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Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity - Part 2: Measurement by scanning
Acoustique - Détermination par intensimétrie des niveaux de puissance acoustique émis par les sources de bruit - Partie 2: Mesurage par balayage [in French]
Part 2 of this international standard specifies a method for measuring the component of sound intensity normal to a measurement surface which is chosen so as to enclose the noise source(s) of which the sound power level is to be determined. Contents: scope; normative references; definitions; general requirements; acoustic environment; instrumentation; installation and operation of the source; measurement of normal sound intensity component levels; calculation of sound power level; information to be reported. Annexes: calculation of field indicators; procedure for achieving a desired grade of accuracy; effects of airflow on measurement of sound intensity; effects of sound absorption within the measurement surface; measurement surface and scanning procedure; bibliography.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iv, 19p. Illus. 14 ref.
Acoustics - Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Measurement of noise at the operator's position - Survey method
Acoustique - Tracteurs et matériels agricoles et forestiers - Mesurage du bruit au poste de l'opérateur - Méthode de contrôle [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for the measurement of the noise at the position of the operator(s) of a tractor or machine used in agriculture and forestry. Contents: scope; normative references; measurements requirements; measurement equipment; acoustical environment; weather conditions and background noise; condition of tractor or machine; operators; microphone location; noise measurement procedure; test report. Annexes: agricultural and forestry tractors; self-propelled agricultural machines; pedestrian-controlled agricultural machines; forestry forwarders and skidders; specimen report form.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iv, 11p.
Honey S., Hillage J., Jagger N., Morris S.
Health and Safety Executive
The costs and benefits of the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
Report of a study carried out in 1994/95 to assess the costs and benefits to employers arising from the Noise at Work Regulations 1989. The study comprised a literature survey, a postal survey of 1,889 employers, and a series of follow-up interviews and case studies. Average costs associated with a number of actions were estimated: a first noise assessment; subsequent noise assessments; preventative action; provision of personal protective equipment; training; and setting up an ear protection zone. Benefits were estimated to be equivalent to around 25% of the costs. Overall, the net annual cost to employers was estimated to be around GBP 27.9 million.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 164p. 60 ref. Price: GBP 50.00.
Noise Regulations, 1996 [Lesotho]
Contents of these regulations (effective on publication): interpretation; noise measurement; obligations by the employer to reduce noise; personal hearing protection; information, instruction and training of employees; noise reports; noise data.
Lesotho Government Gazette, 15 Nov. 1996, Vol.41, No.106, p.1336-1338.
Bureau of Workers' Activities
Noise at work
This training module covers the following aspects of noise: health effects of noise exposure (temporary and permanent hearing loss, other effects); measuring noise; noise control methods (at the source, noise barriers, personal protection); role of the health and safety representative. In annex: case study on occupational noise; check list for controlling occupational noise.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. viii, 25p. Illus. Price: CHF 5.00 (for the collection: CHF 50.00).
Nettelbeck C., Weck M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emission of cutting machine tools - Turning mills and milling machines
Geräuschemission von spanenden Werkzeugmaschinen - Drehmaschinen, Fräsmaschinen [in German]
The noise emissions of the most frequently used turning and milling machines in Germany were measured. About 20 different types were included of each kind. High sound pressure levels were measured during high-speed turning and milling operations and during acceleration of the rotating tool. During idling as well as turning and milling at lower speed the noise emissions were relatively low due to the modern design of the machines. Recommendations are presented for updating the German standard DIN 45635 which requires measurements in the idle at highest speed and during turning and milling with 50% of the nominal power.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. vii, 94p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: DEM 22.50.
Messner J., Wu J., Hübner G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Inter-laboratory comparison of sound power level measurements
Ringversuch zur Bestimmung des Schalleistungspegels [in German]
The results are presented of round robin tests conducted by 14 German laboratories experienced in noise measurements. The laboratories measured the sound power levels of 3 different noise sources in open air, in anechoic and semi-anechoic chambers and in various types of ordinary rooms. The measurements were performed in 29 different environments according to standard ISO 3744. The purpose of the measurements was to check the standard deviations mentioned in the standard and to determine sources of errors. Recommendations for improvement of the ISO standard are presented.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 395p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: DEM 71.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at work. Noise Guide No.1: Legal duties of employers to prevent damage to hearing. Noise Guide No.2: Legal duties of designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers to prevent damage to hearing
This document provides guidance on compliance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (CIS 90-21). Noise Guide No.1 covers: interpretation of the Regulations; assessment of noise exposure; assessment records; reduction of risk of hearing damage; reduction of noise exposure; ear protection; ear protection zones; maintenance and use of noise control equipment and ear protectors; information of personnel. Noise Guide No.2 covers the duties of machine designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers: provision of information on the noise likely to be generated by the machine; labelling noisy machines; machine testing procedures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1996. iii, 28p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes: Rumbling - Noise hazards. Hand-arm vibration - The current picture. Hand-arm vibration - Symptoms and solutions
The first of these three data sheets describes noise levels associated with rumbling processes and provides guidance on noise reduction measures (elimination, engineering controls, reduction of exposure time, hearing protection). The other two data sheets describe the nature, incidence and cost of hand-arm vibration syndrome, and provide guidance on causes (finger or hand contact with vibrating tools or materials), and control measures (risk assessment, reduction of exposure time, health surveillance, tool selection and care, employee training).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1996. 6p. Illus. 16 ref.
Factors influencing the implementation of noise control programs in industry
Follow-up surveys were conducted in 14 workplaces where earlier surveys had included recommendations for noise control treatments. 57% of the companies surveyed had implemented at least some of the recommended measures. Factors influencing implementation included: a well-informed and motivated management; availability of a noise policy plan and a motivated person to drive the noise control programme; ease and cost of control implementation; and provision of engineering details in the original survey report. While noise control can be expensive, there are many inexpensive treatments which can be done in-house.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 1996, Vol.12, No.4, p.471-475. 2 ref.
Schardt F.W., Moser L., Rosenfeld J.
The effects of noise and physical workload on the temporary threshold shift (TLS)
Wirkungen von Lärm und körperlicher Arbeit auf die temporäre Lautheitsverschiebung (TLS) [in German]
The effect of exposure to noise with sound pressure level of 80dB and frequency 4kHz alone and in combination with 20 minutes of physical exercise at 40% VO2 max on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and on the hearing sensitivity of 12 healthy male volunteers was studied. A loudness scaling hearing test was used to measure the changes in hearing sensitivity. The combined exposure to noise and physical exercise significantly changed the systolic blood pressure by 5mmHg. It increased the diastolic pressure by 3.5mmHg. Hearing sensitivity decreased more than by noise or physical exercise alone. The decrease in hearing sensitivity after the combined exposure lasted more than 240 seconds.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1996, Vol.31, No.7, p.276-280. Illus. 28 ref.
Influence of noise leaks on the acoustic efficiency of machine enclosures
Importance des fuites acoustiques sur l'efficacité globale d'un capotage de machine [in French]
Acoustic enclosures and hoods are widely used to reduce machine noise in the industrial environment. Unfortunately these devices are never entirely soundproof, and noise leakage tends to reduce their overall efficiency. Theoretical models exist for predicting the acoustic behaviour of slits in enclosure panels by calculating the amount of energy transmitted and describing the spatial distribution pattern (directivity) of the radiated sound field. This paper briefly examines two of these models which are simple to use for practitioners working on the "sound-tightness" of enclosures, and proposes technical solutions for reducing noise transmission through most types of commercial enclosures at the design stage: sealing compounds, flaps and profiled seals, noise baffles, acoustically absorbent materials, reactive mufflers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2036-165-96, p.509-518. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/importance_fuites_acoustiques_sur_efficacite.html [in French]
The EN ISO 11200 series of standards - Determination of sound emission pressure levels at the workplace
La série de normes EN ISO 11200 - Détermination du niveau de pression acoustique d'émission au poste de travail des machines industrielles [in French]
The European series of standards EN ISO 11200 to 11204 helps to determine sound emission pressure levels at the workplace. According to the regulations (including Machinery Directive 89/392/EEC, see inter alia CIS 94-782) this level must be taken into consideration, together with the sound power level, in complying with safety requirements concerning work equipment noise. This paper proposes a guide to help users to come to grips with these standards and make proper use of them. It includes: general presentation and definitions; influence of the measurement environment; precision and reproducibility; the special case of standard EN ISO 11203; implementation. Two sets of tables are appended, presenting the "applicability" of the standards in the series in a large number of workplace situations, and the compatibility of the EN ISO 11200 standards with the EN ISO standards for determining sound power level.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2035-165-96, p.491-507. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/la_serie_normes_en_iso_11200_determination_niveau.html [in French]
Damongeot A., Didry G., Kusy A.
Psychoacoustic method for the measurement of sound levels emitted by earphones. Application to so-called "communication" hearing protectors
Méthode psychoacoustique de mesure du niveau sonore émis par les écouteurs. Application aux protecteurs de l'ouïe dits "de communication" [in French]
Calculating the sound levels to which wearers of communication hearing protectors are exposed to requires knowledge of the electroacoustic emission characteristics of the earphones (relation between emitted sound level and supply voltage). The psychoacoustic method described is used to determine these characteristics. It consists in asking test subjects to equalize the intensities of test sounds emitted alternately by the earphone and by a loudspeaker, making the latter easier to measure. Measurements were made with 10 test subjects and 3 types of earphone. Good reproducibility was achieved (deviations not exceeding 2dB for the same subject and the same earphone position). The inter-individual dispersion was wider, with standard deviations as high as 4.7dB, reflecting morphological differences in the subjects and differences in the fit of the earphones. This method could constitute a reference method for validating faster measurement techniques such as the "MIRE" technique (Microphone in the Real Ear) or the "HATS" technique (Head and Torso Simulators) currently being developed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2034-165-96, p.481-489. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/methode_psychoacoustique_mesure_niveau_sonore_emis.html [in French]
Petrick M.E., Royster L.H., Royster J.D., Reist P.
Comparison of daily noise exposures in one workplace based on noise criteria recommended by ACGIH and OSHA
Noise exposures at a light manufacturing facility were evaluated for 50 employees using paired noise dosimeters, one set to the new American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) noise criteria, and one to the present Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hearing conservation criteria. The majority of exposures fell below an 8h TWA (OSHA) of 85dBA. The average difference between the predicted ACGIH TWA and the OSHA TWA was 4.6dB (range 0.2 to 12.6dB). Overall, these differences would project a 36% increase in the percent of employees enrolled in the hearing conservation programme, and a 50% increase in the percent required to wear hearing protection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.924-928. 8 ref.
Melamed S., Bruhis S.
The effects of chronic industrial noise exposure on urinary cortisol, fatigue, and irritability - A controlled field experiment
Urinary cortisol levels were measured three times a day for 35 textile mill workers; subjective fatigue and post-work irritability were assessed. Under conditions of chronic noise exposure, the cortisol level at the end of the work shift was high and was accompanied by high levels of accumulated fatigue and post-work irritability. Use of earmuffs (average attenuation 30 to 33dB) for a period of seven working days resulted in a decline in cortisol level during the work shift and a concomitant reduction in reported fatigue and post-work irritability. Findings support the view that noise can act as a general stressor.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1996, Vol.38, No.3, p.252-256. 36 ref.
Occupational safety and health standards system, Part 1
Sistema standartov bezopasnosti truda, čast' 1 [in Russian]
Reissue of 13 State Standards of the former USSR that have been reconfirmed by the authorities of the Russian Federation: GOST 12.0.001-82 (main principles); 12.0.002-82 (terms and definitions); 12.0.003-74 (dangerous and harmful industrial factors - classification); 12.0.004-90 (organization of safety and health training - general rules); 12.0.005-84 (metrological support of occupational safety and health - main principles); 12.1.001-89 (ultrasound - general safety requirements); 12.1.002-84 (power-frequency electrical fields - permissible levels of field strength and workplace monitoring); 12.1.003-83 (noise - general safety requirements); 12.1.004-91 (fire safety - general requirements); 12.1.005-88 (general hygienic requirements for workplace air), which includes the official list of occupational exposure limits (PDKs); 12.1.006-84 (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - permissible levels in the workplace and monitoring methods); 12.1.007-76 (toxic substances - classification and general safety requirements); 12.1.010-76 (biological safety - general requirements). Tables from GOST 12.0.004-91 that show potentially hazardous materials which can and cannot be stored together are annexed.
IPK Izdatel'stvo Standartov, Kolodeznyj per. 14, 107076 Moskva, Russian Federation, 1996. 269p. + 3 inserts.
Acoustics - Method for the measurement of airborne noise emitted by small air-moving devices
Acoustique - Méthode de mesurage du bruit aérien émis par les petits équipements de ventilation [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for measuring airborne noise emitted by small air-moving devices such as those cooling electronic, electrical and mechanical equipment. It describes a method and the test apparatus for determining and reporting the airborne noise emitted by small air-moving devices (AMD) as a function of the airflow and the fan static pressure developed by the air-moving device on the test apparatus. Contents: scope; normative references; definitions (sound power level, air-moving device, fan, test plenum, air-moving device performance curve, point of operation, overall static efficiency of air-moving device, standard air density, frequency range of interest); measurement uncertainty; design and performance requirements for test plenum; installation; operation of air-moving device; measurement procedure; information to be recorded; information to be reported. Illustrations; informative annexes (data formats for presentation, test report).
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iii, 23p. 5 ref. Illus.
Acoustics - Reference zero for the calibration of audiometric equipment - Part 7: Reference threshold of hearing under free-field and diffuse-field listening conditions
Acoustique - Zéro de référence pour l'étalonnage d'équipements audiométriques - Partie 7: Niveau liminaire de référence dans des conditions d'écoute en champ libre et en champ diffus [in French]
Standard in several parts on the reference zero for the calibration of audiometric equipment. This part, which pertains to the reference threshold of hearing under free-field and diffuse-field listening conditions, specifies a reference threshold of hearing for the calibration of audiometric equipment used under specific conditions. Main contents: scope; normative references; definitions (threshold of hearing; otologically normal person; reference threshold of hearing; diffuse sound field); specification. Tables and two informative annexes.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iv. 9p. 20 ref.
Approved code of practice for the management of noise in the workplace
This code of practice provides practical guidance on meeting legal requirements for the identification and management of occupational noise hazards. Contents: health effects of noise; noise hazard identification checklist; noise hazard assessment; planning and implementation of control measures; hearing protection and marking of noise areas and machinery; training and education; audiometric testing; responsibilities of designers, manufacturers and suppliers of plant and hearing protectors. Appendices include: noise assessment techniques; engineering controls; selection and maintenance of hearing protectors.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Sep. 1996. 70p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Yearout R., Kwiatkowski C., Lisnerski D., Sprague K., Davis S.
Continuous exposure to noisy work environments does affect preferred leisure noise levels
This is a two-phase study comparing leisure noise preferences for workers who were exposed to either a 'loud' (greater than or equal to 85dB(A)) or 'not loud' (< 85dB(A)) work environment. Phase 1 examined 110 subjects' noise level preferences that were recorded before and after work during a one-day period. Phase 2 recorded 12 additional subjects' preferences for five consecutive days. Results determined that leisure noise levels prior to work were not significantly different. Those exposed to the 'loud' environment preferred noise levels significantly higher than their noise levels before work. The authors' conclusion is that 'loud' work environments and consecutive daily exposure to these environments do influence preferred leisure noise levels. It is essential for any organization safety awareness programme to educate employees about hearing loss due to leisure as well as work activities.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1996, Vol.17, p.499-511. Illus. 17 ref.
Guillemin C., Burgert J.C., Koninck A., Robin C., Barbara J.J.
Noise reduction in the textile industry
L'insonorisation dans l'industrie textile [in French]
Main contents of this safety data sheet on noise reduction in the textile industry: regulations applicable in France; duties of employers (control of noise exposure, collective and personal protection); duties of manufacturers (design and construction of machines that emit as little noise as possible, information of purchasers through the users' manual); duties of contractors; noise levels in the textile industry (concepts of sound field and received noise dose; noise levels by workplace); possible actions (predictive acoustics, acoustic treatment of premises, noise reduction at source, antivibration devices, installation or reinstallation of machines, enclosure of the noise source, individual isolation). Conclusions: limitations of the effectiveness of preventive action, personal protection, workers' information.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 1996, No.552, p.69-72. Illus. 6 ref.
Determination of sound power by intensity measurement using a scanning technique. Comparison of accuracy indicators by numerical simulation
Détermination de la puissance acoustique par intensimétrie, à l'aide de la technique de balayage - Comparaison par simulation numérique des indicateurs de précision [in French]
This study was based essentially on numerical simulation of the determination of sound power levels by intensity measurement using two techniques (fixed point and scanning). Additional experiments confirmed the results of the simulation and also allowed for variation in time, which could not be simulated. It demonstrated that the scanning technique, using the same criteria and indicators as the fixed point technique, is a valid method for the determination of sound power levels. It also served to define the scanning conditions that produce results comparable to those obtained by the fixed point method.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2027-164-96, p.329-342. Illus. 19 ref.
Kusy A., Damongeot A.
Measurement of the acoustic performances of ear plugs. Test using the MIRE technique
Mesure des performances acoustiques des bouchons d'oreille - Essai d'application de la technique MIRE (Microphone in the real ear) [in French]
The protection offered by some hearing protectors (ear muffs or ear plugs) of the non-linear or active types varies with the sound level. For the specific standardization of such hearing protectors, the need was felt to validate an objective method for assessing the noise attenuation afforded by a proven passive protector. The application of the MIRE (Microphone In Real Ear) technique, in which noise is measured by a miniature microphone placed in the ear canal, to the measurement of the acoustic performances of ear plugs of the user-moulded type is described. The noise attenuation measured using this technique was compared with the results obtained for the same protector using the subjective REAT (standardized hearing threshold displacement) method. There appears to be good agreement between the two methods, except at the 8kHz frequency. This discrepancy may be corrected by taking certain precautions in use.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2023-164-96, p.287-291. Illus. 7 ref.
Franks J.R., Stephenson M.R., Merry C.J.
Preventing occupational hearing loss - A practical guide
Update of the document A practical guide to effective hearing conservation programs in the workplace, published by NIOSH in 1990 (see CIS 91-427). Though the OSHA Noise Standard with its Hearing Conservation Amendment and the NIOSH hierarchy of controls (engineering control, administrative control, PPE) have remained the same, changes since 1990 include the new use of the term occupational hearing loss (not necessarily associated with exposure to noise - chemicals, vibration and extreme heat might also be involved), the emphasis on prevention rather than conservation, a new recommended definition of hazardous noise (85 vs. 90dB(A)), and new ways of evaluating noise exposure and defining standard threshold shift (STS). This guide, usable for training purposes, take these changes into account. Contents: value of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs); policy needs; HLPP audits; monitoring of hearing hazards; engineering and administrative controls; audiometric evaluation; personal hearing protection devices; education and motivation; record keeping; programme evaluation; emerging trends and technologies. In annex: OSHA Noise Standard compliance checklists; list of useful audiovisual training material; resources; glossary.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1996. xiii, 91p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
van den Heever D.J., Roets F.J.
Noise exposure of truck drivers: A comparative study
The continuous A-weighted sound pressure, maximum sound pressure levels and percentage noise dose were determined in the cabs of two different brands of trucks manufactured with identical engines. No significant differences regarding the individual noise exposure of the truck drivers were found. Comparison of measured noise exposures with existing criteria revealed that the truck drivers were exposed to noise levels that were potentially hazardous to their hearing.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1996, Vol.57, No.6, p.564-566. 16 ref.
Occupational hearing loss and vibration induced disorders
This article is a synopsis of information on the medical aspects of occupational hearing loss and vibration-induced disorders. The incidence of hearing loss in the United Kingdom is reported (an estimated 13,000 received compensation benefits in 1992). The causes of deafness, its clinical presentation and diagnostic procedures together with audiometric screening in industry are summarized. The calculation of compensation benefits for disability from hearing loss is explained. The procedure for assessing noise exposure and the prevention of hearing loss, i.e. the appropriate ear protectors are described. Hand-arm vibration syndrome is presented together with its classification (Stockholm Workshop Scale). Diagnosis, prognosis and risk assessment aspects are also surveyed.
British Medical Journal, July 1996, Vol.313, p.223-226. Illus. 3 ref.
Survey of industrial noise standards developed in agreement with new approaches
Panorama des normes d'acoustique industrielle élaborées dans le cadre de la nouvelle approche [in French]
This article is the first in a series devoted to over 30 EU and EFTA standards on industrial noise. An introduction to the general safety and health philosophy in Europe and to the relevant legislation is followed by a number of summaries for reference. The general industrial noise standards covered here make up a coherent, complete and powerful set of tools, constituting a major element in the prevention of noise-related health problems. Subsequent articles will deal with individual standards in greater detail.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.163, Note No.2018-163-96, p.133-148. Illus. 10 ref.
Some applications of the sound intensity technique to noise control in the workplace
The theory of the sound intensity technique is outlined and its capabilities and limitations are highlighted. Four case studies are given to illustrate how the technique can be applied to determine sound power under both laboratory and field conditions, to identify noise sources, and to measure sound transmission loss of composite partitions. With improvements in hardware and software, sound intensity measurements will be more extensively used for noise control in the workplace.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.1-15. Illus. 16 ref.
Giardino D.A., Durkt G.
Evaluation of muff-type hearing protectors as used in a working environment
Noise reduction measurements were carried out for 23 models of muff-type hearing protection devices (HPDs) and 545 machines in a mining environment. The measured effectiveness was compared with the performance predicted by the Environmental Protection Agency Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) method, based on laboratory-derived attenuation values. The field performance was significantly less than that predicted by the NRR method. It was concluded that the NRR method grossly overestimates HPD performance. Use of this laboratory-based technique to predict field performance of HPDs could result in an overestimation of the protection afforded the worker.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.264-271. Illus. 18 ref.
El ruido [in Spanish]
Noise as an aggressive and polluting agent in everyday life: characteristics; propagation; levels and frequencies; occupational hearing loss; preventive measures to avoid or reduce the harmful effects of noise on the human organism.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (16min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###
Ondet A.M., Melon M.
Study of the acoustic behaviour of sound-absorbing materials for possible use in the food industry
Etude du comportement acoustique des matériaux absorbants susceptibles d'être utilisés dans l'industrie alimentaire [in French]
Hygiene constraints in the food industry limit the choice of conventional sound-absorbing materials that can be used. Models potentially usable in the food industry were identified and subject to theoretical and experimental study. A computer model of the acoustic behaviour of the materials available on the market was developed, and their absorption coefficients were measured. The model was validated by comparing the values measured with those calculated. It was then used to determine how the absorption coefficient changed with an air space behind the material. Finally, a noise prediction study demonstrated the usefulness of these materials, applied only to the ceiling, in reducing reverberation at the workplace when reverberation by the walls made a significant contribution to the workplace noise level.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.162, Note No.2010-162-96, p.19-31. Illus. 28 ref.
Alvarez Brime C., Gómez-Cano Hernández M., Lezcano Núñez V.M.
Noise control - Regulatory framework for the selection of hearing protectors
Control del ruido - Marco normativo para la selección de protectores auditivos [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on directive; comment on standard; hearing protection; legislation; noise control; noise level; selection of equipment; sound attenuation; Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1995, No.110, p.26-33. Illus. 10 ref.
Abbate C., Giorgianni C., Munaò F., Muraca G.
Occupational hypoacusia. Audiometric follow-up of workers exposed to industrial noise
Ipoacusia professionale. Studio di follow-up audiometrico in metalmeccanici [in Italian]
Topics: audiometric tests; basic metal industries; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; Italy; length of exposure; machinery industry; noise.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, July-Sep. 1995, Vol.11, No.3, p.119-126. Illus. 27 ref.
Physical factors in the indoor environment
Physical factors in the non-industrial indoor environment that affect human health, comfort, productivity, and well-being are reviewed. Topics covered include: thermal comfort (environmental variables, activity and clothing levels, building design considerations, humidity); noise and vibration; light and other electromagnetic radiation (lighting design, health effects, ultraviolet radiation); combined effects and sick building syndrome.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.59-94. Illus. 78 ref.
Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure - Survey method using an enveloping measurement surface over a reflecting plane
Acoustique - Détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique émis par les sources de bruit à partir de la pression acoustique - Méthode de contrôle employant une surface de mesure enveloppante au-dessus d'un plan réfléchissant [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for measuring the sound pressure levels on a measurement surface enveloping the source in order to calculate the sound power level produced by the noise source. It gives requirements for the test environment and instrumentation as well as techniques for obtaining the surface sound pressure level from which the sound power level of the source is calculated, leading to results which have a grade three accuracy. This standard is applicable to noise sources of any type and size (e.g. device, machine, component, sub-assembly). The test environment that is applicable for measurements made in accordance with this international standard may be located indoors or outdoors, with one or more reflecting planes present, meeting specified requirements.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Aug. 1995. v, 27p. Illus. 12 ref.
Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions from the sound power level
Acoustique - Bruit émis par les machines et équipements - Détermination des niveaux de pression acoustique d'émission au poste de travail et en d'autres positions spécifiées à partir du niveau de puissance acoustique [in French]
This international standard specifies two methods for determining the emission sound pressure levels of machinery and equipment, at a work station and at other specified positions nearby, by calculation from the sound power level. The principal purpose of this determination is to permit comparison of the performance of different units of a given family of machinery or equipment, under defined environmental conditions and standardized mounting and operating conditions.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1995. iii, 7p. 8 ref.
Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions - Survey method in situ
Acoustique - Bruit émis par les machines et équipements - Mesurage des niveaux de pression acoustique d'émission au poste de travail et en d'autres positions spécifiées - Méthode de contrôle in situ [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for measuring the emission sound pressure levels of machinery and equipment, at a work station occupied by an operator and at other specified positions nearby, in a semi-reverberant field. A method is given for determining a local environment correction to be applied to the measured sound pressure levels in order to exclude at least part of the effects of reflections from reflecting surfaces other than the plane on which the machinery or equipment is placed. Instructions are given for the installation and operation of the machine under test and for the choice of microphone positions for the work station and for other specified positions. The purpose of the measurements is to permit comparison of the performance of different units of a given family of machinery or equipment, under defined environmental conditions and standardized mounting and operating conditions.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1995. iii, 16p. Illus. 16 ref.
Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions - Engineering method in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane
Acoustique - Bruit émis par les machines et équipements - Mesurage des niveaux de pression acoustique d'émission au poste de travail et en d'autres positions spécifiées - Méthode d'expertise dans des conditions approchant celles du champ libre sur plan réfléchissant [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for measuring the emission sound pressure levels of machinery and equipment, at a work station occupied by an operator and at other specified positions nearby, in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane. Requirements are specified for the engineering grade of accuracy on the test environment and instrumentation. Corrections are applied for background noise, but not for the acoustic environment. Instructions are given for the installation and operation of the machine under test and for the choice of microphone positions for the work station and for other specified positions. The purpose of the measurements is to permit comparison of the performance of different units of a given family of machinery or equipment, under defined environmental conditions and standardized mounting and operating conditions.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1995. iii, 15p. Illus. 15 ref.
Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Measurement of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions - Method requiring environmental corrections
Acoustique - Bruit émis par les machines et équipements - Mesurage des niveaux de pression acoustique d'émission au poste de travail et en d'autres positions spécifiées - Méthode nécessitant des corrections d'environnement [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for measuring the emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in the vicinity of a machine or piece of equipment. Contents: scope; normative references; definitions; measurement uncertainty; instrumentation; test environment; quantities to be measured; quantities to be determined; installation and operation of machine under test; measurements; microphone positions; information to be recorded; information to be reported. Annexes: environmental correction for a specified position; example of a test table; guidelines for the detection of impulsive noise.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1995. iii, 18p. Illus. 16 ref.
Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Guidelines for the use of basic standards for the determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions
Acoustique - Bruit émis par les machines et équipements - Guide d'utilisation des normes de base pour la détermination des niveaux de pression acoustique d'émission au poste de travail et en d'autres positions spécifiées [in French]
This international standard provides brief summaries of the basic international standards for determining emission sound pressure levels from all types of machinery and equipment, at work stations and at other specified positions, and gives guidance on the process of selection of which is appropriate to any particular type. Contents: scope; normative references; definitions; selection of the appropriate international standard for determination of emission sound pressures levels; selection of specified positions. Annexes: synopses of basic international standards on determination of emission sound pressure levels.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1995. v, 12p. Illus. 4 ref.
Kitagawara T., Nishigaya T., Yamada M.
Trends in noise control for construction machinery
Kensetsu kikai no sōon taisaku gijutsu dōkō [in Japanese]
In Japan, the average level of noise produced by construction machines or operations has decreased by more than 20dB in the last 25 years. Diesel hammer pile drivers have been replaced by augers, resulting in a 30dB decrease. The use of hydraulic crushers instead of impact breakers in demolition work has resulted in a 20dB decrease. Design improvements in excavators, compressors and diesel-powered generators gave a 20dB reduction. These changes reflected the passage of noise control laws and the promotion of a "Designation system of low-noise machinery" by the Ministry of Construction. This rating system identifies construction machinery that meets noise standards for given applications. The Ministry has also encouraged the use of low-noise machinery in public works. Further improvements will require more than the reduction of engine noise and enclosure of noisy parts that were practiced in the past; low-noise designs will be found for some kinds of construction equipment that pose special problems.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, Aug. 1995, Vol.19, No.4, p.8-12. Illus. 3 ref.
Åkesson I., Lundborg G., Horstmann V., Skerfving S.
Neuropathy in female dental personnel exposed to high frequency vibrations
To evaluate early neuropathy in dental personnel exposed to high-frequency vibrations, 30 dentists and 30 dental hygienists who used low and high speed hand pieces and ultrasonic scalers were compared with 30 dental assistants and 30 medical nurses not exposed to vibrations (all women). Vibrotactile sensibility, strength, motor performance, sensorineural symptoms and signs, and vascular symptoms in the hands were studied. The two groups exposed to vibration had significant impairments of vibrotactile sensibility, strength and motor performance, as well as more frequent sensorineural symptoms which may be detrimental to their work performance. Thus, development of safer equipment is urgent.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.116-123. 38 ref.
Noise control strategies for occupational safety and better working environments
Permissible noise level limits and hearing damage risk criteria are reviewed along with acceptable noise levels for the workplace and noise control techniques. Engineering noise control methods include use of enclosures, barriers and partitions, sound absorption, vibration control, vibration damping, and hearing protection. An occupational noise control programme is outlined based on identification of areas with high noise levels, information of exposed workers, implementation of control measures, and provision of hearing protection.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.4, p.311-329. Illus. 31 ref.
Letowski T., Burstein N., Clark J., Romanowski L., Sevec A.
Most comfortable loudness shift as a measure of speech attenuation by hearing protectors
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.356-361. Illus. 21 ref. ###
Deyanov C., Mincheva L., Hadjiolova I., Ivanovich E.
Study on the level of blood pressure and prevalence of arterial hypertension depending on the duration of occupational exposure to industrial noise
In a study of 182 noise-exposed workers and 200 unexposed controls, conventional and occupational cardiovascular risk factors were recorded, blood pressure was measured and electrocardiograms were recorded. Exposed workers had higher levels of systolic blood pressure than the controls, particularly after 40 years of age. Rise in blood pressure was directly related to duration of noise exposure; greatest cardiovascular risk was in workers with more than 20 years exposure. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was 33% among the male workers and 16.5% among the women (23% and 14% in the control groups); women's risk increased considerably with increasing age.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.2, p.109-116. 14 ref.
Acoustics: Determination of sound insulation performances of enclosures - Part 1. Measurements under laboratory conditions (for declaration purposes) - Part 2. Measurements under laboratory conditions (for declaration purposes)
Acoustique: détermination de l'isolement acoustique des encoffrements - Partie 1. Mesurages dans des conditions de laboratoire (aux fins de déclaration). Partie 2. Mesurages sur site (aux fins d'acceptation et de vérification) [in French]
Part 1 of ISO 11546 specifies laboratory methods for the determination of the sound insulation performance (insertion loss) of small machine enclosures. It applies to a total enclosure only and not to the individual panels from which the enclosure is made. The measurement methods specified are based on International Standards in the series ISO 3640, ISO 9614 and ISO 11200. Depending on the method chosen, the sound insulation performance of the enclosure is determined in terms of the reduction of sound power level or sound pressure level. Part 2 specifies in situ methods for the determination of the sound insulation performance (insertion loss) of machine enclosures. It applies to a total enclosure only and not to the individual panels from which the enclosure is made. The measurement methods specified in this part of ISO 11546 are based on International Standards in the series ISO 3740, ISO 9614 and ISO 11200. Depending on the method chosen, the sound insulation performance of the enclosure is determined in terms of the reduction of sound power level or sound pressure level.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1995. iv, 14p. 4 ref. + iv, 16p. 4 ref. Illus.
Manually portable brush-cutters and grass-trimmers with internal combustion engine: Determination of sound power levels - Engineering method (Grade 2)
Débroussailleuses et coupe-herbe portatifs à moteur à combustion interne: détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique - Méthode d'expertise (classe 2) [in French]
This International Standard specifies a method of carrying out, efficiently and under standardized conditions, the determination, declaration and verification of sound power levels of manually portable hand-held brush-cutters and grass-trimmers. These units have internal combustion engines and are primarily used in forestry. The use of this International Standard ensures the reproducibility of the determination of sound power levels within specified limits determined by the grade of accuracy of the basic noise standard for the determination of sound power levels used.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1995. iii, 8p. Illus. 5 ref.
Manually portable chain-saws with internal combustion engine: Determination of sound power levels - Engineering method (grade 2)
Scies à chaîne portatives avec moteur thermique: détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique - Méthode d'expertise (classe 2) [in French]
This International Standard specifies a method for determining the sound power level of manually portable chain-saws. It provides all the information necessary to carry out efficiently and under standardized conditions the determination, declaration and verification of sound power levels of manually portable hand-held chain-saws with an internal combustion engine, as primarily used in forestry. The use of this International Standard ensures the reproducibility of the determination of sound power levels within specified limits determined by the grade of accuracy of the basic noise standard used for the determination of sound power levels.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1995. iii, 7p. Illus. 5 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes - Noise hazards: Foundry moulding machines; Fettling
These two information sheets provide guidance on compliance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21) as they apply to foundry moulding machines and fettling. Contents: noise hazards on moulding machines and noise reduction methods (silencers, fitting of rotary instead of piston-type vibrators, enclosures, hearing protection); other noise sources; noise levels during fettling; hierarchy of noise reduction methods (elimination, engineering controls, hearing protection).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 4p. Illus. 11 ref.
Barbara J.J., Soudry C., Pringalle C.
Personal protective equipment. Effective protection afforded by hearing protectors
Equipements de protection individuelle. L'efficacité effective des protecteurs de l'ouïe [in French]
Presentation of the characteristics of individual hearing protection equipment (earplugs, earmuffs and helmets) with passive or active sound attenuation. Description of applicable French occupational safety and health regulations (rules to be respected by the employer, the occupational physician and the worker) and standards. Presentation of the principal factors that determine the effective protection afforded by the equipment.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1995. No. 542, p.606-614. Illus. 7 ref.
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