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CIS 03-402 de Ângelo da Cunha I.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Noise and vibration levels from chainsaws and their use in evaluating the occupational exposure of operators to vibrations
Níveis de vibração e ruído gerados por motosserras et sua utilização na avaliação da exposição ocupacional do operador à vibração [in Portuguese]
The first part of this document reviews the effects of vibrations on the hand-arm system caused by the use of chainsaws, the main standards for evaluating vibrations, criteria that apply to the definition of noise and vibration level limits as well as applicable preventive measures. The second part is devoted to comparing noise and vibration data supplied by manufacturers with those determined during standardized testing and under real field conditions. Results indicate that data supplied by manufacturers are meaningful for comparing chainsaws, selecting appropriate protective equipment and controlling workers' exposure.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 162p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.

CIS 03-407 Alves Maia P.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Noise in civil engineering work and the risk of work-induced deafness
O ruído nas obras da construção civil e o risco de surdez ocupacional [in Portuguese]
This thesis analyses the risk of hearing loss caused by noise among various categories civil engineering workers (labourers, masons, metalworkers and concrete formwork workers) exposed to noise levels of 82dB(A). The spectrum of noise emissions of machinery used in civil engineering as well as the noise levels to which the workers are exposed in the course of their different tasks were determined. Audiometric measurements were made among workers of 49 civil engineering contractors to evaluate hearing loss across the different job categories. Audiograms were corrected for age according to the ISO 7902 standard. They were also compared to the expected audiograms according to the ISO 1999 standard, which takes account of tenure and hours of work per day. Among the categories studied, only formwork workers were at significant risk of hearing loss.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 144p. Illus. 85 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.

CIS 02-1432 Barth C., Hamacher W., Stoll R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Development of effective structures for improving occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized companies taking the examples of noise reduction and ergonomics
Präventive Arbeitsschutzstrukturen für Klein- und Mittelbetriebe am Beispiel Lärmbehinderung und Ergonomie [in German]
Through an analysis of practical cases in small firms in various industries, the objective of this study was to examine organizational factors responsible for levels of noise and physical strain detrimental to the health of employees, as well as the structural causes of the lax application of legal requirements with respect to noise levels and the ergonomic design of workplaces. Based on these elements, effective safety and health organizational structures are proposed. Safety and health considerations need to be integrated into the company's management and organization as well as in its operating procedures, and must equally be based on internal knowledge and on external expert advice. Five recommendations for the development of an integrated safety and health management system are proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 335p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 25.50.

CIS 02-908 Otremba H.O., Hoppe G., Sehrndt G.A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Determining machinery noise emission levels - Environmental corrections
Geräuschemissionen von Maschinen - Umgebungskorrekturen [in German]
This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the environmental corrections necessary when performing emission sound pressure measurements with directionally-emitting sources. A stationary van with the engine turned off but equipped with an additional sound source was used to simulate a noise-emitting machine. Different adjustments of the roof and windows were used to obtain variable directionality and evaluate angle bias. The findings are to form the basis for proposed modifications of existing emission sound pressure measurement standards and for recommendations for users of the standards.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 106p. Illus. 47 ref. Price: EUR 11.50.

CIS 02-895 Żera J.
Impulse noise in industrial plants: Statistical distribution of levels
Impulse noise generated by industrial machines at the workplace is a cause of substantial hearing loss in workers. This article presents data on workplace impulse noise recorded in drop-forge, punch-press and machinery shops. The survey shows that in the drop-forge shop, over 90% of acoustic impulses generated by hammer strikes exceed permissible levels, while in the punch-press shop, only 10-20% of impulses generated exceed maximum permissible levels. There is a wide variety of impulse types in the machinery shop; in particular, the stamping pistol generated impulses in excess of permissible levels. Many impulses have a rise time shorter than 1ms, which could also be a factor in hearing damage. However, this area requires further study.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.14, No.2, p.127-133. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 02-224 Tomei Fr., Ortolani B., Renzoni S., Pascalizi N., Riservato R., Marcellini L., De Sio S., Marinucci F., Tomao E., Baccolo T.P., Anzelmo V., Iosue M., Tomei F., Paolucci M., Ruffino M.G.
Pathological risks incurred by urban police forces and their prevention
Rischi patologia e prevenzione dei vigili urbani [in Italian]
In this review the hazards that urban police forces in Italy are exposed to are evaluated. Atmospheric pollution is considered first among the risk factors of this generally outdoor work, focusing on respiratory systems diseases. Other consequences mentioned include immunotoxic effects, and those depending on continuous noise, neoplasms, cardiovascular disorders and stress factors.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.12-24. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 02-407 Goelzer B., Hansen C.H., Sehrndt G.A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Occupational exposure to noise: Evaluation, prevention and control
This publication is intended for occupational hygienists and safety and health personnel. It provides an overview of the evaluation, prevention and control of exposure to noise at the workplace, with a view to protecting workers against the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Contents include: fundamentals of acoustics; anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing; ear pathologies; exposure criteria and occupational exposure levels; noise sources; sound measuring instruments; approaches for conducting noise survey; audiometry; hazard prevention and control programmes; design aspects of noise control; personal protection; training; work practices; medical supervision; international standards.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 336p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. CD-ROM readable on an HTML browser.

CIS 02-406 Palmer K.T., Coggon D., Syddall H., Pannett B., Griffin M.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational exposure to noise and hearing difficulties in Great Britain
To determine the prevalence of self-reported hearing difficulties and tinnitus in working-aged people from the general population, and to estimate the risks from occupational exposure to noise, a questionnaire was mailed to 21,201 subjects of working age selected at random and 993 subjects from the British armed services. Information was collected on years of employment in a noisy job, and whether the respondent wore a hearing aid, had difficulty in hearing conversation, or had persistent tinnitus over the past year. 2% of subjects reported severe hearing difficulties. In men, the prevalence of this outcome rose steeply with age, from below 1% in those aged 16-24 years to 8% in those aged 55-64. The pattern was similar in women, but with severe hearing loss being only about half as prevalent in the oldest age band. In both sexes, after adjustment for age, the risk of severe hearing difficulty and persistent tinnitus rose with years spent in a noisy job.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. vi, 61p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 02-429
Health and Safety Executive
Rotary knife wood turning lathes: Safeguarding and reducing risks to health
Aimed at manufacturers, suppliers and users, this information sheet provides guidance on safeguarding and reducing noise and dust emissions at rotary knife wood turning lathes. Contents: applicable laws and regulations; types of machines; accidents; hazards and risks; guarding of new and existing machines; noise; wood dust and chippings; cutter ejection hazards; training and work practices. Replaces CIS 98-1488.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 4p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-409
Health and Safety Executive
Noise reduction at band re-saws
The noise generated by band re-saws (typically over 85dB(A)) can be reduced by maintaining the machine and blade in good condition. Factors affecting the blade vibration level (the main source of noise) are listed along with advice on how the difference in noise levels when cutting and when idling can be used as a good indicator of the condition and adjustment of the machine and blade. Replaces CIS 91-515.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 01-1595
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social
Official Mexican Standard - Safety and health conditions in workplaces where noise is generated [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se genere ruido [México] [in Spanish]
Contents of this standard: scope (all workplaces in Mexico where workers may be exposed to noise); definitions, magnitudes, abbreviations and units; obligations of emplyoers and workers; permissible limits of noise exposure; hearing conservation programmes; new workplaces and modification of work procedures in existing workplaces; verification systems. In annex: table of maximum permitted exposure levels (maximum time in function of dB(A) levels); noise measurement methods and calculations; selection of hearing protective equipment. Official Standard NOM-011-STPS-1993 (see CIS 95-29) on the same subject is superseded.
Internet copy, 2001. 28p. Illus. 32 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 01-1810 Brune D., Hellborg R., Persson B.R.R., Pääkkönen R.
Radiation at home, outdoors and in the workplace
More than 20 Scandinavian experts contributed to this publication, which reports on the current state of knowledge with respect to all types of radiation and its possible health effects. Contents include: ionizing radiation (biological effects, risk factors, cancer); non-ionizing radiation (lasers, visible light, UV and IR, microwaves and radio-frequency waves); mechanical waves (sound); natural and man-made radiation (cosmic rays, radiation in the earth's biosphere, radiation in oceans, radioactivity); effects of visible light, UV radiation and electromagnetic radiation on plants; radiation in residential areas (electromagnetic fields, radon); radiation used in medical therapy (X-rays, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, microwaves, radio-electrical frequencies, NMR); various kinds of radiation to which workers may be exposed and associated hazards; exposure to radon in mines; genotoxic effects and congenital malformations; cordless phones; outdoor work and leisure activities (beneficial and harmful effects of UV and visible light; exposure during flight); radioprotection principles.
Scandinavian Science Publisher, Bakkehaugveinen 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 2001. xvi, 547p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 01-1812
Health and Safety Executive
The Noise at Work Regulations - A brief guide to the requirements for controlling noise at work
Exposure to high noise levels can cause irreparable hearing damage. Noise at work can also cause disturbance, interference with communications and stress. This booklet summarizes the responsibilities of employers, employees and equipment suppliers under the Noise at Work Regulations (CIS 90-21). Contents include: actions required at noise levels below 85dB, between 85 and 90dB and above 90dB; advice for employers on carrying out noise assessments and implementing prevention measures; advice for employees, in particular on using protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2001. 8p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 01-860 Lawton B.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Damage to human hearing by airborne sound of very high frequency or ultrasonic frequency
This literature review examines the audiological, occupational hygiene and industrial safety literature on the subjective and auditory effects of audible sound in the very high frequency range (10-20kHz) and also in the inaudible ultrasonic range (greater than 20kHz, generally thought to be the upper frequency limit of young normal hearing). Proposed exposure limits have been in existence since 1961, with the intent of avoiding any subjective effects and any auditory effects, in any exposed individuals. The evolution of these internationally-recognised Damage Risk Criteria and Maximum Permitted Levels has been examined critically. Conclusions and recommendations are offered in respect of hearing damage and adverse subjective effects caused by sounds outside the customary frequency range for occupational noise exposure assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 77p. 114 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 01-22 Regulations of 26 Jan. 2001 concerning the protection of workers against the risks due to exposure to noise at work [Slovenia]
Pravilnik o varovanju delavcev pred tveganji zaradi izpostavljenosti hrupu pri delu [in Slovenian]
These regulations specify the obligations of employers related to the protection of the hearing of their employees when they are exposed to noise. They also prescribe regular medical examinations of such workers.
Uradni list Republike Slovenije, 1 Feb. 2001, Vol.11, No.7, p.648-652.


CIS 06-1451
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC)
Occupational noise
This national standard specifies that the standard for maximum exposure to noise in the occupational environment is an 8h equivalent sound pressure level of 85dB(A); the peak noise level is 140dB(lin). Replaces the 1st (1993) edition (see CIS 94-690).
Australian Safety and Compensation Council,, 2nd ed., 2000. viii, 4p. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1201 de Paula Santos U., Paiva Santos M.
Exposure to noise: Effects on health and how to prevent them
Esposição a ruído: efeitos na saúde e comi prevení-los [in Portuguese]
Contents of this booklet on the effects of exposure to noise and the prevention of hearing loss: causes of hearing loss, definition of sound and noise, and various types of noise; how to prevent hearing loss; legal aspects; practical examples for the control of exposure to noise.
Instituto Nacional de Saúde no Trabalho (INST) Rua Caetano Pinto 575, São Paulo, CEP 03041-000, Brazil, 2000. 30p. Illus.

CIS 04-440 Augustyńska D., Pleban D., Mikulski W., Tadzik P.
Occupational safety and health management - Assessment of noise emissions of machines - Requirements and methods
Zarządzanie bezpieczenństwem i higieną pracy. Ocena emisji hałasu maszyn - Wymagania i metody [in Polish]
Contents of this publication on the assessment and control of noise emissions of machines: comment on the requirements concerning assessment and control of noise emissions; comment on the methods defined in 98/37/EC Directive (CIS 99-29) and in the Polish laws and regulations which are harmonized with this Directive; methods for the determination of two parameters characterizing noise emissions of machines (sound power level and sound pressure level). Appendices include: Polish version of the 98/37/EC Directive; Polish laws and regulations.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 261p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-883 One-year accelerated depreciation allowance for noise control in factories
This document presents the guidelines, qualifying criteria and application procedure for tax incentive scheme to encourage enterprises to implement effective engineering measures for noise control in factories. A list of consultants and agencies providing noise control services, the fees for noise assessment and application forms for a one-year accelerated depreciation allowance for noise control in factories for the installation of engineering control measures or for the purchase of less noisy machinery, equipment or systems are included.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 10 Nov. 2000. 12p.,1858,2763-----------,00.html [in English]

CIS 02-1898 Brühl P., Grenner J.
Impact noise exposure from sheet-metal presses: Manual versus automated production
Noise exposure was measured in a sheet-metal pressing plant in Sweden with large punch-presses, using individual dosimetry in ten workers during sixteen workdays. A comparison was made between noise doses for workers on a manual production line and on an automated line, with five workers on each line. Although automation increased noise emission, it was found that noise exposures by the workers were significantly reduced on the automated production line. The weighted equivalent noise level was 91.2dB for six hours in the manual production line and 90.0dB in the automated line. However, the most important factor in noise reduction was that the number of noise-exposed workers was reduced from thirteen to six as a consequence of automation.
Acustica, 2000, Vol.86, p.378-380. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-1173 Practical guide to the selection of personal hearing protectors
Guide pratique pour le choix des protecteurs individuels contre le bruit [in French]
Exposure to sound levels above 85dB presents a hazard to hearing. This leaflet offers practical guidance for choosing appropriate hearing protection (earplugs or earmuffs) according to whether the exposure to noise is continuous or intermittent. The concept of global attenuation is explained. The importance of wearing the personal noise protective device as long as possible is emphasized.
Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 4p. Illus.

CIS 02-1172 Less noise for healthier hearing - The Factories (Noise) Regulations 1996 - What you need to know
Over 1000 factories in Singapore present a noise hazard and more than 50,000 workers are estimated to be exposed to harmful noise. Prolonged exposure to noise can cause deafness, a chronic disease which cannot be cured. This information leaflet provides guidance on the application of the Singapore Factories (Noise) Regulations 1996. Contents: permissible exposure limits; responsibilities of employers; noise control; noise emission labelling of machinery; noise dosimetry; hearing protection; workers' training and information; medical examinations.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus.

CIS 02-1171 Do you know what is noise-induced deafness?
Contents of this information leaflet on noise-induced deafness: definition; causes (prolonged exposure to noise levels above 85dB(A)); effects of noise-induced deafness; audiometric examinations; responsibilities of management; responsibilities of workers; Singapore legislation; some basic facts about noise.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus.

CIS 02-596 Take care of your ears
Cuide sus oídos [in Spanish]
Contents of this booklet on hearing protection: consequences of exposure to noise; control measures (monitoring, medical examinations, preventive measures); types of personal protective equipment (earplugs, earmuffs); taking proper care of reusable protective equipment; check list for hazard evaluation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 14p. Illus.

CIS 02-104 Noise control in industry: A basic guide
Noise is a major occupational hazard. Short-term effects include temporary hearing loss, stress and irritability. It can make verbal communications difficult, thereby leading to safety hazards. Long-term exposure can lead to permanent hearing loss. This guide provides an overview of the methods of recognizing, evaluating and controlling workplace noise exposure. It is aimed at workers, supervisors, safety representatives and occupational safety and health professionals. Topics covered include: units of noise; methods of measuring noise level and noise exposure; instruments used to measure noise; relationship between noise exposure and hearing loss; noise exposure limits; engineering methods of noise control; effectiveness of hearing protectors; basic elements of a hearing conservation programme.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2000. 131p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 01-1805 Simpson M.E., MacKenzie J.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise exposure limits under hyperbaric conditions
An examination of data available on the sources of noise to which divers are exposed suggests that sound pressure levels both underwater and in diving chambers often exceed those allowable to workers onshore. However, sensitivity to different sound conditions is known to be altered in hyperbaric conditions, and current noise exposure limits specified in the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21) are acknowledged to be inappropriate. Furthermore, there are difficulties in measuring noise levels, since calibrated microphones designed to work under normal atmospheric pressure will respond differently in hyperbaric environments. In the absence of complete understanding of how to assess noise attenuation in differing media across the range of frequencies, it is recommended that noise reduction measures be implemented as a precautionary measure. Several noise reduction measures which are currently under development are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. vi, 53p. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 01-1811 Acoustics - Stationary audible warning devices used outdoors - Part 2: Precision methods for determination of sound emission quantities
Acoustique - Dispositifs d'alarme sonore fixes utilisés à l'extérieur - Partie 2: méthodes de laboratoire pour le mesurage des grandeurs d'émission acoustique [in French]
Part 2 of the present technical specification describes two types of precision measurements for outdoor warning systems: free field measurements and measurements in a free field over a reflecting plane.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 2000. v, 22p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 01-870 Noise - Analysis and solutions
Buller - analys och lösningar [in Swedish]
This CD-ROM provides advice on how to deal with commonly encountered workplace noise problems and includes sound recordings of noise before and after applying noise reduction measures for selected equipment. It explains why efficient noise reduction is needed, with examples of work organization, how to get started, internal training ideas and carrying out a noise survey.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, SAF, LO & PTK i samverkan, Box 3208, SE 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. CD-ROM for Windows 95-2000 or NT (min. 800x600 pixels high colour (16 bit), Soundblaster or compatible sound card).

CIS 01-546 Acoustics - Statistical distribution of hearing thresholds as a function of age
Acoustique - Distribution statistique des seuils d'audition en fonction de l'âge [in French]
This international standard provides statistics of the hearing threshold for populations of various ages. It specifies, for the range of audiometric frequencies from 125Hz to 8000Hz and for populations of otologically normal persons of a given age, within the age limits of 18 to 70 years, the expected median value of hearing thresholds given relative to the median hearing threshold at the age of 18 years and the expected statistical distribution above and below the median value.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2000. iv, 9p. 36 ref.

CIS 01-544 Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure - Comparison method in situ
Acoustique - Détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique émis par les sources de bruit à partir de la pression acoustique - Méthode de comparaison in situ [in French]
This international standard is one of the ISO 3740 series, which, together with ISO 9614, specifies various methods for determining sound power levels of machines, equipment and sub-assemblies. When selecting one of the methods of the 3740 series, it is necessary to decide which one is most appropriate for the conditions and purposes of the test. General guidelines to assist in the selection are provided in ISO 3740. The present standard specifies a method for determining the sound power levels of sound sources in situ, and is especially applicable to non-movable machines and equipment.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., July 2000. v, 18p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-543
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing noise at work - Guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
This booklet provides guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (CIS 90-21). Part 1 defines legal duties of employers to prevent damage to hearing (exposure assessment and records; reduction of risk of hearing damage and of noise exposure; ear protection; noise control, employees' information). Part 2 covers duties of designers, manufacturers importers and suppliers. Part 3 gives advice for employers on how to chose a competent person for the noise assessment. Part 4 on how to carry out the noise assessment and the measurements. Part 5 on how to control noise exposure (workplace design, substitution of process or machine, engineering methods for sound attenuation and reduction of exposure). Part 6 on selection and correct use of ear protection. Replaces CIS 98-1714.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 2000. vii, 91p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: GBP 9.75.

CIS 01-534 Malchaire J.
Strategy for prevention and control of the risks due to noise
An easy-to-implement strategy for controlling exposure to noise is proposed, consisting of three stages. Stage 1 is observation, simple and easy to use by the workers to recognize the problems, identify straightforward solutions and call for assistance when needed. Stage 2 is analysis, more complex but more costly, performed with the assistance of occupational health specialists to identify more technical control measures and set up a programme to conserve hearing. Stage 3 is expertise, performed with the assistance of acoustic experts for special measurements and control measures. The proposed strategy uses the competence of the workers and management with respect to their working environment and recognizes that knowledge and measurements of acoustics are not an absolute prerequisite for solving noise problems. It attempts to organize in sequence and optimize the cooperation between workers, occupational health specialists and experts in acoustics.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.361-369. 18 ref.

CIS 01-72 Berg S.Z.
Sound advice - Protect your ears in noisy environments
This publication is in the form of a booklet containing several short articles on occupational exposure to noise. According to NIOSH, 30 million persons are exposed to hazardous noise at work in the United States, of whom 10 million suffer from permanent hearing loss. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to develop and implement noise monitoring programmes whenever any employee's exposure equals or exceeds an 8-hour average exposure of 85dB. Various hearing protection devices are described (foam plugs, pre-molded reusable plugs, canal caps, earmuffs, miscellaneous devices). Finally, answers to some frequently-asked questions on hearing protection are provided.
Safe Worker, Feb. 2000, Vol. 74, No.2, p.2-11, 14-15. Illus.

CIS 01-71
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance in noisy industries - Advice for employers
United Kingdom legislation requires employers to provide health surveillance programmes for employees exposed to certain types of risk, including high noise levels. This booklet is aimed at employers. In broad terms, it describes health surveillance programmes appropriate for noisy industries, how to implement these programmes and how to use the information collected in the course of these programmes. Replaces CIS 95-2032.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2000. 12p. 8 ref.

CIS 00-1574 Listen up! Learn how to protect your hearing
This issue is dedicated to hearing loss prevention. Contents include: usefulness of hearing loss prevention programs; frequently asked questions about hearing loss; reducing noise at the workplace; types of hearing protectors (earplugs, earmuffs); selection criteria for hearing protectors; noise reduction rating (NRR).
Today's Supervisor, Feb. 2000, Vol.64, No.2, 19p (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 00-1432 Pérez López G
Protection of workers against risks from exposure to noise
Protección de los trabajadores frente a los riesgos derivados de la exposición al ruido [in Spanish]
This survey was aimed at establishing the degree of compliance with the Royal Decree 1316/89 on the protection of workers against risks from exposure to noise (CIS 90-720) in companies based in the region of Murcia, Spain. About 46% of the enterprises had never carried out noise measurements, nor controlled the hearing of their workers. While some companies claim to be in compliance, most of them are not in possession of the corresponding certification documentation. 36.7% of companies undertake periodic examinations of the hearing of exposed workers. No company has systematic and regular documentation of the periodic evaluations of exposure to noise. Most workers have not received any information on risks liked to exposure to noise; 32.11% of the enterprises surveyed encourage their workers to wear noise protection devices, but only a limited number of workers actually use these.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.78, p.19-25. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-530
Health and Safety Executive
Noise assessments in paper mills
This information sheet is aimed at helping employers and employees understand their legal duties under the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (CIS 90-21) for making a noise assessment. Contents: noise levels requiring action as defined by regulations 4 and 5; purpose of a noise assessment; preparing and carrying out the noise assessment; benefits of equipment hiring; calculating daily personal noise exposure; noise assessment records; action plan to introduce noise control measures and implementation; including noise control in the purchasing policy; reassessment and record-keeping.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 4p. 7 ref.


CIS 03-1379 Acoustics - Requirements for the performance and calibration of reference sound sources used for the determination of sound power levels
Acoustique - Prescriptions relatives aux performances et à l'étalonnage des sources sonores de référence pour la détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique [in French]
This international standard specifies the essential acoustical performance requirements of reference sound sources, used extensively in comparison methods for determining the noise emissions of physically-stationary sound sources, as well as their calibration procedures. The acoustical performance requirements relate to temporal steadiness and repeatability, spectral characteristics and directivity index. Replaces ISO Standard 6926:1990 (see CIS 90-2048).
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1999. v, 11p. 17 ref. Price: CHF 67.00.

CIS 03-396 Großmann K., Jungnickel G., Rudolf H.
Expert system for advice on noise reduction in metal stamping workshops
Beratungssystem zum Lärmschutz in Presswerken [in German]
Stamping is one of the most noisy activities in the metalworking industry. In small enterprises in particular, impact noise averages 95dB(A) and therefore clearly exceeds the permissible level of 85dB(A). This article describes a software tool that allows to predict workplace noise levels on the basis of technical production data, manufacturing steps and local conditions. Users can thus obtain noise level values and indications of risks to workers. This system also allows to predict effects of measures or planned modifications aimed at reducing noise levels in stamping workshops.
Blech Rohre Profile, Nov. 1999, Vol.46, No.11, p.48-56. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 03-400 Groothoff B.
Incorporating effective noise control in music entertainment venues? Yes, it can be done
Following complaints from workers in music entertainment, a study of 30 businesses in the Brisbane area (Queensland, Australia) was conducted during 1996. Results showed that, in all but one case, noise exposure exceeded permissible levels. In none of the venues were hearing protectors worn during exposure to loud music, nor were other control measures in place. Virtually all operators demonstrated a lack of knowledge about their workplace health and safety obligations. To assist operators in meeting their legal obligations, extensive consultations were given by health and safety inspectors. In 1998, 14 of the original venues still operating were revisited. It was found that, although generally noise levels were still excessive, venue operators' knowledge of their obligations had improved. Eight venues had sound limiters installed and hearing protectors were available in 12 venues, with seven businesses actively enforcing their use by staff.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1999, Vol.15, No.6, p.543-550. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 02-396 Tan K.T.
Recent developments on industrial noise control in Singapore
Noise is one of the main health hazards in industry. In Singapore, efforts have been made at the national level to control noise and prevent noise-induced deafness. This paper presents the Factories (Noise) Regulations introduced in 1997 and other noise promotional activities, such as the tax incentive scheme for noise hazard control, the noise control award scheme, guidelines on industrial noise control and hearing conservation, training courses, conferences, seminars and workshops aimed at raising awareness of noise hazards, and noise level monitoring in factories.
Singapore Institution of Safety Officers News, 1999, No.2, p.1-3.

CIS 02-395 Lee L.T.
A study of the noise hazard to employees in local discotheques
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the noise hazard of employees exposed to amplified music in discotheques. Personal noise dosimetry was carried out on 40 employees (disc jockeys, bartenders, waiters, cashiers and security officers) of 5 discotheques. Audiometric examination results of another 46 employees were compared with 37 subjects from a non-exposed matched control group. The range of exposure to noise level above 85dBA for the employees was 3.6 to 6.9 hours with a mean of 5.1 hours. The discotheque group had statistically significant higher prevalence (41.9%) of early hearing loss compared to the control group (13.5%). A higher proportion of employees in the older age group (above 30 years old) and working longer (above 1 year) suffered from hearing loss. A significant proportion of the discotheque study subjects (21%) also complained of recurrent tinnitus compared to 2.7% in the control group. The younger workers (< 30 years) and those with shorter exposure duration (< 1 year) appeared to complain of tinnitus more.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.9, p.571-574. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1808 Thierry L.
One-day workshop on "Measuring noise in occupational settings" - Proceedings
Journée d'étude "Le mesurage du bruit en milieu professionnel" - Recueil des communications [in French]
Proceedings of a one-day workshop on the measurement of workers' exposure to noise in occupational settings held in Paris, France on 17 June 1999. The requirement for such measurements is defined by the regulations concerning the protection of workers against noise and is based on the standard NF S 31-084 published in 1987, currently under revision. Main topics covered: methodology for measuring noise (personal dosimetry, noise measurement at the workplace); methodology used by control organizations; evaluation of exposure to noise in very small companies; strategy of measurements based on an "8-hour" noise dose; measurement precision; computer-assisted sound exposure measurement; proposals for the revision of the standard on the measurement of exposure to noise in occupational settings.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1999. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-1807 Loyau T., Lovat G.
Workshop "Designing for more quietness: How to select components" - Proceedings
Colloque "Concevoir plus silencieux: comment choisir ses composants" - Recueil des communications [in French]
A particularly important step in the process of designing machines consists of selecting the least noisy components. However, in most cases, information for implementing this approach is not available. This technical workshop enabled the listing of known methods for determining the properties of components, comparing their performance and assessing their practical suitability. Papers presented cover theoretical aspects as well as several practical cases (small engines, automobile exhausts, ventilators).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Oct. 1999. 70p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-1818 Code of practice for selection, use, care and maintenance of hearing protectors
The purpose of this code of practice is to provide information and guidance to all persons who have to supply, purchase or wear hearing protectors, and to encourage the use of effective criteria in their selection, use, care and maintenance. Hearing protectors attenuate the level of noise to the hearing organs. They reduce the harmful effects of noise and help prevent hearing damage. In order to have effective hearing protection, hearing protectors should be used properly all the time. Therefore, attention should be paid to the important factors which may influence comfort and acceptance.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1999. 42p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 01-1813 Code of practice for noise control on construction and demolition sites
This code of practice is a revision of CP 49:1989 (see CIS 94-1738): it incorporates amendment No.1, January 1999. It includes the considerable experience that had been accumulated on the control of noise in the construction industry since the publication of the previous issue, as well as the latest information on the methodology of noise monitoring at construction and demolition sites and the measures that can be adopted to reduce noise from various construction and demolition equipment. The importance of ensuring that excessive noise is avoided at all times to protect nearby residents as well as site personnel is highlighted. Responsibility for minimizing construction noise rests with the developers, planners, engineers, architects and all site personnel through proper scheduling of construction activities so that noisy operations are carried out during less noise-sensitive periods of the day, use of appropriate quieter types of construction equipment, and the use of noise control measures on noisy equipment. Site personnel should also be informed about the hazards of excessive noise and be protected against potential noise-induced hearing loss by the use of appropriate personal hearing protection.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1999. 50p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 01-1511 Jalbert R., Vallières E., Fauchon R.
Dampening contact noise
Amortir le bruit par contact [in French]
Vibrating tables used for the compacting of concrete represent a frequently-encountered source of noise in companies involved in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete elements. The use of a damping material in such a vibratory system may allow the attenuation of the noise intensity, thereby reducing the exposure of workers to noise. This article describes the use of a noise damping coating material (nitrile rubber) applied to the surface of metallic supports fixed onto the vibrating table, which enabled the reduction of workers' exposure to 91dB instead of 100dB without the coating.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1999, Vol.15, No.4, p.17-19. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 01-1507 Knoche C., Meunier P., Smolik H.J.
Advantages and disadvantages of the main methods for assessing hearing risk caused by noise
Avantages et inconvénients des principales méthodes d'évaluation du risque auditif lié au bruit [in French]
There are two types of methods for assessing hearing risk caused by noise: measurement of the stressors or sonometry (dosimetry, sound spectrometry, 8h exposure dosimetry) and evaluation of the resulting strain (audiometry, evoked potential, otoacoustic emission). Based on their 15 years of experience, the authors sum up the main principles of these different techniques, their practical applicability and their advantages and drawbacks.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.4, p.425-429. 7 ref.

CIS 01-1200 Douté M.
Noise and its consequences
Le bruit et ses conséquences [in French]
In France, two million workers are exposed to noise levels that present a risk of hearing damage (above 85dB(A)). In 1997, illnesses due to noise exposure accounted for 4.7% of occupational illnesses, the third-highest cause behind musculoskeletal disorders and illnesses from asbestos dust exposure. In 1996, 34% of occupational disease compensation was paid for illnesses due to noise exposure. Contents of this collection of articles: harmful effects of noise; description of the scale for measuring noise; functioning of the ear; individual and collective protection measures; French and European standards.
Face au risque, Oct. 1999, No.356, p.7-16. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 01-867 Duclos J.C., Bergeret A., Normand J.C., Prost G.
Le bruit [in French]
Noise is a complex issue. For occupational physicians, it often implies hearing loss and compensation. However, it is a much broader public hygiene issue. It is generally accepted that noise causes discomfort. There is often a cumulative effect of exposure to occupational and environmental noise, caused for example by noisy leisure activities. Topics covered: physical aspects of noise and technical means of noise attenuation, noise perception, effects of noise on the body, regulatory aspects. Although considered primarily from the occupational perspective, the various aspects of noise are also discussed with reference to their possible environmental impact.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.123, 8p. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 01-909 Park K.S., Jang P.S.
Effects of synthesized voice warning parameters on perceived urgency
The effects of synthesized voice warning parameters on perceived urgency were examined in order to build a detailed and usable description of the relation between the parameters of synthesized voice warnings and perceived urgency. Ten native and 10 non-native English speakers participated in 4 experiments to evaluate and quantify the effects of the voice parameters. The results showed that speech rate, average fundamental frequency (F0 ), voice type simulated (male or female), and the fundamental frequency contour have clear effects on the perceived urgency of synthesized voice warnings. Significant differences in the perceived urgency of average F0 and F0 contour types between native and non-native English speakers were found. Implications of the results for the design and improvement of synthesized voice warnings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.73-95. Illus. 31 ref.

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