Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found
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Lighting-level standards for metal-cutting machine tools
Normy osveščennosti metallorežuščih stankov [in Russian]
The criteria used in the standardisation of industrial lighting are: the visibility of the visual task (threshold of contrast between the object and the background); relative visibility (comparison between existing lighting conditions and optimal conditions); and perception velocity. Graphs are given to show the results of calculations of these criteria applied to the lighting of machine-tool operator work stations. It is found that visual work capacity increases with work-surface luminance, and this is of particular importance in the case of precision work. Referring to the results of field studies, the author makes recommendations on the optimal layout of light sources for illuminating machine-tool work stations.
Svetotehnika, May 1972, No.5, p.1-4. Illus. 7 ref.
Substantiation of maximum permissible levels of infrared radiation in the radiant heating of workplaces
Gigieničeskoe obosnovanie dopustimyh urovnej infrakrasnogo oblučenija pri lučistom otoplenii proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [in Russian]
Physiological reaction to radiant heaters with a radiation energy of 30-40kcal/m2 h at air temperatures of 14-16°C and of 50-60kcal/m2 h at 10-13°C, and body function of persons working in radiant heated premises were studied to determine maximum levels of infrared radiation to the head. The radiation intensities and temperatures did not lead to abnormal physiological or functional changes. These values are therefore proposed as preliminary maximal permissible levels.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1972, Vol.37, No.4, p.30-34. 7 ref.
Stockhausen M., Walther G., Hochgesand P.
Ocular-injury threshold energy for short laser pulses
Zur Frage der Schwellenergie für Augenschädigungen durch kurze Laserimpulse [in German]
Using a thermophysical model, the authors evaluated retinal lesions due to the heat released by laser pulses. A pulse duration of 50ns will have an energy of about 1µJ. This value, calculated theoretically, is in striking agreement with the results of clinical examinations of rabbit-eye fundus (ruby laser, 50ns), which points to the conclusion that the damage is due essentially to a conversion of radiation into thermal energy.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 1 Aug. 1972, Vol.29, No.4, p.340-346. Illus. 4 ref.
An elastomer for stopping microwaves
Un élastomčre pour arręter les micro-ondes [in French]
An elastomer has been developed which contains magnetic particles producing dielectric and magnetic losses in microwaves. This material can stop millimetric waves. It is used as "antiradiation" shielding in microwave ovens. It can also be used for other high-frenquency applications.
Usine nouvelle, 21 Sep. 1972, No.38, p.151.
Microwave exposure safety standards - Physiologic and philosophic aspects
A general review of the thermal effects of exposure to microwaves is followed by a brief discussion of exposure standards in the USA, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc. It is concluded that the existing US standard (10mW/cm2) should be retained, pending the availability of more accurate means of dosimetry and additional data concerning possible non-thermal effects.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.156-164. 34 ref.
Plastics with selective wavelength absorption for safety and comfort
A brief review of the hazards of ultraviolet visible and infrared radiation to the human eye, followed by a description of various plastic materials developed to provide protection against welding arcs, laser beams and nuclear flash. Mention is also made of a high-absorption plastic film which acts as a thermal barrier by stopping more than 75% of the solar heat, and of the protection afforded by plastic sunglass lenses.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1972, Vol.33, No.9, p.583-595. Illus. 45 ref.
Health hazards in the use of the laser microprobe for toxic and infective samples
Pulsed laser microprobes have been used for the analysis of microscopic quantities of tissue, cells and body fluids. For this purpose, biological samples are vapourised by a high-energy laser beam which can cause the formation of aerosols and scattering of the sample material. The contamination hazards resulting from the dispersal of bacterial colonies and bacterially infected serum and tissue samples were investigated, and precautionary measures are recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1972, Vol.33, No.7, p.488-491. Illus. 24 ref.
Interpretation of EEG findings in persons exposed to electromagnetic radiation
Problém hodnocení EEG nálezů ve vztahu k expozici elektromagnetickému záření VKV [in Czech]
EEG examination of 42 workers in a television station revealed no significant differences between exposed persons and controls. There was, however, a significant correlation between the incidence of headaches and the number of EEG anomalies (in particular, episodic activity related to vasomotor cephalalgia). It is concluded that the levels of electromagnetic radiation in question (48.5-230MHz frequency band, 2.9V/m mean field strength, mean time-weighted exposure for working day (field strength x hours) = 30.7) have no harmful effect on the central nervous system and that the EEG anomalies must be related to vasomotor cephalalgia. The problem of the EEG "normality" of the controls is considered.
Pracovní lékařství, Dec. 1971, Vol.23, No.10, p.353-358. 19 ref.
Hager G., Pagel S., Broschmann D.
Heat cataract in locomotive stokers
Feuerstar bei Lokomotivheizern [in German]
Report on a comparative study of infrared exposure among locomotive stokers and glassworkers. Burning coal and molten glass both emit infrared radiation in the 800-1400-nm wavelength range which is harmful to the crystalline lens. Cataract in locomotive stokers may be recognised as an occupational disease providing there is supporting evidence of occupational exposure. Cases of locomotive-stoker cataract following various durations of exposure are presented.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, Oct. 1971, Vol.18, No.10, p.443-449. Illus. 39 ref.
The effect of light on man and its significance in accident prevention
Der Einfluss des Lichtes auf den Menschen und seine Bedeutung für die Unfallverhütung [in German]
Light not only serves for information transmission via the eye but also acts, through special nerve paths, on the neurovegetative-system regulation organs which control the whole of the body's metabolism and functions. Thus good lighting not only facilitates vision but also increases the worker's appetite for work and his sentiment of wellbeing, intensifies concentration and prevents premature fatigue. Sections are devoted to: the effect of illumination level on visual acuity; the stimulating effect of light on motivation, concentration and reactivity; the effect of thermal radiation from lamps; requirements for the achievement of good illumination quality and good colour rendition; results of research on the effect of lighting on accidents and productivity.
Moderne Unfallverhütung, 1971, No.15, p.67-71. Illus.
Safety guide for the prevention of radio frequency radiation hazards in the use of electric blasting caps.
This publication, which has been approved as a guide by the American National Standards Committee on Radio-frequency Radiation Hazards, provides a basis for assessing the hazards associated with the initiation of commercial electric blasting caps by radiofrequency (RF) energy. Part I is devoted to the mechanism of RF initiation and the preventive measures to be taken. Part II gives safe distances from commercial RF sources (fixed broadcasting transmitters, mobile transmitters, TV transmitters, and maritime radars), while Part III contains data on common RF sources.
Institute of Makers of Explosives, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, Mar. 1971. 20p. Illus.
Laser eye effects: The subvisible retinal lesion
The purpose of these investigations, which were carried out on rabbits, was to study the effects of helium-neon and YAG (yttrium-aluminium-garnet) laser radiation on the retina at levels capable of disturbing retinal function without producing gross pathological manifestations (i.e. lesions which can be observed with the ophthalmoscope). The techniques used include electroencephalography, light microscopy, electron microscopy and autoradiography. The existence of subvisible lesions was established at exposure levels corresponding to 50% of the visible lesion exposure threshold. YAG laser exposure produced unexpected increases in the amplitude and duration of EEG potentials, a result which has not been explained. Subvisible lesions appear to be reversible.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA, 14 July 1971. 82p. Illus. 8 ref.
McLees B.D., Finch E.D.
Analysis of the physiological effects of microwave radiation
A critical review of the literature relating to the physiological effects on animals of exposure to microwave radiation. Studies relating to behavioural or non-thermal effects have been excluded. Limitations of the data reviewed are indicated; in many instances, the data have been replotted or recalculated to facilitate comparison with other studies and to underline alternative interpretations. The literature is reviewed under the following headings: interaction of electromagnetic radiation with tissue; technique of microwave irradiation and evaluation of exposure; temperature changes induced by microwave radiation; haematological effects; serological changes; changes in testicular structure and function; effects of microwave radiation on the eye.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA, 23 June 1971. 73p. Illus. 79 ref.
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