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Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found

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CIS 03-947 Horowitz T.S., Tanigawa T.
Circadian-based new technologies for night workers
Night work is becoming increasingly common. Unfortunately, humans are physiologically unsuited to inverted schedules, leading to negative consequences for shift workers, employers and society. The circadian and homeostatic processes which govern sleepiness and alertness are improperly aligned for night workers. This article reviews a number of laboratory studies designed to treat maladaptation to night work by shifting the circadian clock with light, exercise or melatonin. There is substantial evidence that bright light treatments can successfully overcome the circadian misalignments associated with night work. The evidence for the efficiency of other synchronizers such as exercise and exogenous melatonin is equivocal. Nevertheless, the highlighting of scientific understanding of the nature of the problem has generated a promising range of options for shift workers.
Industrial Health, July 2002, Vol.40, No.3, p.223-236. Illus. 104 ref.

CIS 03-393 Guenel P., Laforest L., Cyr D., Fevotte J., Sabroe S., Dufour C., Lutz J.M., Lynge E.
Occupational risk factors, ultraviolet radiation and ocular melanoma: A case-control study carried out in France
Facteurs de risque professionnels, rayonnements ultraviolets et mélanome oculaire: une étude cas-témoin réalisée en France [in French]
This case-control study examines the relationship between occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and occurrences of ocular melanoma. Cases consisted of 50 subjects diagnosed with melanoma in 1995-96. Controls were randomly selected and matched by age, sex and place of residence. Among the 630 persons selected, 76% were subjected to a standardized questionnaire during interviews. Estimations of the level of occupational exposure to UV were based on a job-exposure matrix. Results indicated a high risk among subjects with fair eyes or skin and among persons who had been victims of several eye burns, as well as among occupational groups exposed to artificial UV radiation. However, no increased risk was noted for persons working in the open exposed to sunlight. Increased risk was found among male welders (OR=7.3), for whom a dose-response relationship with tenure was also highlighted, as well as among male cooks. Among women, elevated risks were observed in the metalworking industry and in warehousing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2002, No.189, p.7-14. 34 ref.$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 03-397 Håkansson N., Floderus B., Gustavsson P., Johansen C., Olsen J.H.
Cancer incidence and magnetic field exposure in industries using resistance welding in Sweden
To investigate cancer incidence in workers exposed to high levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), a cohort based on the engineering industries assumed to use resistance welding was established. All men and women employed in these sectors during 1985-94 were selected (537,692 men and 180,529 women). Occupation, based on census information from 1980, 1985, and 1990, was linked to a job exposure matrix on ELF-MF. Four exposure groups were identified on the basis of their mean workday ELF-MF exposure. Cancer incidence was obtained by linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. It was found that the risks of cancer of the liver, kidney, and pituitary gland among men were in accordance with previous observations. Regarding brain tumours and leukaemia, the outcome for women provided further support of an association. The hypothesis of a biological mechanism involving the endocrine system was partly supported.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.481-486. 38 ref.

CIS 02-1906
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling health risks from the use of UV tanning equipment
This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Reprint of CIS 96-339 with updated references.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 4p. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1433
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Non-ionizing radiation, part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields
Report of an IARC working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans from exposure to static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields held in Lyon, France, 19-26 June 2001. Contents: general introduction and definitions; ELF sources, exposure and exposure assessment; studies of cancer in humans; studies of carcinogenicity in experimental animals; other data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary and evaluation of reported data. It is concluded that ELF magnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic in humans (group 2B), and that static and ELF electric fields are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2002. ix, 429p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.


CIS 06-15 Laser safety 2.0 - Training software for your safety with lasers
Lasersicherheit 2.0 - Die Schulungssoftware für Ihre Lasersicherheit [in German]
This CD-ROM provides a tool for training in laser safety. It enables users to acquire a basic understanding of this topic, namely: principles of the functioning of lasers; risks posed by the interaction of lasers with human tissue; classes of lasers; protective measures; responsibilities of employees. A simple test enables users to determine whether they have acquired the essential knowledge concerning laser safety. The CD-ROM also contains approximately 40 Power-Point slides that can be edited to make training presentations on the topic of laser safety.
Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany, 2001. CD-ROM (needs Pentium min. 100 MHz, Windows 95, 98, ME, NT or 2000, 64 MB RAM, CD-ROM drive min. 16x, optimal resolution 1024x768, Internet browser, Macromedia Shockwave Player, Windows Media Player or REAL Player). Price: EUR 32.50.

CIS 06-14
Health and Safety Executive
Keep your top on: Health risks from working in the sun
This leaflet gives advice to outdoor workers on health risks from working in the sun. Topics covered: dangers from exposure to sun; persons at risk of skin cancer; dos and don'ts to avoid the danger; appropriate clothing; sunscreens; skin checks. Replaces CIS 00-970.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2001. 6p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1964 Code of practice for illumination in industrial premises
This code of practice provides guidelines on the provision of appropriate lighting for optimum visual performance in indoor industrial premises. It covers the design, installation, maintenance and improvement of the lighting systems to ensure safety, comfort, well-being and productivity of the workers. The degree of lighting is recommended for different types of industrial areas, tasks and processes.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 2001. 62p. Price: SGD 54.00.

CIS 03-865 Okuno T., Ojima J., Saito H.
Ultraviolet radiation emitted by CO2 arc welding
The arcs associated with arc welding emit high levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and this often causes acute injuries in the workplace, particularly photokeratoconjunctivitis. In this study, the effective irradiance for UVR was measured experimentally for CO2 arc welding in order to evaluate its UVR hazards. A welding robot was used in the experiment in order to ensure reproducible and consistent welding conditions. The effective irradiance at 1m from the arc was in the range 0.28-7.85W/m2 under the study conditions. The corresponding permissible exposure time per day is only 4-100s, suggesting that UVR from CO2 arc welding is actually hazardous for the eye and skin. It was found that the effective irradiance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the arc, is strongly dependent on the direction of emission from the arc with a maximum at 50-60° from the plate surface, and tends to increase with the welding current.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 2001, Vol.45, No.7, p.597-601. Illus. 13 ref

CIS 02-1885 Japuntich D.A.
Polarized task lighting to reduce reflective glare in open-plan office cubicles
Reflective glare causes eye discomfort, makes it difficult to read a document and has been thought to contribute to eyestrain. This paper analyzes the application of polarized lighting for this specific situation. The use of a linear polarized light source helps to minimize glare by darkening the reflected image of the light source on the document. The performance and predictive optimization of the use of polarized lighting in this situation is investigated according to female and male viewer heights. Theoretical predictions and light measurement analysis of glare reduction are compared with empirical results from testing on a panel of humans on semi-gloss finish and matte finish papers. This study shows that with the correct positioning of a polarized light source, glare may be significantly reduced, and correlations exist between the theory, empirical measurements and the human response to glare reduction.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.485-499. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 02-1895 Falco M.D., Lepore M., Indovina P.L.
Assessment of exposure to laser radiation in research laboratories
Valutazione dell'esposizione alla radiazione laser nei laboratori di ricerca [in Italian]
Overview of the methods for radiance measurement and other parameters for the laser sources most widely used in research establishments. These methods are compared with those recommended by safety standards. The use of safety spectacles is recommended for eye protection, as well as that of beam stops or attenuators.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.187-202. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-1894 Gaetano R.
Electromagnetic radiation, mobile telephones and health hazards
Radiazioni elettromagnetiche, telefonia mobile e rischi per la salute [in Italian]
Survey article of research concerning the potential harmful effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation emitted by mobile telephones in the workplace and elsewhere. Three possible kinds of health effects are mentioned: (1) thermal effects in the eyes and the male reproductive system,(2) radiation effects in the central nervous system, and (3) leukaemia in children. In fact, no evidence has been found for any such effects, and provisionally there is no reason to avoid non-excessive use of mobile telephones. One possible case for concern exists, however, in the use of mobile telephones by people with cardiac pace-makers, because of possible interference with the functioning of heart pulse simulation devices by the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile telephones.
Difesa sociale, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.80, No.2, p.59-72. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1424 Lerman Y., Jacubovich R., Green M.S.
Pregnancy outcome following exposure to shortwaves among female physiotherapists in Israel
To study the possible association between short-wave diathermy use by pregnant physiotherapists and adverse pregnancy outcomes, individualized data on exposure to short-wave radiation, ultrasound, and heavy lifting were collected by questionnaires and telephone interviews with 434 female physiotherapists in Israel. The subjects had 930 pregnancies: 175 ended in spontaneous abortions, 45 had foetal malformations, 47 were delivered prematurely, and 33 infants had low birth weight. The remaining 630 normal pregnancies comprised the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, it was found that exposure to short-wave radiation was associated with a statistically significant increased odds ratio (O.R.) of low birth weight (O.R. 2.75). This effect increased in a dose-related manner. From the potentially confounding variables tested, febrile disease during pregnancy was found to be significantly associated with low birth weight (O.R. 3.37). The findings suggest that short-wave radiation have potentially harmful effects on pregnancy outcome, specifically low birth weight.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2001, Vol.39, No.5, p.499-504. 12 ref.

CIS 02-915 Miro L.
Risks from radiofrequency electromagnetic waves
Risques liés aux ondes radioélectromagnétiques [in French]
Biophysics of the interaction between radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and human tissues are discussed, and the concept of specific absorption flux is defined. Health hazards are evaluated, in particular that of risk to the ocular lens. Other specific effects include effects on the central nervous system, behaviour, the endocrine system and the haematopoietic system. In occupational medicine, pathologies linked to the thermogenic effect that have been highlighted during clinical observations, epidemiological surveys and cases of active implants are discussed. Work aptitude conditions for jobs involving exposure are reviewed, and the procedures to be adopted in cases of accidental acute or chronic exposure and medical supervision of personnel are described. Finally, safety standards are presented and discussed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 8p. 12 ref.

CIS 02-914 Miro L.
Risks associated with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and intermediate frequency electromagnetic fields
Risques liés aux champs électromagnétiques d'extrêmement basses fréquences (ELF) et de fréquences intermédiaires [in French]
"Extremely Low Frequency" (ELF) electromagnetic fields are for the most part the result of the transport or use of electricity. Biological effects of induced currents are reviewed, both in vivo and in vitro. Human effects resulting from clinical observations, experimental studies, epidemiological surveys and cases of active implants are discussed. The very low-, low- and medium-frequencies, termed "intermediate frequencies" are more and more widespread, both in the domestic and industrial environment. They give rise to induced currents in the human body. Despite the limited knowledge concerning the effects of these frequencies, several experimental and human studies in the area are cited. Static magnetic fields are reviewed in terms of their physical and biological and human effects. Safety standards concerning these radiations are presented and discussed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 8p. 12 ref.

CIS 02-904 Arutyunyan R.M., Hovhannisyan G.G., Ghazanchyan E.G., Nersesyan A.K.
DNA damage induced by UV-C irradiation in leukocytes of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers
The comet assay was used to estimate DNA damage induced by UV-C in leukocytes of 12 persons who were engaged during 1986-1987 in the clean-up of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after the 1986 accident. Blood samples were collected in 1997, namely 10 years after the radiation exposure. Reference blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy persons of corresponding ages. Results show an increased repair capacity of DNA in leukocytes of irradiated persons exposed to UV-C, when compared with leukocytes from controls. This phenomenon is presumably due to a radio-adaptive response. There were no statistically significant differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in leukocytes between the individuals in the two groups. Some hypotheses concerning adaptive response in cells of persons previously exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation are discussed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.15-21. 20 ref.

CIS 02-912 Duchêne A., Joussot-Dubien J.
Biological effects of non-ionizing radiation
Les effets biologiques des rayonnements non ionisants [in French]
Non-ionizing radiation includes conventional optical and laser ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation, radio-frequency radiation, electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of high-voltage power lines, static fields and, although differing in nature, ultrasounds. Aimed at a wide readership, this publication describes the main properties of the different types of non-ionizing radiation, as well as their biological effects and potential health hazards. Recommended exposure limits of international bodies aimed at avoiding deleterious human health effects are also included.
Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, 4 rue Casimir-Delavigne, 75006 Paris, France, 2001. viii, 85p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. Price: EUR 12.00.

CIS 02-401 Bianchi N., Marasi G., Bagaglio A.
Evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation in the metallurgical working environment
Valutazione del rischio per esposizione professionale a radiazioni non ionizzanti nell'ambiente lavorativo di una azienda metalmeccanica [in Italian]
In the metal engineering industry there are risks related to non-ionizing radiation emitted by various pieces of work equipment. It is essential to measure and record personal doses of exposure. Information and training of personnel and the specific observation of critical groups of workers are also of fundamental importance. The following kinds of exposure are treated in detail: static electromagnetic fields; extremely low-frequency radiation; radiofrequency and microwave radiation.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.338-344. 11 ref.

CIS 01-1594 Guidelines on Protection of Radiation Impacts - Decree of the Minister of Health No.1217/MENKES/SK/XI/2001 dated Nov. 19, 2001 [Indonesia]
Translation of a decree establishing basic guidelines for the monitoring of activities involving ionizing and non-ionizing radiation at above permitted radiation levels. It also foresees appropriate early warning actions, data gathering, coordination of intervention teams, and training and supervision of qualified radiation safety personnel.
Business News (Indonesia), 13 Feb. 2002, Year 46, No.6725/6726, p.3A-6A.

CIS 01-1810 Brune D., Hellborg R., Persson B.R.R., Pääkkönen R.
Radiation at home, outdoors and in the workplace
More than 20 Scandinavian experts contributed to this publication, which reports on the current state of knowledge with respect to all types of radiation and its possible health effects. Contents include: ionizing radiation (biological effects, risk factors, cancer); non-ionizing radiation (lasers, visible light, UV and IR, microwaves and radio-frequency waves); mechanical waves (sound); natural and man-made radiation (cosmic rays, radiation in the earth's biosphere, radiation in oceans, radioactivity); effects of visible light, UV radiation and electromagnetic radiation on plants; radiation in residential areas (electromagnetic fields, radon); radiation used in medical therapy (X-rays, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, microwaves, radio-electrical frequencies, NMR); various kinds of radiation to which workers may be exposed and associated hazards; exposure to radon in mines; genotoxic effects and congenital malformations; cordless phones; outdoor work and leisure activities (beneficial and harmful effects of UV and visible light; exposure during flight); radioprotection principles.
Scandinavian Science Publisher, Bakkehaugveinen 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 2001. xvi, 547p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 01-1649
Health and Safety Executive
Sun protection
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin damage including sunburn, blistering, skin ageing, and in the long term can lead to skin cancer. This leaflet is aimed at employers or managers responsible for persons working outdoors for most of the day. It contains advice on reducing the health risks from UV radiation, which include staying fully-clothed, wearing a hat with a brim that covers the ears and back of the neck, using solar creams, drinking water to prevent dehydration and regularly checking the skin for any unusual moles or spots.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2001. 6p. Illus. 1 ref.


CIS 07-913 Code of practice for the installation and maintenance of emergency lighting and power supply systems in buildings
This standard covers the visual conditions necessary to alleviate panic and permit safe evacuation of building occupants in the event of failure of the normal lighting. It also prescribes requirements for the equipment and installation methods used to provide the power supply for the emergency lighting.
SNP Corporation Ltd, 1 Kim Seng Promenade, #18-01, Great World City East Tower, Singapore 237994, Republic of Singapore, 2000. 56p. Illus. Price: SGD 47.00 (excluding GST).

CIS 03-392 Gauthier F.
Working safely with lasers
L'utilisation en sécurité du laser [in French]
Contents of this review article on safe working methods with lasers: main uses of lasers (metal cutting, cleaning of stones of historical monuments, surgery); experiences of two metal-cutting enterprises; occupational hazards from working in the presence of lasers (skin effects: irritation, burning, cancer risk; eye effects: cornea lesions and ulcerations, thermal cataract, retinal tears; hazards from secondary X-rays; risks to laser equipment maintenance staff; electrical hazards; hazards from liquid nitrogen used as a coolant); machine protection and personal protective equipment; specific training in the use of laser equipment; measures to be taken by employers; characteristics and uses of the main laser types; permissible levels and laser classification.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2000, No.601, p.29-39. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 02-1900 Sisto R., Pinto I., Stacchini N., Giuliani F.
Infrared radiation exposure in traditional glass factories
A simple method for the evaluation of exposure to infrared radiation (IR-A, IR-B, IR-C) from high temperature (>1000°C) sources using a luxometric or a near-IR detector is presented. The method uses the universality of the Planck formula for the black body spectrum, which allows estimation of the radiated power in any wavelength range by measuring the power radiated in another range. This capability may be very useful when the range of interest is one in which radiometers are expensive and difficult to calibrate, as for the IR-B and IR-C ranges, because a more commonly available luxometer can be used instead. The method was applied to evaluate radiation in two traditional Italian glass factories. Intense exposures in the IR-B and IR-C ranges were found for some workers, exceeding the ACGIH limits by a large factor. This exposure must be reduced, as epidemiological studies confirm the existence of a correlation between cataractogenesis and work with fused glass and metals.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.5-10. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 02-1422 Barlier A., Salsi S., Kingler S.
Evaluation of the hazards from exposure to optical radiation sources - CatRayon: Interactive computerized catalogue
Evaluation des risques relatifs aux sources de rayonnement optique - CatRayon: catalogue informatisé interactif [in French]
This article presents "CatRayon", an interactive computerized catalogue used for the assessment of the risks linked to the use of optical radiation sources. It comprises a database of about 400 sources such as general-purpose lamps, lamps for specific use, and industrial sources (furnaces, welding arcs, etc.). Risk assessment is based on the exposure limits proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and takes into account user-defined conditions of use including the position of the source, the exposure distance, and the daily period of exposure. For extended sources, the corresponding configuration factor is determined by means of a finite element method. The results supplied are the spectral ranges presenting a risk, a description of the corresponding physiological effects, and the variation in the risk indexes in relation to the distance or duration of exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.37-48. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 02-764 Corrao C.R.N., Durante C., Donato A., Farulla A.
Interference between pacemakers (PMK) and cellular telephones: History and prevention
Interferenze tra pacemaker (PMK) e telefoni cellulari: storia e prevenzione [in Italian]
Different types of pacemakers are described together with known cases of interference due to the use of cellular telephones. Employees wearing pacemakers should be informed about possible health hazards, the adoption of simple preventive measures, such as the maintenance of a distance from the sources of electromagnetic radiations (e.g. not keeping the cellular telephone in a pocket near a PMK) and limiting the periods spent using cellular telephones. Telephone systems using the ETACS (Extended Total Access Communication System) standard are recommended, as opposed to the digital GSM (Groupe Special Mobiles) standard.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.72-105. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 01-1800 Burström L., Bylund S.H.
Relationship between vibration dose and the absorption of mechanical power in the hand
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between calculated vibration dose and the measured absorption of vibration power in the hand, as well as the measured grip and feed forces applied by 10 healthy subjects. The influence of 4 vibration levels with different durations during a test period of 5 minutes was investigated. There was a significant difference between the calculated vibration dose and the amount of measured absorption of power. A higher acceleration level leads to significantly higher absorption. Furthermore, the outcome showed that the rest periods contributed to a lower absorption of power in the hand and also to lower feed forces. The study supports the hypothesis that vibration-free rest periods give the human organism an opportunity to recover.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2000, Vol.26, No.1, p.32-36. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 01-1204 Hietanen M., Kovala T., Hämäläinen A.M.
Human brain activity during exposure to radiofrequency fields emitted by cellular phones
The aim of this study was to explore the possible influence of radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure on the human brain function. The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of 19 Finnish volunteers (10 men and 9 women) was analysed quantitatively. The sources of exposure were 5 different analogue and digital cellular phone models operating at a frequency of 900MHz and 1800MHz. The EEG activity was recorded in an awake, closed-eyes situation. The duration of the exposure phase was 20 minutes. Exposure to one of the phones caused a statistically significant change in the absolute power at the delta band of the EEG recording. However, no difference was seen in the relative power of the same band, and no changes occurred during exposure to other phones at any frequency bands. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to RF fields emitted by cellular phones has no abnormal effects on EEG activity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.87-92. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-417 Freedman D.M., Dosemeci M., Alavanja M.C.R.
Mortality from multiple sclerosis and exposure to residential and occupational solar radiation: A case-control study based on death certificates
To explore whether mortality from multiple sclerosis is negatively associated with exposure to sunlight, two case-control studies based on death certificates were conducted for mortality from multiple sclerosis and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control). Cases were all deaths from multiple sclerosis between 1984 and 1995 in 24 states of the United States. Controls excluded cancer and certain neurological deaths. Results were adjusted for age, sex, race and socio-economic status. Unlike mortality from skin cancer, mortality from multiple sclerosis was negatively associated with residential exposure to sunlight (odds ratio 0.53 (multiple sclerosis) and 1.24 (skin cancer)). Odds ratios for the highest occupational exposure to sunlight were 0.74 for mortality from multiple sclerosis, compared with 1.21 for mortality from non-melanoma skin cancer. The OR was 0.24 for the combined effect of the highest levels of residential, and occupational exposure to sunlight on multiple sclerosis, compared with an OR of 1.38 for skin cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.418-421. 27 ref.

CIS 00-1434 Reeves G.I.
Review of extensive workups of 34 patients overexposed to radiofrequency radiation
Medical records of 34 patients at the Aerospace Medicine Directorate, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory with confirmed exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exceeding the permitted exposure limits were reviewed to see if RFR overexposure created any detectable clinical or laboratory alterations and to determine which physiological and laboratory parameters required closest attention for future patients with RFR exposure. Clinical findings were compared with laboratory results. A sensation of warmth was positively associated with power density. A negative correlation was observed between an abnormal tissue destruction screen and power density. Sophisticated neurological tests in 23 patients and extensive psychometric and psychological exams in 30 patients revealed no neurological or ophthalmologic findings attributable to RFR. A few patients, however, reported burning pain that resolved over several weeks.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.71, No.3, p.206-215. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 01-1809 Sutter E.
Protection from optical radiation - Laser, incoherent and solar radiation
Schutz vor optischer Strahlung - Laserstrahlung, inkohärente Strahlung, Sonnenstrahlung [in German]
This publication is a reference manual on protection from optical radiation. Contents include: definitions; incoherent optical radiation sources; coherent optical radiation sources (lasers); radiation measurement; biological effects of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation; threshold limit values for laser and incoherent radiations; laser classification; protection against incoherent optical radiation; protective glasses against laser radiation; protection screens for laser workplaces; protective measures; secondary hazards (electrical hazards, fire, explosion); overview of directives and technical rules in this field.
VDE-Verlag GMBH, Bismarkstrasse 33, 10625 Berlin, Germany, 1999. 314p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 01-869 Luna Mendaza P.
Radiofrequency and microwave radiation (II): Occupational exposure control
Radiofrecuencias y microondas (II): control de la exposición laboral [in Spanish]
This information note describes the measures aimed at limiting occupational exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, including practical examples (increasing the distance between the transmitter and the receptor, shielding including metallic mesh and perforated panels, optical windows). It recommends the use of signs to warn users of cardiac regulators against possible interference between these devices and radiofrequency radiation. Pregnancy, feverishness and pharmacological treatments that influence thermal regulation, as well as the use of devices whose functioning could be impaired by this type of radiation, represent increased hazards. (See also CIS 01-868.).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 5p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-868 Luna Mendaza P.
Radiofrequency and microwave radiation (I): Occupational exposure evaluation
Radiofrecuencias y microondas (I): evaluación de la exposición laboral [in Spanish]
This information note explains the physical principles applicable to the evaluation of occupational exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation as well as their physiological effects on the human body (density of induced current, specific absorption rate, specific absorption). Three examples of evaluation are also included. (See also CIS 01-869.).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 4p.

CIS 01-274 Savin V.F.
Is there a general energy measure of the different injuries impacting people?
Su¿čestvuet li obščaja ėnergetičeskaja mera različnyh avarijnyh poražajuščih vozdejstvij na čeloveka? [in Russian]
Following an idea attributed to O. A. Balandin, this article develops arguments supporting the existence of a specific amount of energy (1 to 2.5J/kg of body weight) which when absorbed by the human body will lead to harmful effects regardless of the energy form (mechanical, electrical, penetrating radiation and possibly chemical, but not thermal). This is attributed to intercellular contacts in the target region of the body subjected to these energy sources.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1999, No.6, p.29-32. 4 ref.

CIS 01-222 Kirk P.
Effect of outdoor weathering on the effective life of forest industry safety helmets
While numerous national and international laboratory-based trials have been undertaken to determine the effective life of forest industry safety helmets, little local knowledge exists about the impact of actual outdoor weathering elements on the effective life of such helmets. A study was undertaken to determine the impact of outdoor weathering, in particular ultraviolet and visible solar radiation, on the effective life of three models of plastic safety helmets currently in use in New Zealand forestry operations. A sample of each helmet model and colour were destructively tested in accordance with the appropriate helmet standard at three-month intervals. It was found that the effective life of helmets exposed to outdoor weathering ranged from 13.5 to 36 months. Helmet colour appeared to have little influence on helmet failure rates. It is recommended that plastic safety helmets used in forest operations be replaced after 12 months continual use.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 3 Nov. 1999, Vol.25, No.1, p.51-58. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 00-1238 Act No.1741 of 1st October 1999 on protection against non-ionizing radiation [Croatia]
Zakon o zaštiti od neionizirajućih zračenja [in Croatian]
This law concerns the principles and protective measures against non-ionizing radiation, as well as their implementation (effective 20 October 1999).
Narodne Novine, 13 Oct. 1999, No.105, p.3720-3725.

CIS 00-1435 Cazzuli O., Giroletti E., Tomaselli A.
Laser risk in the research and teaching laboratories of Pavia University
Il rischio laser nei laboratori di ricerca e di didattica: l'esperienza dell'Università degli Studi di Pavia [in Italian]
Procedures have been developed for the management and monitoring of hazards from laser in the physics, engineering and biochemistry laboratories of Pavia University (Italy). Risk evaluation, risk prevention, education and health supervision by periodic checkups are described as well as the hazard classification of lasers. Annexes: sample form for laser risk evaluation; operating standards, check list and signalling instructions for laser safety.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.3-21. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1127 Menzies D., Pasztor J., Rand T., Bourbeau J.
Germicidal ultraviolet irradiation in air conditioning systems: Effect on office worker health and well-being - A pilot study
The objectives of this study were to test whether installation and operation of gernimicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lights in central ventilation systems would be feasible, without adverse effects, undetected by building occupants, and effective in eliminating microbial contamination. 104 workers participated; their environmental satisfaction ratings were not different whether GUV lights were on or off. Headache, difficulty concentrating and eye irritation occurred less often with GUV lights on whereas skin rash or irritation was more common. Overall, the average number of work-related symptoms reported was 1.1 with GUV lights off compared with 0.9 with GUV lights on. Installation and operation of GUV lights in central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of office buildings is feasible, cannot be detected by workers, and does not seem to result in any adverse effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.397-402. 34 ref.

CIS 00-1125 Voke J.
Infra-red radiation and occupational cataracts
Topics: cataract; exposure evaluation; fuel burning equipment; glass industry; heat reflective glass; infrared radiation cataract; infrared radiation; iron and steel industry; limitation of exposure; retinal damage; risk factors; safety spectacles; tank furnaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1999, Vol.17, No.8, p.28-32. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 00-519 Fink J.M., Wagner J.P., Congleton J.J., Rock J.C.
Microwave emissions from police radar
This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Seventeen different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. Because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning non-ionizing radiation, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode when not actually using radar.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.770-776. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-226 Scholmann J., Siekmann H.
Protective clothing against high-frequency radiation
Hochfrequenz-Schutzkleidung. Eine neue Persönliche Schutzausrüstung [in German]
Experimental work that led to the German draft standard E DIN 32780-100 is described. This involved four methods for determining the radiation shielding provided by clothing designed to offer protection from radiofrequency radiation between 80MHz and 1GHz. These four methods measure the temperature increase, the energy absorption, the internal electric field strength and the electromagnetic field strength. The standard describes a new method for measuring the radiofrequency radiation shielding provided by materials used for protective clothing, whereby magnetic field sensors are specially positioned inside the measuring chamber.
Die BG, Oct. 1999, No.10, p.564-572. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 00-217 Rouy K.
Ring of uncertainty
Potential risks from mobile telephony. Topics: brain; cancer; commuting accidents; drivers; health hazards; length of exposure; medical supervision; mobile telephony; radiofrequency radiation; risk factors; short-time memory; telephone communications.
Occupational Health, June 1999, Vol.51, No.6, p.16-18. Illus.

CIS 99-2036 Brown A.
UV exposure - A burning issue
Topics: exposure evaluation; limitation of exposure; melanoma; outdoor work; personal protective equipment; skin cancer; skin creams; solar radiation; ultraviolet radiation; work time schedules; workbreaks.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1999, Vol.17, No.6, p.33-35. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 99-2035 Parisi A., Kimlin M.
Effects of simple measures to reduce the occupational solar UV exposure of outdoor workers
Taking sun-sheltered meal- and tea-breaks around solar noon can reduce occupational exposure to solar erythemal ultraviolet (UV) radiation by outdoor workers. The research presented quantifies the reductions in solar UV exposure to be expected in summer and winter for different scenarios of break times for this high UV exposure occupational group of the population. Topics: exposure evaluation; eye injuries; limitation of exposure; outdoor work; personal protective equipment; radiance measurement; skin cancer; solar radiation; ultraviolet radiation; workbreaks.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 1999, Vol.15, No.3, p.267-272. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1667 Barlier-Salsi A., Salsi S., Klinger A.
Development of a computer-based interactive catalogue for evaluating risks associated with optical radiating sources
Réalisation d'un catalogue informatisé interactif pour l'évaluation des risques relatifs aux sources de rayonnement optique [in French]
Topics: artificial light; computer programme; computerized data bases; electric lighting equipment; exposure evaluation; eye injuries; hazard evaluation; industrial furnaces; infrared radiation; manual arc welding; microcomputer applications; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 1999. 74p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1361 Burgess-Limerick R., Plooy A., Fraser K., Ankrum D.R.
The influence of computer monitor height on head and neck posture
The influence of "eye level" and "low" monitor locations on the head and neck posture of subjects performing a word processing task was investigated. Lowering the monitor to a position 18° below eye level had no significant effect on the position of the neck relative to the trunk, while mean flexion of the head relative to the neck increased by 5°. In the "eye level" condition the mean gaze angle was 17° below the eye-ear line, and in the "low" condition the average gaze angle was 25° below the eye-ear line. Lowering the monitor thus allows gaze angles closer to that preferred (somewhere between 35° and 44° below the eye-ear line) to be adopted. This suggests that recommendations of the "top of monitor at eye height" type must be questioned. Topics: angle of vision; computer terminals; CRT display terminals; design of equipment; ergonomic evaluation; man-computer interfaces; motion study; visual comfort; work posture.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.3, p.171-179. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 01-1456
International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Visual display units: Radiation protection guidance
Arabic translation of the ILO publication analysed under CIS 94-693. It provides an overview of knowledge concerning radiation issues of work with visual display units (VDUs). Contents: principles of VDU construction; types, sources, measurements and levels of electromagnetic fields from VDUs; assessment of exposure and laboratory studies; health effects and human studies; organization of prevention and control measures. In appendix: statement of the IRCA Committee concerning alleged radiation risks from VDUs. As an overall conclusion based on current biomedical knowledge, it is stated that there are no health hazards associated with electromagnetic radiation or fields from VDUs. Further research is recommended, however, in particular in order to find out whether some skin complaints might be related to VDU work, and whether there might exist interactions between low-frequency magnetic fields and biological systems.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. 107p. 89 ref.

CIS 01-1202 Barlier-Salsi A., Salsi S., Klinger A.
Ultraviolet radiation lamps: Quantification of the risks associated with their use
Lampes à rayonnement ultraviolet: quantification des risques associés à leur utilisation [in French]
The aim of the study was to quantify the risk associated with the use of different types of ultraviolet lamps and to define the limits within which they should be used. For this purpose, the spectral irradiance of 30 ultraviolet lamps was measured between 200 and 400nm. Maximum durations of daily exposure were determined as a function of distance from the radiation source. Most lamps proved to be potentially dangerous, making it necessary to wear protective equipment, especially with sources emitting in the UVB and UVC ranges (200-315nm). With the other lamps, it is essential not to exceed the daily exposure duration limits.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.170, Note No.2074-170-98, p.49-56. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 00-1731 Matthes R., Bernhardt J.H., Repacholi M.H.
Risk perception, risk communication and its application to EMF exposure
Proceedings of the International Seminar on risk perception, risk communication and its application to EMF exposure held in Vienna, Austria, 22-23 October 1997. Papers include: risk assessment and risk perception; risk communication and risk management; perceived risk attributed to electromagnetic fields; tools for effective risk communication for the EMF agenda.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, c/o. R. Matthes, Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Institut für Strahlenhygiene, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany, 1998. xii, 369p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1515 Order No.973 of 1 Dec. 1998 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy on occupational safety and hygiene in places of work equipped with computer screens [Poland]
Rozporządzenie Ministra Pracy i Polityki Socjalnej z dnia 1 grudnia 1998 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy na stanowiskach wyposażonych w monitory ekranowe [in Polish]
Topics: angle of vision; computer terminals; CRT display terminals; ergonomic evaluation; law; Poland; visual comfort; work posture.
Dziennik Ustaw, 10 Dec. 1998, No.148, p.5392-5394.

CIS 00-970
Health and Safety Executive
Keep your top on: Health risks from working in the sun
Topics: barrier creams; heat stroke; outdoor work; safe working methods; skin cancer; skin protection; solar radiation; training material; ultraviolet radiation; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1998. 6p. Illus.

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