Noise - 2,325 entries found
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Babisch W., Ising H., Gallacher J.E.J.
Health status as a potential effect modifier of the relation between noise annoyance and incidence of ischaemic heart disease
Traffic noise is a psychosocial stressor. Epidemiological studies suggest chronic noise stress to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. The association between annoyance and disturbances due to road traffic noise and the incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was examined in 3950 middle-aged men in a prospective cohort study. Depending on the questionnaire item, non-significant odds ratios for IHD incidence ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 were found for the highly noise annoyed/disturbed subjects when compared with the less annoyed/disturbed subjects, over the six year follow up period. However, this relation was strongly modified by the prevalence of pre-existing chronic IC. In subjects free of any chronic disease at the beginning of the follow up, significant odds ratios between 1.7 and 3.0 were seen. In the subgroup with chronic diseases, no such noise effects were seen, probably because of the dilution of the true effect due to recall bias. It is concluded that annoyance and disturbance due to road traffic noise are associated with a higher incidence of IHD. Prevalence of disease can be an important effect modifier of the relation between noise annoyance and health outcomes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.739-745. 65 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Noise emission data on selected machine types (woodworking machines, foundry machinery, beverage bottling machines and industrial sewing machines)
Geräuschemissionswerte von ausgewählten Maschinengruppen - (Holzverarbeitung-, Gießerei-, Getränkeabfüll- und Industrienähmaschinen) [in German]
Various European directives and standards set stringent requirements with respect to noise emissions that machinery manufacturers and users need to satisfy. Manufacturers must minimize the risks to health resulting from the use of machinery and inform the users on levels of noise emissions. In this study, noise emission levels from four types of machines were examined: woodworking machines, beverage bottling machines, foundry machinery and industrial sewing machines. Technical measures adopted by enterprises for reducing noise emissions were also examined. The study shows that the trend towards reductions in noise emissions is slow and is only perceptible over a 10-year period.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 156p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 14.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at woodworking machines
This information sheet provides advice to manufacturers, suppliers, employers and users on the application of the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (CIS 90-21) to the woodworking industry. Contents: noise levels of various machines; legal requirements; requirements for manufacturers and suppliers (reduction of machinery noise at source; information on noise levels); what machinery purchasers can do; measures to be taken by machinery users; noise awareness and training. A table presents factors which may affect machinery noise emissions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 4p. 14 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis13.pdf [in English]
Arana Burgui M., Eransus Izquierdo J.
Evaluation of acoustic signals used in industry and in the construction sector
Evaluación de señales acústicas utilizadas en la industria y la construcción [in Spanish]
In order to satisfy safety requirements, acoustic danger signalling must be clearly audible over other ambient noise and be recognizable without doubt. In this study, acoustic signals (warnings, alarms and danger signals) as well as the background noise of four industries (metalworking, paper, chemicals, civil engineering) were recorded. Audibility criteria were analysed according to the UNE 457 standard. Findings show that 48% of the 50 acoustic signals did not meet the audibility criteria (29% in the metalworking industry, 80% in the paper industry and 33% in the chemical industry). All intermittent signals analysed nonetheless met the criteria. All signals met the criteria in the civil engineering sector. Poor results were mostly due to high background noise. The study highlights the general lack of understanding of standards and characteristics of acoustic signals, both among managers and workers at whom this signalling is aimed.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.26, p.10-19. Illus.
OUIE 2000 software tool for the analysis and management of noise. Phase 2: Integration of experimental measurements and evaluation of typical acoustic power
Logiciel d'analyse et de gestion du bruit OUIE2000. Phase 2: Intégration de mesures expérimentales et évaluation de puissance acoustique type [in French]
Noise is estimated to be responsible for a quarter of all occupational diseases. However, it is often difficult to implement preventive measures in practice. The OUIE2000 software tool developed in the context of an earlier project enabled the analysis of sound doses and the evaluation of the efficiency of acoustic measures. However, the determination of certain parameters and data necessary for practical analyses (such as the acoustic power of sound sources) remained difficult. This report presents the efforts undertaken to make the software easier to use and explains some of the new features that have been added, namely the generation of experimental noise maps, the integration of an analytical sound meter, the experimental evaluation of the acoustic power of a noise source and the theoretical evaluation of the acoustic power of common sources of noise.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. ii, 25p. Illus. Price: CAD 5.35.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-351.pdf [in French]
Vibroacoustics - A scientific subject for the 21st century
Wibroakustyka - jedna z dziedzin nauki XXI wieku [in Polish]
This article discusses the origins and development of vibroacoustics, the use of acoustic energy, the methods of testing vibroacoustic processes and current research topics of this branch of science.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Apr. 2003, No.4 (381), p.10-12. Illus. 6 ref.
Acoustics - Laboratory measurement procedures for ducted silencers and air-terminal units - Insertion loss, flow noise and total pressure loss
Acoustique - Modes opératoires de mesure en laboratoire pour silencieux en conduit et unités terminales - Perte d'insertion, bruit d'écoulement et perte de pression totale [in French]
This international standard specifies methods for determining: the insertion loss, in frequency bands, of ducted silencers with and without airflow; the sound power level, in frequency bands, of the flow noise generated by ducted silencers; the total pressure loss of silencers with airflow; the transmission loss, in frequency bands, of air-terminal units. It is applicable to all types of silencer, including silencers for ventilating and air-conditioning systems, air intake and exhaust of flue gases, and similar applications. However, it is not applicable to the reactive silencers used in motor vehicles.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2003. v, 49p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: CHF 142.00.
Acoustics - Normal equal-loudness-level contours
Acoustique - Lignes isosoniques normales [in French]
This international standard specifies combinations of sound pressure levels and frequencies of pure continuous tones which are perceived as equally loud by human listeners. The specifications are based on the following conditions: the sound field in the absence of the listener consists of a free progressive plane wave; the sound source is directly in front of the listener; the sound signals are pure tones; the sound pressure level is measured at the position where the centre of the listener's head would be, but in the absence of the listener; listening is binaural; listeners are otologically normal persons in the age range from 18 to 25 inclusive.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2003. v, 18p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: CHF 85.00.
Barceló Rado M.Á., Morey Salva J.
Ultrasound: Hazards and rules for prevention
Los ultrasonidos: sus riesgos y normas de prevención [in Spanish]
Systems that generate ultrasound are increasingly used in chemical laboratories. These systems involve certain risks. This article describes the various applications of ultrasonic systems used in chemistry, and makes recommendations for avoiding the hazards and working safely with such systems. Contents: description of the cavitation phenomenon; sonochemistry; cleaning of glass equipment; ultrasonic baths; hazards resulting from the use of ultrasound in laboratories; hazards resulting from indirect exposure to ultrasound; hazards resulting from exposure to ultrasound by direct contact; hazards resulting from operations requiring the use of ultrasound in laboratories; preventive measures applicable to the use of ultrasound generators.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2003, Vol.23, No.90, p.11-17. Illus. 7 ref.
Acoustics - Acoustic insulation for pipes, valves and flanges
Acoustique - Isolation acoustique des tuyaux, clapets et brides [in French]
This international standard defines the acoustic performances of three classes of cylindrical steel pipe insulation of up to 1m in diameter. It also specifies three types of construction that will meet these acoustic performance classes. Furthermore, it defines a standardized test method for measuring the acoustic performance of any type of construction, thereby allowing existing and new insulation constructions to be rated against the three classes. It is not applicable to acoustic insulation of rectangular ducting and vessels or machinery.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 2003. iv, 36p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: CHF 128.00
Successful implementation of acoustic enclosures
Réussir un encoffrement acoustique [in French]
Aimed at persons responsible for occupational hygiene within enterprises, this practical information sheet presents the basic principles for the design of acoustic enclosures, together with the rules that should be followed during design. The three basic principles are human protection (lowering noise levels at the place of work), assessment of the impact of the enclosure on the work environment and working methods, and the early involvement of the various persons concerned by the acoustic enclosure project. Technical rules that should be followed during design include the evaluation of constraints, machine insulation, noise absorption within the enclosure, limitation of leaks, treatment of openings and the decoupling of the enclosure. Once in place, the effectiveness of the enclosure needs to be checked.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2003, No.627, insert, 6p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ED+107/$File/ed107.pdf [in French]
Laitinen H.M., Toppila E.M., Olkinuora P.S., Kuisma K.
Sound exposure among the Finnish National Opera personnel
The purpose of the study was to determine the noise exposure among the staff of the Finnish National Opera. An evaluation of sound exposure level due to individual and group rehearsals was also carried out. The measurements were made using individual noise dosimeters and fixed-point measurements. Although it was found that conductors, dancers and double bass players were exposed to levels below 85dB(A), the majority of opera staff were exposed to levels that exceeded this limit during both rehearsals and performances. When exposures exceed 85dB(A), the employer is required to develop a hearing conservation programme. There exist hearing protection devices designed specially for musicians. However, both education efforts and enforcement measures will be necessary to encourage more widespread use.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2003, Vol.18, No.3, p.177-182. Illus. 10 ref.
Mizoue T., Miyamoto T., Shimizu T.
Combined effect of smoking and occupational exposure to noise on hearing loss in steel factory workers
This study was carried out to examine the possible synergy of smoking and exposure to noise on hearing loss. Data from periodic health examinations for 4624 steel company workers and they included audiometry testing and information on smoking habits. Occupational exposure to noise was estimated from company records. Logistic regression was used to examine the dose-response association between smoking and hearing loss. The prevalence rate ratio (PRR) of hearing loss was calculated for each combination of smoking level and noise exposure factor, taking non-smokers not exposed to occupational noise as a reference population. It was found that smoking was associated with increased odds of high-frequency hearing loss. The PRR for high-frequency hearing loss among smokers exposed to occupational noise was 2.56, while the PRR for smokers not exposed to noise was 1.57 and the PRR for non-smokers exposed to noise was 1.77. The synergistic index was 1.16. Smoking was not associated with low-frequency hearing loss.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.56-59. 23 ref.
Decree No.2 of 27 February 2003 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to noise at work [Bulgaria]
Naredba N 2 ot 27 fevruari 2003 g. za zaštita na raboteštite ot riskove, svărzani s ekspozicija na šum pri rabota [in Bulgarian]
This Decree fixes minimum requirements for the protection of workers from existent or potential risks to their hearing due to exposure to noise at work. The Decree contains provisions on employers' obligations and noise measurement.
Dăržaven vestnik, 8 Apr. 2003, No.32, p.28-31.
http://b2b.bia-bg.com/index.asp?i=t915&l=1 [in Bulgarian]
Palmer K.T., Griffin M.J., Syddall H.E., Pannett B., Cooper C., Coggon D.
Raynaud's phenomenon, vibration-induced white finger, and difficulties in hearing
An association has previously been reported between finger blanching and hearing difficulties, but only in workers with exposure to noise and hand transmitted vibration (HTV). This study explores the association in a community sample, including cases who lacked occupational exposure to noise or HTV. A questionnaire was mailed to 12,606 subjects aged 35-64 years, chosen at random. Subjects were classed as having severe hearing difficulty if they used a hearing aid or found it difficult or impossible to hear conversation in a quiet room. Associations of finger blanching with hearing difficulties and tinnitus were analysed by logistic regression. Among 8193 respondents, 185 reported severe hearing difficulty and 1151 reported finger blanching. After adjustment for age and years of work in noisy jobs, hearing difficulty was about twice as common in men and women who reported finger blanching, including those who had never been importantly exposed to noise and in those never exposed to HTV.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.59, No.9, p.640-642. 11 ref.
Palmer K.T., Griffin M.J., Syddall H.E., Davis A., Pannett B., Coggon D.
Occupational exposure to noise and the attributable burden of hearing difficulties in Great Britain
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self reported hearing difficulties and tinnitus among the working population in Great Britain, and to estimate the risks from occupational exposure to noise and the number of attributable cases. A questionnaire was mailed to 22,194 adults of working age selected at random. Results indicated that some 2% of subjects had severe hearing difficulties. In men, the prevalence of this outcome rose steeply with age, from below 1% in those aged 16-24 years to 8% in those aged 55-64. The pattern was similar in women, but severe hearing loss was only about half as prevalent in the oldest age band. Tinnitus was far more common in subjects with hearing difficulties. In both sexes, after adjustment for age, the risk of severe hearing difficulty and persistent tinnitus rose with years spent in a noisy job. Findings suggest that the national burden of hearing difficulties attributable to noise at work is substantial.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.59, No.9, p.634-639. Illus. 29 ref.
Malchaire J., Piette A.
Hearing protection and audibility of signals
Protection auditive et audibilité des signaux [in French]
Railway track maintenance work is often noisy, exposing workers to noise levels often exceeding 90dB(A) and making the wearing of ear protectors necessary. At the same time, many track maintenance tasks take place without interrupting the rail traffic. The ability to hear acoustic signals warning of the impending arrival of a train is vital to workers' safety. Under these conditions, hearing protectors are perceived as an additional risk of not hearing the alarm signal. This study was able to demonstrate that hearing loss among track maintenance workers is no greater than among the general population of same average age. Furthermore, testing in laboratory conditions showed that wearing hearing protectors did not detract from hearing the acoustic alarm signals. However, these findings need to be confirmed in field tests.
Travail et bien-être, Mar.-Apr. 2002, No.2, p.29-33. Illus.
Patel J.A., Broughton K.
Assessment of the noise exposure of call centre operators
One of the potential hazards of working in call centres is hearing damage from using headsets. In this project, the noise exposure of 150 call centre operators was evaluated in call centres which included financial services, retail shopping and telecommunications services in the United Kingdom. Results show that the daily noise exposure of these call centre operators is unlikely to exceed the 85dB(A) action level defined in the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21). A practical method of limiting exposure to unexpected loud noise from headsets is to ensure that the headsets incorporate acoustic shock protection meeting the requirements of Department of Trade and Industry specification 85/013. In the UK, this limit ensures that any noise above 118dB is not transmitted through the headset. Operators should also receive training on the correct use of the headset and the volume control facilities, and advice on cleaning and maintaining the headsets.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.46, No.8, p.653-661. Illus. 10 ref.
Selected active acoustic reduction electronic systems
Wybrane cyfrowe systemy aktywnej redukcji hałasu [in Polish]
Active methods are the most rapidly progressing scientific methods applied to noise control. An active acoustic reduction system consists of a set of components aimed at reducing noise levels. This publication describes the techniques involved in such systems, as well as their primary types and structures. It presents examples of current research in the area and considers the development of digital systems.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1st ed., 2002. 159p. Illus. 61 ref. Index.
Health and Safety Executive
This leaflet contains information on how to prevent the risk of hearing damage in agriculture. Topics covered: legal requirements; what employers, employees and self-employed have to do regarding noise exposure; harmful noise levels; preventive measures to be taken when working with certain equipment (tractors, chain saws, barn machinery) or animals; different types of ear protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 2002. 8p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as8.pdf [in English]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Practical application of the noise declaration
Anwendung der Geräuschemissionsangabe in der Praxis [in German]
Deafness caused by noise is one of the most prevalent industrial diseases in Germany. In 1998 12,400 cases were reported, 1012 of which were compensated. However, important progress has been achieved in reducing machinery noise emissions through the requirement to declare these emission values. To highlight possible gaps in the practical implementation of the machinery guideline, noise declarations of some 170 machines and devices were verified by measurements. Approximately 50% of these consisted of machines for wood processing, printing and paper-making, and hand-held electric tools. The noise declaration was enclosed in 78% of the cases, it had to be ordered from the manufacturer in 17% of the cases, and no noise emission values could be obtained in 5% of the cases. 54% of the noise declarations were correct, while they were incomplete in 41% of the cases. The measured noise emission values of 57% of the machines matched the declaration, 20% showed a modest infringement and 12% showed a considerable infringement of the declaration values. Although these findings are not optimal, they remain encouraging.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 86p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: EUR 10.50.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Investigation of the parameters influencing the determination of the emission sound pressure levels of machinery
Untersuchung der Einflussgrößen auf die Ermittlung der Emissionsschalldruckpegel von Maschinen [in German]
Parameters influencing the accuracy of measurement of the emission sound pressure level according to the ISO 11200 standard series were examined. This investigation showed that the difference between the sound power level and the emission sound pressure level (LW-p), as well as the equivalent absorption area of the room, determine the deviation when applying these standards. It is therefore of high importance to evaluate this difference when selecting a standard for the measurement. A computational simulation is a very effective method to derive the LW-p-value for a given machine configuration. The method allows a classification of machines and a description of their acoustic characteristics. On the basis of the results of this study, recommendations are made for the application of the standards ISO 11201 to 11204.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 79p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.
Morata T.C., Johnson A.C., Nylen P., Svensson E.B., Cheng J., Krieg E.F., Lindblad A.C., Enrstgård L., Franks J.
Audiometric findings in workers exposed to low levels of styrene and noise
This study involved a total of 313 workers potentially exposed to noise and styrene working at fibreglass and metal products manufacturing plants and at a mail distribution terminal. Workers exposed to both noise (measured by audiometry) and styrene had significantly worse pure-tone thresholds at 2, 3, 4 and 6kHz when compared with noise-only-exposed or non-exposed workers. Age, noise exposure and urinary mandelic acid (a biomarker for styrene) were the variables that met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression. The odds ratios for hearing loss were 1.19 for each increment of one year of age, 1.18 for every decibel >85dB(A) of noise exposure, and 2.44 for each mmol of mandelic acid per g of creatinine in urine. The findings suggest that exposure to styrene, even below recommended values, has a toxic effect on the auditory system.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.806-814. Illus. 37 ref.
Arezes P.M., Miguel A.S.
Hearing protectors [sic] acceptability in noisy environments
The choice of hearing protectors should take ergonomic features into account. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between the acoustical attenuation efficiency and other aspects related to the comfort of hearing protectors and consequently their acceptability by workers exposed to noisy industrial environments. A subjective evaluation of comfort was performed using a questionnaire completed by 20 workers. The time during which the protectors were used was self-recorded by each subject. The results show that there are significant differences between that claimed by the supplier and effective attenuation. Protectors which were more comfortable tended to be more efficient than protectors with a higher claimed attenuation, but which were less comfortable.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2002, Vol.46, No.6, p.531-536. 21 ref.
Toivonen M., Pääkkönen R., Savolainen S., Lehtomäki K.
Noise attenuation and proper insertion of earplugs into ear canals
To determine whether noise attenuation can be improved by informing workers on the proper insertion of earplugs, 54 randomly-selected male subjects were divided into two groups: an untrained group (25 persons) and a group who had received training (29 persons). The trained group was provided with information on earplug insertion and allowed to practice the insertion procedure, whereas the untrained group acted as controls. The success of the training was measured by the MIRE (microphone in real ear) and REAT (real ear at threshold) methods, visual evaluation and an inspection of the subjects' ear canals. According to the MIRE method, average noise attenuation was 21dB for the untrained group and 31dB for the trained group. With the REAT method, attenuation at 1000Hz was 24dB for the untrained group and 30dB for the trained group. The visual evaluation of the earplug fit was 1.9 for the untrained group and 2.6 for the trained group (scales 0-3).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2002, Vol.46, No.6, p.527-530. Illus. 8 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Contribution on the determination of the structure-borne sound power in beams of any shape
Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung der Körperschallleistung in allgemein gestalteten Balken [in German]
This work is based on the Hübner's structure-bound sound wave theory. Following a description of the theory and its application to beams of any shape, the structure-borne sound power in beams of any shape was investigated generally. Analyses carried out in greater detail for beams having more restricted shapes are presented in graphic form. The report also provides an overview of the various values to be measured and the parameters necessary for determining structure-borne sound power in beams.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 234p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: EUR 19.00.
Pandya G.H., Dharmadhikari D.M.
A comprehensive investigation of noise exposure in and around an integrated iron and steel works
An environmental noise exposure study was carried out at a major iron and steel plant surrounded by residential and commercial areas. Traffic activity near the plant was significant and added to the background noise level. Considering the variety of noise sources in the plant area and in the neighbourhood, a practical approach to measure noise equivalent level in the plant and in the residential, commercial, industrial, and silence zone was adopted. Worker exposure was assessed by determining the speech interference level (SIL), loudness level, and noise rating level at one of the major sources located in the power plant of the steel works. The results indicate that SIL was 94dBA, loudness level was 112 phons, and the noise rating was in the range of 85-95dbA. A traffic noise index also was determined near the plant gates and was in the range of 68-96dBA. The impact on the community is significant. Some mitigation measures for noise control are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.172-177. Illus. 7 ref.
Resources on noise control
This CD-ROM contains a collection of documents on noise control. Contents: hearing conservation programme guidelines; successful noise control case studies; noise control incentives and awards; application forms for noise control awards for excellence, merit and innovation; tax relief for noise control investments; list of service providers (consultants for noise control, noise emission testing and noise monitoring; organizations conducting hearing conservation programmes; approved training programmes for noise control and monitoring; audiometry clinics); OSH training directory 2002; leaflet on noise control regulations; proceedings of a seminar on noise control.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2002. CD-ROM containing documents in PDF format.
Sust C.A., Lazarus H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Work at computer screens and noise
Bildschirmarbeit und Geräusche [in German]
This report describes an experiment conducted over a five-day period during which 32 participants carried out several typical office tasks of varying complexity while being subjected to five levels of noise (from 35 to 70dB). Results indicate that the performance (time necessary for completion and quality of work) was reduced with increasing task complexity and noise exposure. Participants also felt an increasing need to rest. In situations where the tasks were highly complex and involved a large amount of information, and where the noise levels are high, there was a tendency to cease work or to carry out only part of the task.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 108p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: EUR 11.50.
Neitzel R., Yost M.
Task-based assessment of occupational vibration and noise exposures in forestry workers
Noise exposures and whole-body (WBV) and hand-arm (HAV) vibration exposures were evaluated from 43 forestry workers. Data were collected on ten days over eight weeks during various felling, logging and log handling operations. Five volunteers were also monitored for noise and vibration daily using data logging noise dosimeters, which provided daily time-weighted averages (TWAs) and 1-min averages, and a precision sound level meter equipped to measure human vibration, which provided triaxial HAV and WBV event-weighted averages (AEQs). Workers completed a short questionnaire throughout the workday detailing the timing and number of tasks performed and equipment used. Substantial overexposures to noise and vibration were observed. Noise TWAs according to OSHA and NIOSH exceeded 85dBA in 60% and 83% of the cases respectively. 33-53% of the axis-specific HAV AEQ exceeded the 8-hour ACGIH HAV threshold limit value, and 34% of all WBV AEQs exceeded the 8-hour exposure limit set by the Commission of the European Communities.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.617-627. Illus. 55 ref.
Toxic to your ears
It is widely recognized that exposure to noise can cause hearing loss. It is less known that exposure to industrial solvents can also pose a threat to hearing. Many workplaces feature both hazards. This article discusses the synergistic hazards of exposure to noise and solvents. It presents the NoiseChem study of the European Commission. The study will involve two research projects: a laboratory research to determine the mechanisms of ototoxic damage due to noise and chemical interaction, and an epidemiological survey in factories in several European countries. The results are to be published during 2004, and it is hoped that they will lead to appropriate prevention strategies. A table summarizing the audio-vestibular effects of several common solvents is included.
Safety and Health Practitioner, July 2002, Vol.20, No.7, p.36-38. Illus. 5 ref.
Safety and Health at Work (Protection against Noise) Regulations of 2002 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Asfáleias kai Ugeías stēn Ergasía (Prostasía apó to Thórubo) Kanonismoí tou 2002 [in Greek]
These regulations were issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work (see CIS 98-5), as modified by 2002. They cover all aspects of workplace protection against noise and hearing damage. In annex: methods for the measurement of noise; medical surveillance of hearing damage. Implementation in Cyprus of Council Directive 86/188/EEC of 12th May 1986 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to noise at work (see CIS 87-45).
Episêmos Efêmeris tês Dêmokratias, 10 May 2002, No.3601, Suppl. III(I), p.2089-2098.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise levels and noise exposure of workers in pubs and clubs - A review of the literature
This report consists of a review of the literature published since 1985 on noise levels and noise exposure to workers in pubs and clubs. Differences in opinion, scientific rigour and derived conclusions make it difficult to estimate the number of individuals whose hearing will be impaired as a result of this exposure. Establishments in the entertainment sector often do not take action to reduce the noise level because of their perception of consumers' preference for loud music. Finally, there is a lack of practical guidance and experience in these issues among local authority safety and health inspectors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 82p. Illus. 147 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr026.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing noise from CNC punch presses
CNC punch presses are capable of producing high levels of noise, depending on the type of materials being worked and the operation they are performing. Older machines can expose operators to 95dB(A) during a typical punching cycle on 3mm steel plate. The Supply of Machinery Regulations 1992 (see CIS 96-410) require machinery to be designed and manufactured so that risks from noise are reduced to their lowest level. This has to be achieved, where possible, by using engineering methods of control of the noise at source. This information sheet aims to help machine manufacturers and users reduce employee exposure to noise when using CNC punch presses. Contents: noise problem with CNC punch presses; sources of noise from CNC punch presses; responsibilities of manufacturers and users; common noise control techniques; quiet tooling; maintenance; points to consider when buying new machines; training; short case studies of successful noise reduction measures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 4p. 8 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/eis39.pdf [in English]
Daniell W.E., Swan S.S., McDaniel M.M., Stebbins J.G., Seixas N.S., Morgan M.S.
Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss
This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in the foundry industry in the State of Washington, where a high rate of hearing loss claims had been recorded. Ten representative foundries were evaluated with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews and the analysis of previous audiometric test records. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85dBA. No company was in full compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees for whom audiograms indicated hearing impairment or loss had not been informed of the findings. Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation programmes can achieve a higher employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programmes in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing risk of occupational hearing loss.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.309-317. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise in construction - Further guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
This leaflet outlines duties of employers in the construction industry in relation to: assessing and reducing noise levels; providing ear protection; informing workers about personal exposure levels; and marking ear protection zones. Employees' responsibilities include: use and maintenance of ear protection and other protective equipment, and reporting suspected hearing damage. Replaces CIS 97-642.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. 6p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg127.htm [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing noise exposure in the food and drink industries
This information sheet provides advice on the legal requirements and hierarchy of control measures to prevent noise exposure in the food and drink industries. It also gives typical noise levels in particularly noisy food and drink operations and describes some of the corresponding noise-reduction processes adopted by enterprises.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2002. 4p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis08.pdf [in English]
Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H.
Neuro-ototoxicity in Andean adults with chronic lead and noise exposure
Brainstem auditory evoked responses and audiological thresholds were used as biomarkers for neuro-ototoxicity in adults in Ecuador with chronic lead intoxication from long-term exposure in ceramic glazing work. Venous blood samples collected from 30 adults (15 men and 15 women) indicated a mean blood lead level of 45.1µg/dL, above the WHO health-based biological limits. Mean auditory thresholds at frequencies susceptible to ototoxicity (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0kHz) revealed sensory-neural hearing loss in men, which may be attributable to occupational noise exposure in combination with lead intoxication. Brainstem auditory evoked response tests on participants with elevated blood lead levels (mean, 47.0 µg/dL) showed delayed wave latencies consistent with sensory-neural hearing impairment. The results suggest that environmental noise exposure must be considered an important factor in determining sensory-neural hearing status in occupationally lead-exposed adults.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.30- 38. Illus. 41 ref.
Brink L.L., Talbott E.O., Burks J.A., Palmer C.V.
Changes over time in audiometric thresholds in a group of automobile stamping and assembly workers with a hearing conservation program
Noise-induced hearing loss afflicts millions of persons who work in noise above 85dBA. In this study of 301 workers at an automobile assembly plant, measurements were used to construct average lifetime noise exposure and hearing protection compliance estimates for use in modelling to predict total hearing loss and the onset of hearing loss. 16 subjects were found to have hearing loss at the speech frequencies (defined as an average hearing level ≥25dB at 500, 1000 and 2000Hz). In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, years of employment, male sex and proportion of time wearing hearing protection were the factors most associated with hearing loss at the average of 2000, 3000 and 4000Hz. The most consistent predictor of hearing loss in both univariate and multivariate analyses was percentage of time having used hearing protection during the workers' tenure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.482-487. Illus. 27 ref.
Williams W., Forby-Atkinson L., Purdy S., Gartshore G.
Hearing loss and the farming community
Over recent years, concern has been growing regarding the incidence of hearing loss in rural communities. Anecdotal accounts have always portrayed older farmers as individuals with typical hearing loss characteristics. More recent formal evidence certainly supports this. Recent published statistical data indicate that hearing loss in the rural community is a serious problem for many individuals and their families. Typically, attention has been directed at noise-exposed workers who work in more conventional workplaces, such as factories. However, farm workers have been considered "hard to reach" and, as a consequence, have not experienced traditional hearing loss prevention education programs. Thought needs to be given to more efficient methods of alerting the farming community to noise hazards.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.181-186. Illus. 26 ref.
Prasher D., Morata T., Campo P., Fechter L., Johnson A.C., Lund S.P., Pawlas K., Starck J., Sułkowski W., Śliwinska-Kowalska M.
NOISECHEM: A European Commission research project on the effects of exposure to noise and industrial chemicals on hearing and balance
Exposure to multiple physical and chemical agents is common in occupational environments but criteria for workplace hazards and occupational safety in case of combined exposures are lacking. NOISECHEM is a European Commission research project examining the effects of exposure to noise and chemicals on hearing and balance. Research groups in Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark, the UK and Poland with expert guidance from research groups in the USA will examine workers and study the mechanisms of action in animals to determine the levels of risk associated with joint exposure to noise and solvents. This paper briefly outlines the project details.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.5-11. Illus. 11 ref.
Floru R., Cnockaert J.C.
Noise and accidents - Cause and effect?
Bruit et accidents - cause à effet? [in French]
This article is a literature survey on noise as a risk factor in occupational accidents. While numerous examples suggest the existence of such a relationship, it is difficult to define the role of noise among the many factors that lead to or favour the occurrence of occupational accidents. It is nonetheless established that noise represents a safety risk factor considering its influence on the perception of alarms signals. Preventive measures should focus on the reduction of noise at the source, the design of acoustic signalling systems and protective measures that preserve the ability to hear alarms.
Face au risque, Feb. 2002, No.380, p.17-19. Illus. 16 ref.
Order No.40/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on the protection of health of workers exposed to noise and vibration [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pred hlukom a vibráciami [in Slovak]
This Regulation (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum health protection requirements of workers exposed to noise and vibration in their work. It defines the maximum acceptable values for noise and vibration in different working environments as well as the requirements for the evaluation of noise and vibration levels. Related regulations from 1977 and 1980 of the Slovak Socialist Republic on noise and vibration are repealed.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 31 Jan. 2002, No.20, p.306-323.
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/40_02.pdf [in Slovak]
Hübner G., Gerlach A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Study of the reliability of emission sound pressure level measurements using the 3-component intensity method
Untersuchungen zur Messunsicherheit des Emissionsschalldruckpegels bestimmt durch das 3-Komponenten-Intensitäts-Verfahren [in German]
This report describes the work carried out for the purpose of defining the conditions of application of a method for determining emission sound pressure levels based on the technique of recording three Cartesian sound intensity components. A single measurement enables the calculation of the complete sound spectra and of any frequency-weighted quantity. Over 400 acoustical situations were tested, including in rooms with K3 values of up to 14.5dB, significant background noise, composed sound sources, measurements in shadow positions and sources with high directionality. The method was found to be applicable in a wide variety of conditions and was incorporated into the ISO 11205 standard.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 77p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: EUR 11.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise enclosure at band re-saws
This information sheet describes the construction of a noise enclosure built on a timber frame with a sound attenuating cladding and a sound absorbent lining. Advice is given on the design of feed and delivery openings, access doors and viewing panels, the provision of ventilation for air-cooled equipment, and the location of some controls outside the enclosure. Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 91-516).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis5.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Keep the noise down - Advice for purchasers of workplace machinery
This booklet is aimed at employers and persons involved in the buying or leasing of machinery for workplaces. It provides advice on how to reduce noise at the place of work by selecting machinery that is designed and tested to be less noisy. Contents: reasons for buying quieter machinery; legal duties concerning noise and machinery; information that suppliers need to provide or that can be requested from suppliers (noise emission data, installation arrangement, post-installation and maintenance arrangements); steps to implement a noise reduction policy. Replaces the 1997 edition (see CIS 98-907).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. 11p. 7 ref.
Guidance for the use of hearing protectors at noisy workplaces
Zasady użytkowania ochronników słuchu na hałaśliwych stanowiskach pracy [in Polish]
Booklet containing guidance on the use of hearing protectors. Contents: effects of exposure to noise; legislation on hearing protectors; types of hearing protectors; acoustic and technical characteristics of hearing protectors; methods for the selection of hearing protectors; recommendations applicable to the use of hearing protectors.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 23p. Illus. 22 ref.
Kaczmarska A., Augustyńska D., Engel Z., Górski P.
Protection against infrasonic and low-frequency noise in industrial settings
Przemysłowe zabezpieczenia przed hałasem infradźwiękowym i niskoczęstotliwościowym [in Polish]
This publication addresses the issue of infrasound and low-frequency noise in the work environment. Contents: brief overview of the characteristics of infrasound (definitions and sources of noise); models of infrasonic noise and low frequency noise control, which can be helpful for the design and selection of anti-noise protective devices.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 76p. Illus. 61 ref.
Backhaus S., Käferstein B.
Noise reduction at a cutting press
Lärmminderung an einer Prägeeinheit [in German]
Nonwoven filters are made on cutting presses. The various manufacturing operations, in particular the printing or embossing of patterns and the compression or deformation of nonwoven mats prior to assembly or cutting result in high noise levels in the workshops. Indeed, because of the high throughput of the mats (3m/s) and the high forces in the contact zone, machines emit loud rattling and impact noises that exceed permissible levels defined in occupational safety and health regulations. A new concept cutting press was therefore developed having significantly lower noise emissions while maintaining the productivity and quality levels of existing machines. This article describes the main features of these new machines, highlighting their differences with existing machines.
Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Maschinenwesen der Technischen Universität Clausthal, 2001, Mitteilung Nr.26, p.99-102. Illus. 1 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Low noise design XIX - Design information for noise reduction
Lärmarm konstruieren XIX - Schalltechnische Informationen unter konstruktiven Gesichtspunkten [in German]
There is an increasing demand for machinery with low noise emission levels, as a result of both legal requirements and market preference. Unfortunately, designers of machinery generally do not have much experience in acoustics. As a result, products are often found to be acoustically unacceptable once the prototype is in operation. Cost-intensive rework which could have been avoided in the first place by adapting the design is then necessary. Designers need information, structured in a way they can understand, both for methodical approaches and specific measures such as machinery acoustics and designing for production. This thesis describes an information system developed to support the designer during analysis and to provide suitable noise reduction measures. This information system is based on the EN ISO 11688-1 standard, thus allowing a systematic approach to developing low noise equipment.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 173p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: EUR 16.00.
de Ângelo da Cunha I.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Noise and vibration levels from chainsaws and their use in evaluating the occupational exposure of operators to vibrations
Níveis de vibração e ruído gerados por motosserras et sua utilização na avaliação da exposição ocupacional do operador à vibração [in Portuguese]
The first part of this document reviews the effects of vibrations on the hand-arm system caused by the use of chainsaws, the main standards for evaluating vibrations, criteria that apply to the definition of noise and vibration level limits as well as applicable preventive measures. The second part is devoted to comparing noise and vibration data supplied by manufacturers with those determined during standardized testing and under real field conditions. Results indicate that data supplied by manufacturers are meaningful for comparing chainsaws, selecting appropriate protective equipment and controlling workers' exposure.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 162p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.
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