries were reviewed. National (Germany, England, USA, Australia) and international (International Non-ionizing Radiation Committee of the International Radiation Protection Association and the EEC) threshold values and recommendations are reviewed. Welders are paid special attention, because they are heavily exposed. The working group could not find any biological mechanism that would explain the relationship between ELF electromagnetic fields and cancer. Therefore the group could not decide which physical characteristics are relevant to measure. The group found that the suspected connection between electromagnetic fields and leukaemia has been strengthen. A connection between electromagnetic fields and brain cancer could not be found.
Statens Information, Postbox 1103, 1009 København K, 1993, 103p. Illus. 65 ref. Price: DKK 75.00.
Light and vision in working life
Ljus och seende i arbetslivet [in Swedish]
This manual gives descriptions necessary for planning appropriate lighting in the work place. It contains basic descriptions of: vision, ergonomics of vision, light and light sources, light devices, glare, light properties of materials, visual display units, energy consumption, vision and safety, maintenance, measurement of light, examples from different kind of workplaces. The descriptions are supported by examples with photographs. A glossary, checklist and guidelines for evaluation of lighting are included.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Stockholm, Sweden, 1993. 71p. Illus.
Olsen R.G., Griner T.A.
Specific absorption rate and radiofrequency current-to-ground in human models exposed to near-field irradiation
To expand knowledge of near-field radiofrequency energy absorption in occupationally exposed workers, coffin-sized calorimeters were used to measure specific absorption rate in full-size human models. The models were subjected to near-field irradiation; radiofrequency current-to-ground was also measured. The results have allowed the construction of a frequency-independent mathematical relationship between specific absorption rate and radiofrequency current for the given exposure system. Moreover, the results show a favourable comparison with radiofrequency radiation dosimetry handbook predictions of average specific absorption rate when only the vertical electric field component is used to normalize specific absorption rate. Once determined on a case-by-case basis, the use of specific absorption rate compared to radiofrequency current curves for any exposure system or condition could be a simple and quick method to determine on-site compliance with specific absorption rate-based exposure standards.
Health Physics, June 1993, Vol.64, No.6, p.633-637. Illus. 13 ref.
Surviving the elements - Outdoor workers' safety
The hazards associated with work in Australia's extreme climatic conditions are examined along with an outline of the legal responsibilities of employers and safety precautions. Government guidelines have established a clear recognition of the hazards of solar radiation and the risk of skin cancer and the precautions necessary. While no specific regulations exist with regard to climatic heat, an employer's basic obligations are usually encapsulated under relevant state occupational safety and health legislation. Policies adopted for both hot and cold conditions should be based on common sense and education of personnel along with proper protective equipment.
Australian Safety News, Dec. 1993, Vol.64, No.11, p.28-39. Illus. 14 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
This ILO publication is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces. Glossary.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. ix, 60p. Illus. Appendices. 33 ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Leśnik H., Poborc-Godlewska J.
The relationship between ciliary muscle fatigue and the type of artificial light used to illuminate the area of visual work
The relationship between the degree of eye fatigue resulting from visual work and type of light source used to illuminate the field of work was assessed. The tests were performed using artificial light sources: fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, high pressure mercury (vapour) and high pressure sodium (vapour) lamps. The assessment was performed on two groups of 10 women each, of which one included women without, and the other with, refraction errors. On the basis of changes of nearer vision point and dispersing lens tolerance, it was found that sodium light produced the highest visual fatigue in the test women, especially in those with refraction errors.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.3, p.287-292. 15 ref.
Aydinli S., Kaase H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Technical and ergonomic evaluation of equipment for shading off daylight from offices
Lichttechnische und ergonomische Bewertung von Anlagen zur Abschirmung von Tageslicht im Büro [in German]
A method for the evaluation of sun shades and blinds for offices was developed. The light transmission and reflection factors of 29 different blinds or textile curtains were measured with a new spherical photometer under various conditions of natural lighting. In addition, illumination levels and luminance inside the offices were determined. Impairment of the view of the external environment was assessed on a five-point scale. Heat transfer through the various kinds of blinds and curtains was measured. The results are presented in tables.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 95p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: DEM 21.00.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Electromagnetic fields (300Hz to 300GHz)
The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the biological effects of electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 300Hz to 300GHz, here defined as the radiofrequency (RF) range. The following categories of health hazards have been identified in an overall assessment of the health hazards associated with RF exposures: the deposition of RF energy in the body tends to increase body temperature; under a number of conditions, the thresholds for biological effects at frequencies above several hundred MHz are decreased when the energy is delivered in short (1-10µs) pulses; there is no evidence that RF exposure is in any way carcinogenic in humans; touching an object charged in an RF field may lead to shock and burns. Occupational exposure limits recommended by IRPA are reported on (whole-body exposure to RF fields should not exceed 0.4W/kg), and protective measures outlined (engineering and administrative controls, personal protection, medical surveillance). Glossary. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 290p. approx. 600 ref. Price: CHF 34.00 (in developing countries: CHF 23.80).
Küller R., Wetterberg L.
Melatonin, cortisol, EEG, ECG and subjective comfort in healthy humans: Impact of two fluorescent lamp types at two light intensities
An office environment was reconstituted in a lighting laboratory. Volunteers spent a working day (9am-4pm) in the space under one of two illumination levels, reading, working at set tasks or undergoing tests. Pre- and post-"shift" urine samples were collected for cortisol and melatonin determination. High illumination (1700 lux) increased visual discomfort and reduced the subjects' opinion of the environment in comparison with the low level (450 lux), and electroencephalographic changes were observed. The effects were more marked with "daylight" tubes than with "warm white" ones. No effect on hormone excretion was observed.
International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 1993, Vol.25, No.2, p.71-81. Illus. 53 ref.
Eckert J., Hesse J.M., Strasser H.
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation at the workplace, dose-effect relations and preventive measures from an ergonomic point of view
UV-Expositionen am Arbeitsplatz, Dosis-Wirkung-Beziehungen und Schutzmassnahmen aus ergonomischer Sicht [in German]
Ultraviolet radiation may be a health hazard. Little attention has been given to risks associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) at work. Controlled studies with quantitative measurements, and their evaluation, have been performed in rare cases only. This review discusses the exposure limits established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Preventive measures against UV exposure are suggested. Discussion of topics for further research.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Mar. 1993, Vol.43, No.3, p.78-93. Illus. 29 ref.
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels (1993) [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1993) [in Japanese]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 174 chemical products (nine additions or updates since 1992) and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.323-345. Illus.
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