Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found
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Health and Safety Executive
Keep your top on: Health risks from working in the sun
Topics: barrier creams; heat stroke; outdoor work; safe working methods; skin cancer; skin protection; solar radiation; training material; ultraviolet radiation; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1998. 6p. Illus.
Turville K.L., Psihogios J.P., Ulmer T.R., Mirka G.A.
The effects of video display terminal height on the operator: A comparison of the 15° and 40° recommendations
Standard workplace design recommendation is to position the centre of video display terminals (VDTs) 15° below horizontal eye level. Recently a viewing angle of 40° below horizontal has been suggested for visually intensive tasks. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of these two VDT positions on muscular activity, muscular fatigue, head/neck posture, visual acuity, operator performance, heart rate and operator subjective assessment. The experimental task consisted of reading text from a computer screen and answering reading comprehension questions using a mouse and a keyboard. The 40° VDT position showed significantly greater head tilt angles and higher muscle activity levels for six of the 10 neck, shoulder and back muscles sampled. No significant differences in visual acuity, operator performance or heart rate were detected as a result of monitor location. Seven of the 12 subjects preferred the 15° monitor position.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1998, Vol.29, No.4, p.239-246. Illus. 35 ref.
Protection from solar radiation at the workplace
Sonnenschutz im Objektbereich [in German]
The new German ordinance which regulates the design of visual display workstations requires the prevention of glare. In many offices sunshades will have to be installed to comply with this requirement. A survey of available sunshades is given. Horizontal and vertical baffles inside windows, and awnings outside windows are discussed. Tips for the selection of sunshades are presented. Manufacturers of sunshades in Germany are listed and the types of products they offer are illustrated. Topics: CRT display terminals; Germany; glare; offices; screens; selection of equipment; solar radiation; visual comfort; windows.
BTH, Bodenbeläge, Tapeten, Heimtextilien, July 1998, No.7, p.91-106. Illus.
Salsi S., Cnockaert J.C., Mayer A., André J.C., Brun A., Georges P.
Personal protective equipment against laser beams: Non-linear behaviour induced by high irradiance of safety goggles against laser beams
Equipement de protection contre les lasers: comportement non linéaire induit par les flux lumineux élevés des oculaires utilisés pour les lunettes de protection contre les lasers [in French]
Topics: filter glasses; filtration efficiency; laser radiation; lasers; light transmission factor; luminous flux; optical density; personal protective equipment; safety spectacles.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.171, Note No.2075-171-98, p.129-137. Illus. 8 ref.
Safety in the use of mobile telephony and the general law on telecommunications
La seguridad en el uso de la telefonía móvil y la ley general de telecomunicaciones [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on law; determination of exposure limits; electromagnetic radiation; microwave exposure limits; microwave radiation measurement; permissible levels; radiofrequency equipment; radiofrequency radiation; safe distances; Spain; telephone communications.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1998, Vol.45, No.177, p.49-57. Illus.
Gorsuch E.L., Grinshpun S.A., Willeke K., Reponen T., Moss C.E., Jensen P.A.
Method for evaluating germicidal ultraviolet inactivation of biocontaminated surfaces
Topics: biological hazards; contamination criteria; description of technique; disinfection of equipment; evaluation of technique; microorganisms; ultraviolet radiation.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.3, p.287-297. Illus. 15 ref.
Ruperez Calvo M.J.
Occupational exposure to optical radiation
La exposición laboral a radiaciones ópticas [in Spanish]
Topics: check lists; eye injuries; filter glasses; hazard evaluation; infrared radiation; legislation; luminous flux; skin injuries; Spain; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 59p. Illus.
Küller R., Laike T.
The impact of flicker from fluorescent lighting on well-being, performance and physiological arousal
35 individuals were subjected to fluorescent light powered by conventional and high-frequency ballasts in a laboratory office on two separate occasions with one week in between. Only a few general effects were observed. However, when the light was powered by the conventional ballasts, individuals with high critical flicker fusion frequency responded with a pronounced attenuation of EEG α waves and an increase in speed and decrease in accuracy of performance. These results may be understood in terms of heightened arousal in the central nervous system in response to the pronounced light modulation caused by the conventional ballasts. In order to alleviate this potential stress source, it is recommended that fluorescent lighting be powered by electronic high-frequency ballast of good quality. Topics: arousal; artificial lighting; biological effects; cognitive performance; electroencephalography; flicker; fluorescent tubes; luminance; neuropsychic stress; subjective assessment; work capacity.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1998, Vol.41, No.4, p.433-447. Illus. 57 ref.
Radon K., Maschke C.
Does sensitivity to electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telecommunication exist?
Gibt es Elektrosensibilität im D-Netzbereich? [in German]
Topics: electromagnetic fields; human experiments; hypersensitivity; radiofrequency equipment; radiofrequency radiation; telephone communications.
Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis, July 1998, Vol.3, No.3, p.125-129. Illus. 7 ref.
Animal and human responses to UVR
Topics: biological effects; conjunctivitis; erythema; immunotoxic effects; keratitis; melanoma; outdoor work; photosensitization dermatitis; skin cancer; ultraviolet radiation.
Radiological Protection Bulletin, Apr. 1998, No.200, p.7-13. Illus. 5 ref.
Stepanski B.M., Mayer J.A.
Solar protection behaviours among outdoor workers
Topics: barrier creams; outdoor work; protective clothing; radiation protection; risk factors; skin cancer; solar radiation; survey; ultraviolet radiation; USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.43-48. 14 ref.
Safety in the use of radiofrequency dielectric heaters and sealers: A practical guide
Topics: antifertility effects; biological effects; carcinogenic effects; electromagnetic radiation; ILO; microwave cataract; permissible radiation doses; radiation burns; radiation monitoring; radiation protection; radiation shielding; radiofrequency equipment; radiofrequency radiation; safety by design; safety guides; teratogenic effects.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. ix, 71p. Illus. 115 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.
Radiation Act [Estonia]
Kiirgusseadus [in Estonian]
This Law contains provisions for the protection of persons and the environemnt in all situations where there may be exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation (including intensive visible light), and to radioactive substances. Basic radiation protective standards are specified. A Radiation Centre is created, with the purpose of applying all government functions relating to radiation protection. The conditions for issuing radiation protection licences are detailed. Provisions are made for the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste.
Estonian Legislation in Translation, 1999, No.6, p.7-35.
http://seadus.ibs.ee/aktid/rk.s.19970423.135.19970526.html [in Estonian]
Matthes R., Bernhardt J.H., Repacholi M.H.
Biological effects of static and ELF electric and magnetic fields
Proceedings of the International Seminar on biological effects of static and electric and magnetic fields and related health risks held in Bologna, Italy, 4-5 June 1997. Papers presented are grouped according to following themes: general principles; biophysical mechanisms and models; in vitro studies (in vitro effects on signal transduction and effects on carcinogenesis; environmental-level electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in human cells); in vivo studies (biological and health effects of ELF fields; effects on melatonin); human studies; research.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, c/o. R. Matthes, Bundemamt für Strahlenschutz, Institut für Strahlenhygiene, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany, 1997. xii, 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Bernhardt J.H., Matthes R., Repacholi M.H.
Non-thermal effects of RF electromagnetic fields
Proceedings of the International Seminar on biological effects on the non-thermal pulsed and amplitude modulated RF electromagnetic fields and related health risks held in Munich, Germany, 20 to 21 November 1996. Papers presented are grouped according to following themes: basics; biophysical mechanisms and models; laboratory studies (in vitro studies of effects of microwave and nonthermal radiofrequency radiation, neurological aspects of wireless communication); human studies (neurasthenic and symptom-based effects and electromagnetic fields; chronic diseases in relation to radiofrequency radiation exposure); research.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, c/o. R. Matthes, Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Institut für Strahlenhygiene, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany, 1997. xiv, 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Joint document on the protection of workers and of the population in general against exposure to electric and magnetic fields and to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300GHz
Documento congiunto sulla problematica della protezione dei lavoratori e della popolazione dalle esposizioni a campi elettrici e magnetici e a campi elettromagnetici a frequenze comprese tra 0 Hz e 300 GHz [in Italian]
Summary document published as a supplement to issue No.4/97 of the Fogli d'informazione ISPESL on the possible hazards of exposure to electromagnetic radiation and the fields generated by them, and on ways of preventing them.
Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro (ISPESL), via Urbana 167, 00184 Roma, Italy, 1997. 32p.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3µM)
Topics: biological effects; determination of exposure limits; limitation of exposure; mathematical analysis; non-ionizing radiation; permissible radiation doses; retinal damage; skin injuries; visible radiation.
Health Physics, Sep. 1997, Vol.73, No.3, p.539-554. Illus. 70 ref.
Morales Suárez-Varela M.M., Llopis González A., Marquina Vila A., Cerjudo Ferragud A.I., Fuertes A.
Work activity and non-melanoma skin cancer
La actividad laboral en relación con el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma [in Spanish]
The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is increasing, and the risk of developing this disease is higher in areas with long hours of sunshine, as in Valencia in Spain. A study was made in a hospital in Valencia during the period 1977-1993, with the aim of establishing occupations at higher risk of NMSC and major risk factors. Results showed that domestic and agricultural activities were the groups most associated with NMSC, as were a light skin complexion and the presence of pre-existing skin lesions in both groups. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were most frequent among agricultural workers. Concerning the type of tumor involved, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common tumor in the agricultural sector, while basal cell carcinoma was the most common tumor among domestic workers. Topics: agriculture; alcoholism; carcinoma; chemical products; domestic service; job-exposure relation; risk factors; skin cancer; smoking; solar radiation; Spain; statistical evaluation; survey.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1997, Vol.44, No.175, p.59-73. 29 ref.
Levallois P., Gauvin D., Lajoie P., Saint-Laurent J.
Review of exposure guidelines for electromagnetic fields (0-300 GHz) and ultraviolet radiation
Topics: biological effects; Canada; comment on standard; determination of exposure limits; electric fields; electromagnetic radiation; international agreements; magnetic fields; permissible radiation doses; Quebec; radiofrequency radiation; report; ultraviolet radiation; USA.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail au Québec (IRSST), Direction des communications, 505, de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C2, Canada, Nov. 1997. vi, 85p. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 10.00.
Health risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields in working environments
Rischi per la salute da esposizione a campi elettromagnetici in ambienti di lavoro [in Italian]
Topics: biological effects; electromagnetic fields; literature survey; long-term exposure; radiofrequency radiation.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1997, Vol.88, No.6, p.462-474. 33 ref.
Freedman D.M., Zahm S.H., Dosemeci M.
Residential and occupational exposure to sunlight and mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Composite (threefold) case-control study
Death certificate data for cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma and skin cancer and associations with potential residential and occupational exposure to sunlight were investigated. Unlike non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, both melanoma and skin cancer were positively associated with residential sunlight exposure. Skin cancer was also slightly positively associated with occupational sunlight exposure. Findings do not support the hypothesis that sunlight exposure contributes to the rising rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
British Medical Journal, May 1997, Vol.314, No.7092, p.1451-1455. 28 ref.
Tenkate T.S.D., Collins M.J.
Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets
An ultraviolet (UV) radiation detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering either through an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, or through an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. Results highlight the potential for ocular UV exposure of welders from infiltrating UV radiation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.54-56. Illus. 10 ref.
Tenkate T.D., Collins M.J.
Personal ultraviolet radiation exposure of workers in a welding environment
The personal ultraviolet exposure levels of a group of welders and nearby workers at a metal fabrication workshop were estimated using photosensitive polymer film badges. The badges were attached to the workers' eye protection and clothing, and also placed throughout the work area. The estimated ocular and body exposures for both welders and nonwelders were considerably higher than the maximum possible exposure (MPE) limit. The ambient ultraviolet radiation levels in the factory exceeded the MPE by an average of 5.5 times, even in nonwelding areas. Welders require additional ocular protection to supplement conventional welding helmets, and exposed areas of skin of workers in this environment should also be protected.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.33-38. Illus. 28 ref.
Dolk H., Shaddick G., Walls P., Grundy C., Thakrar B., Kleinschmidt I., Elliott P.
Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain: 1. Sutton Coldfield transmitter
This study of cancer incidence in 1974-1986 evaluates a previous unconfirmed report of a "cluster" of leukaemias and lymphomas near a television and FM radio transmitter in the West Midlands, England. The study used a national database of postcoded cancer registrations, population and socioeconomic data from the 1981 census. The study area was defined as a 10km radius circle around the transmitter. The risk of adult leukaemia within 2km was 1.83 (observed/expected ratio) and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter. These findings confirmed the previously reported excess of leukaemias near the said radio and television transmitter. Study of other radio and TV transmitters is required since no causal implications can be made from a single cluster investigation of this kind.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Jan. 1997, Vol.145, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 34 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
Istiẖdām al-līzar fī makan al-(amal [in Arabic]
Arabic translation of an ILO publication abstracted under CIS 94-703. This document is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. 155p. Illus. 33 ref.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Guidelines on UV radiation exposure limits: ICNIRP Statement
Topics: DNA; eye injuries; health hazards; IRPA; limitation of exposure; melanoma; permissible levels; skin cancer; ultraviolet radiation.
Health Physics, 1996, Vol.71, No.6, p.978. 5 ref.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Health issues related to the use of hand-held radiotelephones and base transmitters
Topics: animal experiments; biological effects; carcinogenic effects; health hazards; mobile telephony; permissible radiation doses; radiofrequency equipment; radiofrequency radiation.
Health Physics, Apr. 1996, Vol.70, No.4, p.587-593. 70 ref.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180nm and 1,000µm
Topics: biological effects; determination of exposure limits; eye injuries; infrared radiation; laser damage thresholds; laser radiation; length of exposure; limitation of exposure; non-ionizing radiation; permissible radiation doses; retinal damage; skin injuries; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Health Physics, Nov. 1996, Vol.71, No.5, p.804-819. Illus. 49 ref.
Pfister E., Lindner H., Ferl T.
Optimisation of the contrast of visual displays - Reduction of the psychophysiological stress
Optimierung des Bildschirmkontrastes - Reduktion der psychophysiologischen Beanspruchung [in German]
Topics: computers; contrast; CRT display terminals; ergonomics; experimental determination; neuropsychic stress; sensorimotor activities; visual comfort.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1996, Vol.50, No.3, p.154-161. Illus. 54 ref.
Armendáriz Pérez de Ciriza P., Rupérez Calvo M.J.
Optical radiation hazards from light sources
Riesgos por radiaciones ópticas procedentes de fuentes luminosas [in Spanish]
Topics: arc lamps; artificial lighting; discharge lamps; electric lighting equipment; eye injuries; filament lamps; hazard evaluation; infrared radiation; lighting; radiation injury; skin injuries; Spain; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 26p. 29 ref.
Ultraviolet radiation in the workplace
Rayonnement ultraviolet dans le lieu de travail [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; eye injuries; permissible radiation doses; protective clothing; radiation burns; radiation protection; skin cancer; solar radiation; ultraviolet radiation.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, 1996. 8p. 3 ref.
Alunovic M., Kreutz E.W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Protective shielding of workplaces using lasers
Abschirmungen an Laserarbeitsplätzen [in German]
Topics: argon lasers; building materials; continuous-wave lasers; Germany; glass; laser radiation; lasers; material damage; materials testing; neodymium lasers; plaster; plastics; pulsed lasers; Q-switched lasers; radiation protection; radiation shielding; screens.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. x, 157p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: DM 29.50.
Piletta P.A., Salomon D., Beani J.C., Saurat J.H.
A pilot with an itchy rash
Case report of polymorphous light eruption on sun-exposed skin in a pilot. Topics: aircraft pilots; case study; erythema; solar radiation.
Lancet, Oct. 1996, Vol.348, No.9035, p.1142. 5 ref.
Design of "Intelligent buildings" with improved use of daylight
"Intelligent Building" durch verbesserte Tageslichtnutzung [in German]
An innovative method of better using the daylight in buildings is described. The new natural lighting system takes into account the different needs of homes and offices. In offices attention is paid to providing visual comfort at work on visual display terminals. Special, patented mirrors are used to control solar radiation in summer and provide better use of it in winter. With these mirrors the daylight is directed to locations distant from the window. Solar radiation can be guided towards building structures such as concrete floor slabs which are capable of storing thermal energy.
Licht, Aug. 1996, Vol.48, No.7-8, p.588-596. Illus. 22 ref.
Proceedings of the Third International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop held in Baden, Austria, 22-26 April 1996. Papers include: introduction to non-ionizing radiations; fundamentals of laboratory experimentation; research on magnetic fields and cancer; sources, characteristics, measurement, biological effects and protective measures relating to ultraviolet radiation, laser radiation, visible and infrared radiation, radiofrequency fields, statics and extremely low frequency (ELF) fields, and ultrasound; general principles of protection, and development of guidelines and standards.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, c/o Dipl.-Ing. R. Matthes, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Germany, 1996. xvi, 388p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 60.00.
Environmental dose reconstruction and risk implications
Dose reconstruction (DR), i.e. the retrospective process of estimating doses to the public from historic releases of radionuclides or chemicals to the environment was the topic of the 31st Annual Meeting of the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), held on 12-13 Apr. 1995 in Arlington (VA). Engineering, statistics, biology, environmental transport of contaminants, uncertainty analysis, epidemiology and public interest are the main aspects discussed in relation to DR and its health implications (principally, radiation-induced cancers). Case studies for atmospheric weapons tests, nuclear weapons complex facilities and the Chernobyl accident are included to illustrate the strength and weakness of projects on DR in the general population as well as in plant facilities workers. The proceeding also includes a lecture in honour of S. Taylor, first NCRP President, covering radiation protection and measurements.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA, Oct. 1996. ii, 373p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The radiation safety of lasers used for display purposes
This guide provides radiation safety information for employers and employees who use display laser installations, and for manufacturers and suppliers of this equipment. Contents: laser-induced eye damage; supplier requirements (basic safeguards, determination of exposure conditions, hand-over arrangements and documentation, venue considerations); user requirements (operator training and supervision); installation safety assessment (potential hazards, emission evaluation). In appendices: wavelengths of different lasers; maximum permissible exposures.
HSE Books P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. iv, 34p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling the radiation safety of display laser installations
This leaflet provides general radiation safety information for employers and employees who use display laser installations, and for manufacturers and suppliers of this equipment. High power lasers may cause eye injury or skin burns. Key problems relate to safety assessment of laser beam viewing, and restriction of access to beams identified as hazardous.
HSE Books P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. 4p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/INDG224.htm [in English]
Sato M., Toma A., Nakayama K., Takahashi M.
Physiological and psychological effects of illuminance in an office space
Shitsumu kūkan ni okeru sh-ōdo no seiri shinriteki eikyō [in Japanese]
To evaluate the physiological and psychological effects of illuminance levels during the performance of monotonous tasks, subjects performed work on computer terminals in a simulated office space. The lighting levels were 200, 500, 1250 and 3125 lx. The variables measured were electroencephalogramme (EEG), finger photoelectric plethysmogramme (PTG), heart rate and score on the Kansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The subjects were more alert and relaxed at 500 and 1250 lx than at higher or lower levels.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan, May 1996, Vol.80, No.5, p.23-30. Illus. 18 ref.
Whillock M.J., Pearson A.J., Walker S.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurements of the visible and infrared emissions from industrial sources at eight industrial sites in the UK
Measurements were made of optical radiation emissions from sources found in glass manufacture, steel refining and rolling, steel pressing, and alloy refining. There was no evidence to suggest that workers employed at the sites visited were exposed to levels of optical radiation that were likely to cause retinal injury. However, many of the sources produced exposure levels that exceeded the recommended limits set to protect against the induction of cataracts. Use of effective eye protection would eliminate or reduce the potential risk to workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 31p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Barlier A., Salsi S.
Hazards of exposure to ultraviolet radiation - Metal-halogen lamps
Risques d'exposition aux rayonnements ultraviolets - Lampes aux halogènes métalliques [in French]
Study of the risk of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from metal-halogen lamps incurred by persons making daily measurements in climate chambers: review of the effect of UV and visible radiation on the eye and the skin, evaluation of the risks, results (exposure levels below recognized exposure limits at all wavelengths). Metal halogen lamps with a single (quartz) wall are a greater hazard that ones with double walls (an inner one of quartz and an outer one of glass).
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.44-46. Illus. 3 ref.
Bellido F., Belmar J.M., Bernaola M., Cabrera J.A., Corredera P., Domingo C., Gallardo E., Guibelalde E., López G., Montejo J.M., Rupérez M.J., Sánchez M., Vaello L.
Some considerations on laser safety
Algunas cuestiones sobre seguridad láser [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical hazards; electricity; hazard criteria; hazard evaluation; health hazards; laser damage thresholds; laser radiation; lasers; legislation; medical prevention; physical hazards; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. xviii, 398p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
San Martín Ferrer D.
Investigation into the conditions of use of industrial radiofrequency and microwave furnaces in Spain and their effects on health
Estudio de las condiciones de utilización de hornos industriales de radiofrecuencias y microondas en España y sus efectos sobre la salud [in Spanish]
Topics: electromagnetic fields; exposure evaluation; health hazards; industrial furnaces; radiation monitoring; radiofrequency radiation; Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1995, No.109, p.25-31. Illus. 8 ref.
Chronic damage to the eye caused by exposure to UV radiation - The epidemiological evidence
Nezaqim chroniim laayin hanigramim al-yadei qrina ultra-sgula - haedut haepidemiologit [in Hebrew]
Contents of this review article: At least part of the damage to the eyes associated with aging should in fact be attributed to environmental and occupational factors, e.g., to exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the case of welders. Epidemiological evidence for the chronic adverse effects to the eyes caused by UV radiation is presented.
Idqun Ayin, 1995, No.5, p.4-8. 19 ref.
Eye protectors against optical radiation
Shakō hogogu [in Japanese]
Review of safety glasses, goggles and masks used at work for protection against optical radiation: definitions, functions, types, optical transmittance of various materials and relevant citations of Japanese Industrial Standards. Specific examples of protection against the hazards of arc welding, gas welding, iron and steel manufacture and lasers.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, 10 July 1995, Vol.34, p.21-32. Illus. 7 ref.
Hitchcock R.T., Patterson R.M.
Radio-frequency and ELF electromagnetic energies - A handbook for health professionals
Contents of this manual: general concepts of electromagnetic radiation; interaction of radiation with matter; biological effects of radiofrequency fields (animal studies, epidemiology, morbidity and mortality, ocular effects, nervous system and cardiovascular effects, effects on reproduction, development and growth, cancer, skin diseases, accident and incident reports, cutaneous perception of microwaves and radiofrequency burns); exposure standards and guidelines; generation and sources of radiation; instrumentation; evaluation and measurement of radiofrequency hazards; control measures; extremely low frequency (ELF) fields (sources and exposures, health effects, measurement, exposure guidelines); radiation control programme.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1995. ix, 542p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 59.00.
European standards and protection against non-ionizing radiation
Normalisation européenne et protection contre les rayonnements non ionisants [in French]
The purpose of this information note is to present the new European guidelines on radiation protection (ENV 50166 1 & 2), together with recommendations by IRPA and ACGIH. Separate sections deal with: static electric and magnetic fields; low frequency fields (≤10kHz); high-frequency fields (10kHz-300GHz).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.161, p.553-558. Illus.
Barlier A., Salsi S.
Infrared radiation and cataract - Risk evaluation in the vicinity of an induction furnace
Rayonnement infrarouge et cataractes - Evaluation des risques à proximité d'un four à induction [in French]
A study was carried out in a steel recycling plant using an induction furnace to assess infrared exposure levels (a potential source of cataracts), the risks to workers and the efficacy of risk prevention measures. The parameters measured were: spectral irradiance between 200 and 3,000nm, and spectral radiance between 400 and 700nm in the vicinity of the furnace door. The spectral transmittance of both means of protection was measured between 200 and 3,000nm. A risk of cataract was shown to exist for staff working in the immediate and less immediate vicinity of the furnace. The face shield with reflective metal coating proved effective, but goggles with green filter lenses were found to provide insufficient protection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.161, Note No.2003-161-95, p.469-475. Illus. 18 ref.
Garn H., Gabriel C.
Present knowledge about specific absorption rates inside a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
The paper presents the results of scientific investigations about the relationship between external field-strengths and specific absorption rates inside the human body. The data were normalized to specific absorption rate (SAR) values that form the basis for current safety standards. Results were compared to exposure limits given in these standards. This comparison should serve as a reference for the selection of reliable reference levels for personal protection against thermal effects in radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The need to measure and monitor ankle/wrist currents to protect some exposed workers is explained. The study has also highlighted a scarcity of dosimetric data at frequencies below 3MHz.
Health Physics, Feb. 1995, Vol.68, No.2, p.147-156. Illus. 20 ref.
Wilson J.W., Kim M., Schimmerling W., Badavi F.F., Thibeault S.A., Cucinotta F.A., Shinn J.L., Kiefer R.
Issues in space radiation protection: Galactic cosmic rays
There is limited knowledge concerning the physical properties of and biological responses to cosmic rays. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation protection is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, it is difficult to use. The evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials as a substitute must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.
Health Physics, Jan. 1995, Vol.68, No.1, p.50-58. Illus. 28 ref.
Even a wallfull of television sets or computer monitors is not dangerous
Même en batterie, les écrans et moniteurs d'ordinateurs ne sont pas dangereux... [in French]
The French Research and Safety Institute (INRS) measured the levels of X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, electrical and magnetic fields and ultrasound emitted by video and computer equipment. Even when large numbers of screens are present together, as in displays in stores, the levels of radiation and ultrasound are well below exposure limits and do not constitute a hazard.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1995, No. 542, p.576-578. Illus. 13 ref.
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