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Park K.S., Jang P.S.
Effects of synthesized voice warning parameters on perceived urgency
The effects of synthesized voice warning parameters on perceived urgency were examined in order to build a detailed and usable description of the relation between the parameters of synthesized voice warnings and perceived urgency. Ten native and 10 non-native English speakers participated in 4 experiments to evaluate and quantify the effects of the voice parameters. The results showed that speech rate, average fundamental frequency (F0 ), voice type simulated (male or female), and the fundamental frequency contour have clear effects on the perceived urgency of synthesized voice warnings. Significant differences in the perceived urgency of average F0 and F0 contour types between native and non-native English speakers were found. Implications of the results for the design and improvement of synthesized voice warnings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.73-95. Illus. 31 ref.
Acoustics - Measurement of airborne noise emitted by information technology and telecommunication equipment
Acoustique - Mesurage du bruit aérien émis par les équipements liés aux technologies de l'information et aux télécommunications [in French]
This international standard specifies procedures for measuring and reporting the noise emission of information technology and telecommunication equipment. It is considered part of a "noise test code" for this type of equipment, and is based on basic noise emission standards ISO 3741, ISO 3744, ISO 3745 and ISO 11201 (see also CIS 97-636). The basic emission quantity is the A-weighted sound power level which may be induced for comparing equipment of the same type but from different manufacturers, or comparing different equipment. Replaces CIS 88-2055.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1999. v, 61p. Illus. 7 ref.
Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure - Precision methods for reverberation rooms
Acoustique - Détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique émis par les sources de bruit à partir de la pression acoustique - Méthode de laboratoire en salles réverbérantes [in French]
This international standard specifies laboratory methods for determining sound power radiated by sources as a function of frequency, using a reverberation test room having specified acoustical characteristics. The method is suitable for steady noise with broad-band, narrow-band and discrete-frequency components. The noise may be emitted from a device, machine, component or sub-assembly.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., 1999. vi, 32p. 28 ref.
Butler M.P., Graveling R.A., Pilkington A., Boyle A.L.
Health and Safety Executive
Non-auditory effects of noise at work: A critical review of the literature post 1988
This report is a critical review of research on the non-auditory effects of noise, and is an update of an earlier project published in 1991. Focussing on occupational exposures, it includes behavioural and psychological influences of noise as well as its impact on physiological functioning and health. Findings indicate that continued exposure to noise at levels below those specified by current United Kingdom legislation does have health effects. The effects of noise on work performance are complex and dependent on many variables. There is increasing evidence of a psychological cost incurred by working when exposed to noise, and chronic noise exposure may be associated with sustained increases in blood pressure. Maternal exposure to noise may affect foetal hearing ability.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 1999. viii, 85p. 125 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Presidential Decrees No.159, 160 and 163/99 extending to the Territory of Macao the provisions of certain ILO Conventions [Portugal]
Decretos do Presidente da República n°s 159, 160 e 163/99, [que] estendem ao território de Macau [certas] convenções da OIT [in Portuguese]
Presidential Decrees extending to the territory of Macao, in the same terms as those committing the Portuguese State, the provisions of ILO Conventions No.120 concerning hygiene in commerce and offices (see CIS 89-1759), No.155 concerning occupational safety and health and the working environment (CIS 82-890) and No.148 concerning the protection of workers against air pollution, noise and vibration (CIS 78-1198).
Diário da República, 8 July 1999, Series I-A, No.157, p.4237-4238.
Sułkowski W., Kowalska S., Lipowczan A., Prasher D., Raglan E.
Tinnitus and impulse noise-induced hearing loss in drop-forge operators
Tinnitus is frequently accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss, particularly in people exposed to impulse noise. A group of 261 drop-forge operators exposed to impulses with peak levels of 135dB and 169 age-matched controls underwent otological and audiometric examination, and complaints for tinnitus in both groups were analysed. Tinnitus, most common in operators with long exposure (> 10 years), was found in 184 operators (70.4%) versus 6 (3.5%) in controls. The findings closely corresponded with the degree of impulse-noise induced hearing loss. Since the maximum audiometric notch was mostly localized at 6kHz and rarely at 4kHz, the approximate pitch of the tinnitus was related to the frequencies where hearing was most affected. It is concluded that impulse-noise induced tinnitus may be sometimes more severe in its effects than is hearing loss, thus creating an additional reason for strict hearing protection programmes.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.177-182. Illus. 7 ref.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to infrasonic noise in Poland
The results of infrasonic noise measurements performed in the work environment in Poland are discussed. The study concerned the noise emitted by 124 different types of industrial machinery, appliances and means of transport. The measurements were made in typical working conditions with reference to Polish and international standards. The sound pressure levels exceeded Polish admissible values in 4.0% of cases covered by normal workers' health protection, 62.1% of cases in observational dispatcher cabins and the like and in 74.2% of cases on administration premises, in design offices, etc. The hearing threshold of infrasound was exceeded in 66.9% of all industrial machinery and means of transport under study.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.159-176. Illus. 28 ref.
Heerema N., Hodgson M.
Prediction, visualization, and auralization of noise in industrial workrooms during computer "walk-through"
A new approach to the modelling of noise in industrial workrooms is presented. The objectives, approach and technical basis of the system, particularly regarding the novel prediction and auralization (acoustical-virtual-reality) aspects are discussed. New empirical models used to predict noise levels, reverberation times and fitting densities are presented. Methods for realizing simplified auralization of the predicted noise using a soundcard and headphones are discussed. A graphical user interface, which enables visualization of the workroom floor plan including sound sources and the user position, is described. Techniques are presented by which the user can "walk-through" the virtual workroom arbitrarily, experiencing the predicted noise visually and aurally, updated in real-time, as well as interact with the simulation - for example, to introduce noise-control measures -and visualize and auralize the resulting noise. An example of noise control involving sound-absorptive surface treatments and source enclosure is presented.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.47, No.2, p.65-70. Illus. 10 ref.
Blondet M., Boitel L., Dupéry M., Durand C., Pommier J.L., Rat de Coquard M., Raymond F., Taupin J.P.
Study of the daily level of exposure of workers to noise in four occupations
Etude du niveau d'exposition sonore quotidienne des salariés dans quatre activités [in French]
The objective of the study was to measure daily sound exposure levels and peak sound pressures over randomly selected days during a full year in four different occupational environments, and to compare the results. Measurements were made with class II sound dosimeters having a level of precision of ±1dB. Two groups of six workplaces in each occupation were measured over a full working day. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The occupations included two that are subject to the requirements of Form No. 42 of occupational diseases in France (plastics processing, woodworking) and two that are not (sales of hi-fi and video equipment, municipal waste collection). Findings show that workers in plastics processing and woodworking are often exposed to sound levels higher than those of the auditory damage threshold. The exposure of waste collectors is close to dangerous levels, while in the case of hi-fi and video equipment salespersons, the results are mixed and will require further investigation.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise, 10 rue de la Rosière, 75015 Paris, France, 1999. 143p. Illus. 21 ref.
Irle H., Hinzmann G., Strasser H.
Hearing threshold shifts associated with impulse noise - Influence of the number and duration of pulses
Hörschwellenverschiebungen nach Impulsschall - Einfluß der Impulsanzahl und Impulsdauer [in German]
Acoustic pulses such as those experienced in weapon firing, pyrotechnics, ramming and riveting have a deafening effect measured in terms of the temporary threshold shift (TTS, in dB), the TTS decay time (in min) and the integrated restitution (IR) of TTS. At equivalent acoustic load levels, it was found by measuring all three parameters in test subjects that shorter (and more frequent) pulses cause significantly more deafening. After 5ms pulses, the decay time was as long as 10h. A doubling of pulse frequency causes far more deafening than a doubling of pulse duration. Thus, acoustic loads cannot reliably be expressed as a noise dose (dB) or recalculated by using equivalent energies, and the noise exposure guidelines should be revised accordingly.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Aug. 1999, Vol.53, No.2, p.83-94. Illus. 32 ref.
Neitzel R., Seixas N.H., Camp J., Yost M.
An assessment of occupational noise exposures in four construction trades
A total of 338 exposure samples was collected from 133 construction workers employed in 4 trades: carpenters, labourers, ironworkers and operating engineers. Four sites using a variety of construction techniques were sampled at least 12 times on a randomly chosen date over a 22-week period. Workers completed a questionnaire throughout the workday detailing the tasks preformed and tools used. Exposure levels were measured using both the OSHA and the 1996 draft NIOSH/ISO exposure metric. The highest exposure levels were found for tasks involving pneumatically operated tools and heavy equipment. Construction method, stage of construction, and work tasks and tools used were found to be better exposure predictors than the trade.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.807-817. Illus. 43 ref.
Guillemin C., Barbara J.J.
Noise control in the woodworking industry
L'insonorisation dans l'industrie du bois [in French]
Practical safety data sheet. Topics: acoustic enclosure; acoustic helmets; data sheet; design of equipment; earplugs; France; legislation; limitation of exposure; noise control; noise level measurement; noise reverberation; sound absorption; sound attenuation; sound shielding; woodworking industry; woodworking machines.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1999, No.582, p.53-56. Illus. 6 ref. Also available as an offprint from the INRS.
Lusk S.L., Hong O.S., Ronis D.L., Eakin B.L., Kerr M.J., Early M.R.
Effectiveness of an intervention to increase construction workers' use of hearing protection
In this project the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention (video, pamphlets and a guided practice session) to increase the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) among construction workers was tested. Post-test measures were collected 10-12 months following the intervention. A total of 837 high-noise-exposed workers were included in the analysis. The results indicated that the intervention significantly increased use of HPDs but had no effect on intention to use HPDs in the future. Pretesting had no effect on use. The fact that younger workers used HPDs less often and reported lower intention to use HPDs in future is worrying.
Human Factors, Sep. 1999, Vol.41, No.3, p.487-494. 29 ref.
Castelo Branco N.A.A., Alves-Pereira M.
Vibroacoustic Disease (VAD) is the clinical manifestation of a systemic disease developed as a result of long-term exposure to high-pressure amplitude, low frequency noise. Studies using small mammals and humans are reported here. Results strongly suggest that long-term exposure to noise levels of the order of 100dB(A) at a frequency spectrum below 500Hz (conditions prevalent in many industrial settings) is likely to lead to pathological sequelae to the cardiorespiratory system and the central nervous system. Evidence is also presented suggesting untoward effects of VAD on the immune system. Topics: aircraft industry; animal experiments; cardiological effects; central nervous system; genetic effects; health hazards; human experiments; long-term exposure; low-frequency noise; neurological effects; noise level; respiratory diseases; tissue damage; vestibular disorders; vibration disease; vibration.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.70, No.3, Section II, Supplement, p.iii-A154. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Takahashi Y., Yonekawa Y., Kanada K., Maeda S.
A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise
A measuring method was designed using a miniature accelerometer to understand the basic characteristics of human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to evaluate the effects on health. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of six male subjects exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20-50Hz, where the method proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration was higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. The measured noise-induced vibration was also negatively correlated with the subject's body mass index, which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depend not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body. Topics: body weight; human experiments; low-frequency noise; vibration acceleration; vibration measurement; whole-body vibration.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.28-35. Illus. 25 ref.
King R.B., Saliba A J., Brock J.R.
A comprehensive noise survey of the S-70A-9 Black Hawk helicopter
At-ear noise levels were measured at four positions in the cabin of the Sikorsky S-70A-9 Black Hawk helicopter under various flight conditions and at 13 positions outside the helicopter under various ground running conditions using the Head Acoustic Measurement System. The attenuation properties of the hearing protection devices (HPDs) normally worn by aircrews and by maintenance crews (the ALPHA helmet and the Roanwell MX-2507 Communications headset) were also assessed. At-ear sound pressure levels that would be experienced by personnel wearing their normal HPDs were determined at the positions they would occupy in and around the aircraft. Results indicate that HPDs do not provide adequate hearing protection to meet current hearing conservation levels of 85 dB(A) for an 8h day. Topics: acoustic helmets; acoustic vibration; defence services; exposure evaluation; hearing protection; helicopters; noise dosimetry; noise level; noise measurement; sound frequency.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.70, No.2, p.107-116. Illus. 18 ref.
Prevention of hearing damage among musicians
Gehörschadenprophylaxe bei Musikern [in German]
Prophylaxie des lésions de l'ouïe chez les musiciens [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; hearing loss; hearing protection; musicians; noise level measurement; noise level; sex-linked differences.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, Spring 1999, No.71, p.5-9. Illus.
Acoustics - Reference zero for the calibration of audiometric equipment - Part 5: Reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for pure tones in the frequency range 8kHz to 16kHz
Acoustique - Zéro normal de référence pour l'étalonnage d'équipements audiométriques - Partie 5: Niveaux de référence équivalents de pression acoustique liminaire pour les sons purs dans le domaine de fréquences de 8kHz à 16kHz [in French]
Part 5 of this technical report specifies reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels of pure tones in the frequency range 8-16kHz, applicable to the calibration of air conduction audiometers for specific earphones.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. iv, 4p. 6 ref. Price: CHF 40.00.
Acoustics - Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and equipment - Part 2: Introduction to the physics of low-noise design
Acoustique - Pratique recommandée pour la conception de machines et équipements à bruit réduit - Partie 2: Introduction à la physique de la conception à bruit réduit [in French]
Part 2 of this present technical report provides the physical background for the low-noise design rules and examples given in Part 1. It is intended for use by designers, users and buyers of machinery and equipment, as well as by authorities in the field of legislation, supervision or inspection. Equations given in this technical report will improve the general understanding of noise control, but are not useful for the prediction of absolute noise emission values.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. iv, 46p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: CHF 142.00.
Acoustics - Measurement of noise emitted by accelerating road vehicles - Engineering method
This international standard specifies an engineering method for measuring the noise emitted by accelerating road vehicles. The specifications are intended to reproduce the noise levels which are produced during the use of intermediate gars with full utilization of the engine power available, as may occur in urban traffic.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., 1998. iii, 12p. Illus. 5 ref.
Acoustics - Measurement of exterior noise emitted by earth-moving machinery - Stationary test conditions
This international standard specifies a method for determining the exterior noise emitted by earth-moving machinery. The measurements are made in terms of the time-averaged A-weighted sound pressure level while the machine is stationary with the engine operating at the manufacturer's rated speed under no-load conditions. The standard applies to excavators, crawler and wheel tractor-dozers, crawler and wheel loaders, and backhoe loaders.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1998. iii, 11p. Illus. 4 ref.
Acoustics - Measurement at the operator's position of noise emitted by earth-moving machinery - Stationary test conditions
This international standard specifies a method for determining the noise emitted by earth-moving machinery at the operator's position. The measurements are made in terms of the time-averaged A-weighted sound pressure level while the machine is stationary with the engine operating at the manufacturer's rated speed under no-load conditions. The standard applies to excavators, crawler and wheel tractor-dozers, crawler and wheel loaders and backhoe loaders.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1998. iii, 9p. Illus. 3 ref.
Acoustics - Hearing protectors - Part 4: Measurement of effective sound pressure levels for level-dependent sound-restoration ear-muffs
Acoustique - Protecteurs individuels contre le bruit - Partie 4: Mesurage des niveaux effectifs de pression acoustique des serre-tête destinés à la restitution du son [in French]
This technical report specifies a physical test method for level-dependent sound-restoration ear-muffs. The physical measurements are made with the acoustic text fixture according to ISO/TR 4869-3 or with a suitable head and torso simulator with a suitable acoustic isolation. The results of this test in combination with the results from the ISO 4869-1 tests can be used to estimate the effective A-weighted sound pressure level when sound-restoration earmuffs are worn.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. iv, 7p. Illus. 3 ref.
Asselineau M., Lovat G., Danière P., Arbey H.S.
Vibrating tables in the concrete industry: Analysis of noise generation mechanisms for noise reduction at the source
Tables vibrantes utilisées dans l'industrie du béton: analyse des mécanismes de génération du bruit pour une réduction à la source [in French]
European directives require manufacturers of industrial machinery to reduce the noise emitted by their machines to the lowest possible levels, in particular by acting at the noise source level. This requires a proper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for noise in each component of the machine. This understanding makes it possible to act directly at the noise source level, and to estimate improvements likely to be achieved. Vibrating tables which are widely used in the cement industry constitute a major source of noise both for the operator and for the surrounding environment. Means of considerably reducing noise emissions at the source are presented in this paper, including reducing workload, limiting shocks, eliminating resonance, and damping the walls from which noise is radiated. The improvements in acoustic performance that can be expected form these different methods are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.170, Note No.2071-170-98, p.21-32. Illus. 25 ref.
Technical report on noise emission of construction machines
Technischer Bericht zur Untersuchung der Geräuschemissionen von Baumaschinen [in German]
Topics: design data; earthmoving equipment; Germany; noise level; noise measurement; noise; report; sound power.
Hessische Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Reingaustrase 186, 65203 Wiesbaden, Germany, 1998. approx. 200p. Illus. 5 ref.
Engel Z., Augustyńska D.
Noise control '98 - Proceedings - 2-4 June, 1998
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Noise Control held in Krynica, Poland, 2-4 June 1998. Main topics covered: general problems (noise assessment, noise and vibration control, detection threshold of low-frequency pure and complex tones, high-frequency hearing loss in percussion players); sources of noise at work and occupational exposure; environmental noise; transportation noise (aircraft, tramways, highways); tire and road noise measurement; protection against noise (sound absorption); active noise and vibration control; economic aspects of noise control; protection against hand-arm vibration; noise measurement and analysis.
Central Institute for Labour protection, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998. 650p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Loval G., Danière P., Loyau T.
Vibro-acoustic diagnosis: A fundamental stage in machine noise reduction at the source
Le diagnostic vibro-acoustique: une étape fondamentale de la réduction à la source du bruit des machines [in French]
Machine noise reduction at the source is effective at all workplace points (near and far fields), it gives permanent results, improves comfort at work and does not involve constraints in terms of machine operation and maintenance. Its effectiveness depends directly on a proper vibro-acoustic diagnosis. After highlighting the main mechanisms of machine noise propagation, the paper describes the diagnostic methods available as a function of the treated aspect (generating mechanisms, transmission paths, radiant surfaces), discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method in an industrial context and compares the usefulness of methods combining relatively simple measurements and modelling of vibration and noise propagation mechanisms. Examples of application to three industrial situations are provided: a concrete vibrating machine, a diesel locomotive and a motor-driven pump.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1998, No.172, Note No.2082-172-98, p.243-255. Illus. 15 ref.
Passchier-Vermeer W., van den Berg R., Crijns H.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Development of a simplified method for testing the attenuation of personal hearing protectors and determining the attenuation values in specific work situations
Measuring methods to determine the attenuation achieved by a set of hearing protectors have been developed in the laboratory and tested in the field. An additional aim of the project was to determine the attenuation of hearing protectors worn under on-site conditions in the coal and steel industry. The method had to meet a number of criteria, namely to be applicable for practically all workers wearing hearing protectors, including those with hearing impairment, and to all types of hearing protectors, while not inducing heavy costs, being simple, providing rapid and reliable results, and capable of being used close to the workplace. Measures conducted on different types of hearing protectors have shown the need for a determination of individual attenuation of hearing protectors. Summaries in French and German.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1998. xii, 162p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Richoux C., Loth D., Teyssou M.
Impact on hearing of the exposure of classical orchestra musicians to sound
Conséquences auditives de l'exposition sonore de musiciens d'orchestres de musique classique [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; hearing loss; musicians; noise charts; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; noise level; questionnaire survey; theatres; vibration.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1998, No.76, p.351-357. Illus. 6 ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
Acoustic comfort: Noise in offices
Confort acústico: el ruido en oficinas [in Spanish]
This information note describes the two steps of the analysis for an office noise discomfort assessment. Firstly, the noise sources have to be identified (external noise, noise from the building or the office equipment, noise from persons); secondly the acoustic comfort has to be assessed (sound level, interference with conversations, noise reverberation).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 6p. Illus. 10 ref.
Regulations amending the Canada Occupational Safety and Health Regulations [Canada]
Règlement modifiant le Règlement canadien sur la sécurité et la santé au travail [Canada] [in French]
Regulations amending Canadian Regulations on occupational safety and health (CIS 86-1483). It eliminates the exemption from noise exposure level limitations granted to operators of large trucks subject to federal law. Hence, drivers of such trucks will be subject to the noise exposure limit of 87dB(A) already applying to other occupations.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 23 Dec. 1998, Part II, Vol.132, No.26, p.3190-3195.
Le bruit [in French]
Replaces CIS 98-1451. Topics: audiometric tests; France; hazard evaluation; hearing disorders; hearing protection; information of personnel; legislation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; noise control; noise level; responsibilities; supply of information.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 4th ed., Nov. 1998. 26p. Illus. 8 ref.
Malchaire J., Piette A., Cock N.
Noise - Strategy for the assessment and control of hazards
Bruit - Stratégie d'évaluation et de prévention des risques [in French]
Lawaai - Stategie voor evaluatie en preventie van risico's [in Dutch]
Topics: Belgium; check lists; comfort criteria; deafness; description of technique; exposure evaluation; legislation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; noise control; noise dosimetry; noise measurement; noise reverberation; personal protective equipment; sound attenuation; training manuals; training material; workplace design.
Federaal Ministerie van Tewekstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, 1040 Brussels, Belgium, 1998. 80p. Illus. Bibl.
Health and Safety Executive
Topics: data sheet; handling and storage; harmful substances; legionellosis; mechanical hazards; noise control; noise; plastics industry; plastics; recycling of materials; safety by design; safety devices; stacked material storage; work at height.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1998. 4p. Illus. 9 ref.
Acoustics - Guidelines for noise control by silencers
Acoustique - Lignes directrices pour la réduction du bruit au moyen de silencieux [in French]
Topics: design of equipment; exposure evaluation; ISO; noise charts; noise control; noise level measurement; noise measurement; silencers; sound absorption; sound propagation; standard.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 Oct. 1998. v, 44p. Illus. 31 ref.
Asselineau M., Lovat G., Danière P., Arbey H.S.
Guide to selecting silent equipment: Fans
Aide aux choix d'équipements silencieux. Cas de ventilateurs [in French]
This scientific and technical report outlines the criteria for selecting silent or low-noise fans and aims at developing specifications and data relevant to this choice. It also deals with the problem of reducing noise levels generated by existing or future fan-based equipment. Brief overviews of fans and the principles of noise reduction at the source are followed by detailed sections on types of fans and their sound levels. An overview is also presented of the equipment available on the market and the points to consider when developing specifications for use in the majority of situations. Topics: airflow noise; case study; design of equipment; fans; noise control; noise level measurement; selection of equipment; sound attenuation; sound propagation.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1998. 93p. Illus. 145 ref.
Asselineau M., Lovat G., Danière P.
Noise in cement plants. Inventory of noise levels and of available control measures
Bruit dans les cimenteries. Recensement des niveaux sonores et des moyens de réduction disponibles [in French]
Topics: bagging; bulk materials handling; cement industry; cement kilns; crushers; deafness; dust collectors; earthmoving equipment; exposure evaluation; grinding mills; hearing protection; literature survey; noise control; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; noise measurement; noise; presses; quarrying industry; sound shielding.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1998. 71p. Illus. 74 ref.
Order No.608 of 5 Aug. 1998 approving a technical standard on neuro-sensorial hearing loss caused by continuous exposure to high levels of occupational noise [Brazil]
Ordem de serviço n°608 de 5 de agosto de 1998 - aprova norma técnica sobre perda auditiva neurossensorial por exposição continuada a níveis elevados de pressão sonora de origem ocupacional [in Portuguese]
Topics: audiometric tests; Brazil; diagnosis; hearing loss; hearing protection; length of exposure; medical examinations; medical treatment; noise; risk factors; sound attenuation; standard.
Diário Oficial, 19 Aug. 1998, No.158, p.44-53. Illus. 30 ref.
Legris M., Poulin P.
Noise exposure profile among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators
In a survey of construction sites in Quebec, Canada, the average daily noise exposure was 84 to 99dBA for heavy equipment operators, 90dBA for labourers and 74 to 97dBA for crane operators. The main sources of noise to which heavy equipment operators are exposed are vehicle engines and the muffler exhaust system, usually located near the operator. The presence of insulated cabs such as those found on power shovels, backhoes and wheel loaders and graders helps to reduce noise exposure. The noise exposure of labourers is determined by the type of task, the manual equipment used and noise from surrounding heavy equipment. In the case of crane operators, an insulated cab significantly reduces exposure to engine noise. Topics: construction equipment; construction industry; cranes; earthmoving equipment; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; noise level measurement; noise level; sound isolation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1998, Vol.59, No.11, p.774-778. Illus. 14 ref.
Hazard control in hypersonic research
La maîtrise des risques à l'heure hypersonique [in French]
Topics: acenaphthene; aircraft industry; compressed air; compressors; implementation of control measures; live work; manual handling; noise control; overhead hoists; prevention of access; risk awareness; test equipment; toxic substances; wind tunnels; work at height; work in isolation.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 1998, No.574-575, p.2-9. Illus.
Low-cost methods of noise control at source which increase production and reduce the risk of hearing damage
Traditional methods of hearing conservation (hearing protection, job rotation, acoustic enclosures) are outlined and the advantages of noise control at source are described. Case studies show how correctly implemented noise control at source can reduce machine wear, increase tool life, increase production speeds and increase profits. Topics: case study; cost-benefit analysis; hearing conservation; hearing protection; machinery; noise control; noise measurement; safety by design; sound attenuation; vibrating tools; vibration damping.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1998, Vol.14, No.5, p.493-503. Illus.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational noise exposure - Revised criteria 1998
Topics: audiometric tests; exposure records; glossary; hazard evaluation; hearing conservation; hearing damage risk criteria; hearing loss; hearing protection; impulse noise; length of exposure; limitation of exposure; noise dosimetry; noise level; noise measurement; noise; programme evaluation; USA.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1998. xvi, 105p. Illus. 229 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Sound solutions offshore: Practical examples of noise reduction
Topics: acoustic enclosure; case study; check lists; glossary; legislation; noise control; noise level; offshore oil extraction; silencers; sound absorption; sound attenuation; sound isolation; training material; United Kingdom; vibration isolation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. iv, 84p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 19.50.
Occupational hearing loss among selected farm tractor operators employed on large multiproduction farms in Poland
45 farm tractor drivers from multiproduction farms were examined in order to estimate the degree of occupational hearing loss. Hearing loss of over 20dB was noted for 56% of operators within the highest frequency range of 3, 4 and 6 kHz, and for 22% of operators in the medium frequency range of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz. No hearing loss was observed in the control group. In the group of operators under 35 years of age a statistically significant correlation was observed between hearing loss and the length of employment in agriculture, whereas in the group of workers over 35 years of age hearing loss was more strongly correlated with age, although this was not statistically significant. Results confirmed that detected hearing loss among operators of farm tractors was caused by exposure to occupational noise on farms. Topics: age-linked differences; agricultural operations; audiometric tests; epidemiologic study; hearing loss; hearing threshold; length of service; noise level; noise; Poland; sound frequency; tractors.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.11, No.1, p.69-80. Illus. 23 ref.
Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Kalinowski D.J.
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss surveillance in Michigan
From 1992-1997, 1378 individuals with occupational noise-induced hearing loss were reported to the Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services and interviewed about their exposures to noise at work. Over 70% of workplace noise exposure was in manufacturing, where approximately 46% of individuals reported that the most recent company at which they worked did not provide regular hearing testing. 96% of construction workers had no regular hearing testing at their most recent job, although hearing protection such as earplugs or earmuffs was provided for approximately half of these jobs. Of the 43 companies where state enforcement inspections were conducted, 23 had noise levels above 85dBA, and 17 of those had either no hearing conservation programme or had one that was cited as incomplete. The surveillance system identified workplaces with hazardous noise levels and no hearing protection programme, thereby protecting similarly exposed workers from further noise exposure and hearing loss. Topics: audiometric tests; construction industry; enforcement; hearing loss; hearing protection; hearing threshold; job-exposure relation; labour inspection; manufacturing industries; Michigan; noise level; noise; survey; USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.40, No.8, p.667-674. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of noise at power presses
Topics: acoustic enclosure; data sheet; legislation; noise control; noise measurement; power presses; safety by design; sound absorption; supply of information; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 4p. Illus. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of noise at metal-cutting saws
Topics: data sheet; information of personnel; metalcutting saws; noise control; safety by design; sound absorption.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 2p. 8 ref.
Lusk S.L., Kerr M.J., Kauffman S.A.
Use of hearing protection and perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss among construction workers
Topics: construction industry; deafness; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; hearing protection; noise; perceived noise level; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1998, Vol.59, No.7, p.466-470. 21 ref.
Occupational noise exposure of operators of heavy trucks
Topics: Canada; drivers; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; noise level; risk factors; survey; trucks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1998, Vol.59, No.3, p.205-213. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing noise at work - Guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
Topics: acoustic enclosure; comment on law; earmuffs; earplugs; evaluation of equipment; exposure evaluation; exposure records; glossary; hazard evaluation; hearing protection; information of personnel; labelling; legislation; machinery; noise control; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; responsibilities of employers; safety by design; selection of equipment; silencers; sound absorption; sound isolation; substitution; supply of information; supply of personal protective equipment; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. vii, 91p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 9.75.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety information for printers
Topics: allergic respiratory disorders; asthma; baling presses; colophony; causes of accidents; chemical hazards; conveyors; data sheet; epoxy compounds; hearing protection; information of personnel; isocyanates; legislation; machinery; manual handling; mechanical hazards; noise control; noise measurement; noise; platen presses; printing industry; repetitive strain injury; safety devices; safety training in industry; sensitization; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 8 data sheets, 24p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
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