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Noise - 2,325 entries found

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CIS 07-1168 Neitzel R.L., Berna B.E., Seixas N.S.
Noise exposures aboard catcher/processor fishing vessels
Commercial fishing workers have extended work shifts and potential for 24h exposures to high noise. Noise exposures aboard two large fish catching and processing vessels were assessed using dosimetry and sound-level mapping, together with self-reports of work tasks and hearing protection device (HPD) use. These data were combined to estimate work shift, non-work, and 24h overall exposure levels. The length of time during which HPDs were worn was also used to calculate the effective protection received by crew members. Nearly all workers had work shift and 24h noise levels that exceeded current limits. After HPD use was accounted for, half of the 24h exposures remained above the limits. Non-work-shift noise contributed nothing to 24h exposure levels. HPDs reduced the average exposure by about 10dBA, but not all workers wore them consistently.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.624-633. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 07-1166 Haataja I.
Noise and vibration
Special issue of the journal devoted mostly to noise and vibration problems in an occupational setting in the Asia-Pacific region. Articles cover: Noise-induced hearing loss and compliance with the hearing conservation programme in Malaysia (Ismail N.H., Elias A.); Communication and noise (Airo E.); Mechanization, vibration and the Indian workforce (Mandal B.B., Srivastava A.K.); Building a safety culture at workplaces for Vietnamese workers (Le V.T.); ICOH 2006 (a general report by Lehtinen S. and an overview on sessions dealing with noise by Starck J.); Bhopal revisited - the tragedy of lessons ignored (Rice A.); The Bhopal disaster in 1984 - working conditions and the role of trade unions (Eckerman I.); The Work Plan of the Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health (Lehtinen S.).
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, July 2006, Vol.13, No.2, p.31-51 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl. ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1165 Kovacevic M., Belojevic G.
Tooth abrasion in workers exposed to noise in the Montenegrin textile industry
This case-control study was carried out to test the hypothesis of a relationship between exposure to intense industrial noise and tooth abrasion. It involved 225 workers of a textile company in Montenegro. The group exposed to intense noise (104dB(A) Leq) consisted of 111 weavers (82 men and 29 women), while the control group consisted of 114 workers (32 men and 82 women) exposed to lower levels of noise (81dB(A) Leq). A specialist in dental prosthetics clinically examined all the subjects. Gender, age, socioeconomic status and tooth brushing habits of workers were controlled as confounding factors. Significantly high adjusted odds ratio for tooth abrasion were found for workers exposed to intense noise in comparison to the control group, 3.74 and 5.48 respectively for women and men.
Industrial Health, July 2006, Vol.44, No.3, p.481-485. 16 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1164 Vardhan H., Adhikari G.R.
Development of noise spectrum based maintenance guideline for reduction of earth moving machinery noise
Heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) is one of the most important sources of noise in open-pit mines. Several studies carried out earlier indicate that noise produced by HEMM can be reduced by proper maintenance. To reduce the overall noise produced by HEMM, it is important to identify the components contributing most to the noise. Maintenance of those components can then be carried out rigorously to reduce the noise. This article presents a maintenance guideline for reduction of HEMM noise based on sound level emission measurements and noise spectrum studies of dumpers, dozers and loaders under various operating conditions.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, July-Aug. 2006, Vol.54, No.4, p.236-244. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-918 Barruyer C.
Noise pollution at the workplace: Improved means of prevention
Nuisances sonores au travail: mieux les combattre [in French]
European Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253) on noise at the place of work came into force in France in July 2006. New rules require employers to protect noise-exposed workers. The construction sector is particularly concerned by these new provisions, which are discussed in this article. Topics addressed: responsibilities of employers with respect to exposure evaluation; defining the thresholds above which employers are required to take action; information of personnel on the risks they face; supply of hearing protection; noise level thresholds requiring routine checks and systematic audiometric testing.
Prévention BTP, Dec. 2006, No.91, p.54-56. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 07-916 Perez M.
Main consequences of the lowering of noise exposure thresholds
Bruit au travail: nouveaux seuils d'exposition sonore [in French]
This article comments on the main consequences of the new lower noise exposure threshold levels in France. When noise levels exceed 80dB, hearing protection must be supplied to workers and noise-exposed workers have the right to hearing tests. The steps to be followed to comply with the revised regulations are summarized: evaluation of noise levels within the enterprise; evaluation of exposure to noise while wearing hearing protection; implementation of prevention measures.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Nov.-Dec. 2006, No.95, p.10-11. 1 ref.

CIS 07-929 Canetto P.
Methods for reducing noise within the enterprise. Available methods and how to select them
Techniques de réduction du bruit en entreprise. Quelles solutions, comment choisir [in French]
This guide describes various methods for reducing noise in the workplace. Contents: physical aspects of the generation, propagation and reception of noise; types of noise reduction measures (reduction at source, control of propagation or reception); diagnosis of the situation and choice of solution; general information on acoustics and acoustic measurements.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2006. 123p. Illus. Price: EUR 12.20. Downloadable version free of charge.$File/ed962.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-690 Rickes O.
The whispering classroom
Das flüsternde Klassenzimmer [in German]
The measurement of reverberation times in 230 classrooms of 30 schools in Germany and comparison of the results with the recommended reverberation times in the German standard DIN 18041 identified unsatisfactory acoustical conditions in one third of the classrooms. A low-cost method of noise control for noisy classrooms was developed which schools can easily install themselves. Ceilings were covered with soundproofing melamine foam panels 45 mm thick and additional sound-absorbing panels were placed on the walls to reduce the reverberation times of low-frequency noise. The easy-to-install sound control method was successfully applied in eight classrooms. More information on the sound control method for classrooms is available on the Internet:
Inform, das Magazin der Unfallkasse Hessen, June 2006, No.2, p.8-9. Illus. [in German]

CIS 07-689 Martins Arezes P., Sérgio Miguel A.
Does risk recognition affect workers' hearing protection utilisation rate?
This study was carried out on a sample of 434 industrial workers exposed to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in Portuguese legislation (85dB(A)). A questionnaire was developed to assess workers' risk perception of high-noise exposure and their utilization of hearing protection devices (HPD). Multivariate data analysis of several variables revealed that risk recognition in general, and self-efficacy, in particular play a significant role as a predictor of workers' behaviour with respect to the use of HPD. Results suggest that risk recognition should be considered as an essential issue in the design and implementation of any hearing conservation programme, in particular in workers' training. In industrial environments, it is very likely to find several workers sharing the same workplaces and being exposed to the same noise pressure levels, who have different perceptions of the risks they are exposed to. These different perceptions could lead to different workers' attitudes and behaviours.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Dec. 2006, Vol.36, No.12, p.1037-1043. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 07-688 Trombetta Zanin P.H.
Occupational noise in urban buses
The noise level environment for bus drivers in a Brazilian city was examined. Noise levels were measured in three types of buses. In 56 out of the 60 buses examined, the normalized noise exposure levels were below 82dB(A). The quality of the workplace was thus considered as acceptable overall. The four buses with noise levels above 82dB(A) require noise reduction measures. These buses are older and have the engine located in the front. Year of manufacture and location of the engine are two factors that highly contribute to the level of noise reaching the driver.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2006, Vol.36, No.10, p.901-905. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 07-685 Ben Laiba M.
Noise and vibration: Impacts and prevention strategies
Bruit et vibrations: impacts et stratégies de prévention [in French]
Proceedings of a conference on protection against noise and vibration at the place of work held in Tunis, Tunisia, from 23 to 25 May 2006. Topics addressed: efforts undertaken by Tunisia; commitment of the ILO with respect to occupational safety and health; physical and standardization aspects of injury-causing noise; approach for the diagnosis of deafness caused by occupational factors; health effects of noise exposure; viewpoint of the Tunisian national occupational safety and health institution; compensation of occupational diseases caused by vibration in Tunisia; medical supervision of workers exposed to noise.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2006, No.38, p.2-36. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-684 Chatillon J.
Influence of source directivity on noise exposure in industrial workshops
Influence de la directivité des sources bruyantes sur l'exposition sonore dans les locaux industriels [in French]
In this study, measurements were made of the directivity of noise emitted by three types of woodworking machines using a simplified acoustic intensity method enabling quick determinations to be made inside workshops. These measurements showed that the directivity of the machines studied was relatively low. Next, the influence of the directivity of these noisy machines on the exposure of workers was evaluated in a woodworking shop. Simulations showed that characteristics of the premises had little influence on noise source variability as a function of source directivity. The key factors influencing exposure were the position of the worker and his or her distance from the machine.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2006, No.204, p.47-59. Illus. 6 ref.$File/ND2255.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-574 Virkkunen H., Härmä M., Kauppinen T., Tenkanen L.
The triad of shift work, occupational noise, and physical workload and the risk of coronary heart disease
This study was undertaken to evaluate the short and long term effects of shift work, noise and physical workload on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to estimate the joint effects of these factors. It was carried out in the form of a 13-year follow-up of 1804 middle-aged industrially employed men. The CHD end points were obtained from official Finnish registers. The Finnish job-exposure matrix FINJEM provided information on occupational exposures. Relative risks of CHD for the exposures were estimated using Cox's proportional hazard models adjusting for classical risk factors of CHD. Findings are discussed. Shift work and continuous noise entailed an excess risk for CHD in the shortest follow up with only a few retired workers but a decreasing risk during the longer follow up. For physical workload and impulse noise the trend was opposite: the CHD risk was increasing with increasing follow up time despite increasing numbers of retired workers. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2006, Vol.63, No.6, p.378-386. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 07-260 Hearing protection. Training under the terms of §12 of the law on occupational safety and the regulations on the prevention of accidents.
Lärmschutz. Unterweisung nach §12 Arbeitsschutzgesetz und Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Grundsätze der Prävention" [in German]
This CD-ROM provides an interactive training course on noise control and hearing protection. Topics covered: characteristics of noise; the hearing function; risks and consequences of noise; recognition of hearing damage; responsibilities and obligations; medical supervision; protective measures; personal protective equipment; competent personnel.
Universum Verlag GmbH & Co KG, 65175 Wiesbaden, Germany, 2006. CD-ROM.

CIS 07-434 Canetto P.
New regulations on noise at work
Une nouvelle réglementation sur le bruit au travail [in French]
The "Noise" Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253) is to be transposed into the national legislation of the European Union member states during 2006. The new regulations have been extended to include reference to new general principles of occupational safety and health, as well as examples of solutions for reducing noise. This article presents these new aspects together with their implications for occupational safety and health. The most significant changes include the lowering of exposure levels that require preventive actions and the introduction of threshold limit values. The role of occupational physicians is confirmed and broadened. It is suggested that lack of clarity concerning the threshold limits, the acceptable hazard evaluation methods and the methods for taking into account attenuation by personal protective equipment are expected to figure among the main potential problems in implementing the regulations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.297-307. Illus. 16 ref.$File/TC110.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-442 L'Espérance A., Boudreau A., Gariépy F., Bacon P.
Noise reduction in day-care centres by reducing reverberation time: Analyses and case studies
In Quebec, more than 16,000 employees of day-care centres and close to 85,000 children are exposed daily to often excessive noise levels which can reach above 90 decibels over short periods. This report describes a project aimed at proposing effective and economical noise reduction solutions. After measuring the acoustical characteristics of some 20 day-care centres, various solutions were proposed which were implemented and validated in ten of these centres. The data collected and results obtained have served as a basis for a guide for day care centres on how to reduce noise on their premises.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 61p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. + CD-ROM. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in English]

CIS 07-439 Vardhan H., Karmakar N.C., Rao Y.V.
Assessment of heavy earth-moving machinery noise vis-à-vis routine maintenance
This study investigated the noise generation characteristics of heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) as influenced by periodic maintenance. Detailed noise measurements were carried out in a large open pit coal mine in India. The effect of maintenance on noise production was assessed for ten dumpers and three dozers by measuring sound pressure levels after the machines had been subjected to maintenance at the end of 300 hours, 500 hours, 750 hours and 1000 hours of use. Measurements were also carried out to assess the effect on noise levels of maintaining specific HEMM components after 1000 hours of use. Major sound level reductions were observed after each periodical maintenance. The data also identified the major noise generating systems in HEMM as being air systems, exhaust systems, cooling systems and fuel systems.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2006, Vol.54, No2, p.64-78. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 07-432 Montiel-López M., Corzo-Alvarez G., Chacín-Almarza B., Rojas-González L., Quevedo A., Lubo-Palma A., Rendiles H.
Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noise in the electricity turbogeneration plant of a petrochemical complex
Prevalencia y caracterización de la pérdida auditiva en trabajadores expuestos a ruido industrial de una planta eléctrica turbogenerada en un complejo petroquímico [in Spanish]
This study investigated the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss among workers in the electricity generating plant of a petrochemical complex in Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that involved medical examinations and audiometric tests on 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) were quantified at various workplaces. It was found that most of the workers were exposed to high noise levels (>85dBA) and for more than the recommended time. All workers used hearing protectors appropriately. Although the hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, it was not possible to prove that it was noise induced. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometric tests was diminished, but remained within normal threshold values. Twelve cases of grade I conductive hearing loss were diagnosed, with no sensorial or mixed hearing losses. No relationship was found between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. Recommendations for workers' protection are made, including the implementation of a hearing protection programme.
Investigación Clínica, June 2006, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-131. 40 ref.

CIS 07-431 Chatillon J.
Exposure limits to infrasounds and ultrasounds - Literature survey
Limites d'exposition aux infrasons et aux ultrasons - Etude bibliographique [in French]
Sound whose spectrum falls partly or wholly beyond the 20Hz to 20kHz range is traditionally termed inaudible. Yet, the sensitivity of the ear extends beyond this range, even though it is much weaker for both infrasound (low frequency) and ultrasound (high frequency). Moreover, humans can perceive both infrasound and ultrasound by other means than through the auditory path. In industrial settings, there are many sources that emit sounds whose spectra fall outside the audible range. There is evidence that, at sufficiently high levels, these virtually inaudible sounds may cause harmful or unpleasant effects. Based on a literature survey, this article examines infrasound and ultrasound transmission physics, human sensitivity to the related frequencies, the physiological effects noted during exposure to high levels and possible prevention measures. Exposure limit values adopted by several countries are discussed and, in the absence of French regulations, recommendations are proposed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2006, No.203, p.67-77. Illus. 42 ref.$FILE/nd2250.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-192 Perramon Lladó A.
Application of the new Royal Decree 286/2006 on noise at the place of work
Aplicación del nuevo Real Decreto 286/2006 sobre ruido laboral [in Spanish]
This article reviews the provisions specified by the new Royal Decree 286/2006 on noise at the place of work, which transposes Directive 2003/10/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to noise into Spanish legislation. It compares the more stringent requirements of the new Decree with those of Royal Decree 1318/89 in force until now. The main changes introduced in R.D. 286/2006 involve new exposure limits and the preventive measures to be adopted. The methods for estimating noise levels according to the UNE-ES ISO 4869-2 standard are also presented.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2006, No.175, p.8-20. Illus. 7 ref.ículo%20APA%20Ruido.pdf/$file/HAF0604008%20Artículo%20APA%20Ruido.pdf [in Spanish]


CIS 08-1180 Reducing the risks from occupational noise
Snižování rizik spojených s hlukem při práci [in Czech]
Minskning av risker som härrör från buller på arbetsplatsen [in Swedish]
Minderung von lärmbedingten Risiken bei der Arbeit [in German]
Ē meíōsē tōn kindúnōn apó to thórubo stēn ergasía [in Greek]
Ruido en el trabajo: reducción de los riesgos [in Spanish]
Töömüra riskide vähendamine [in Estonian]
Työperäisten meluriskien vähentäminen [in Finnish]
Réduire les risques engendrés par le bruit sur le lieu de travail [in French]
A munkahelyi zajból eredő kockázatok csökkentése [in Hungarian]
Riduzione dei rischi derivanti dal rumore sul lavoro [in Italian]
Rizikos dėl triukšmo darbe mažinimas [in Lithuanian]
Darba trokšņa radītā riska samazināšana [in Latvian]
Tnaqqis tar-riskji ta' storbju fuq il-post tax-xogħol [in Maltese]
Terugdringen van de risico's van lawaai op het werk [in Dutch]
Ograniczanie ryzyka powodowanego przez hałas w miejscu pracy [in Polish]
A redução dos riscos do ruído no trabalho [in Portuguese]
Znižovanie rizika vzniku chorôb z povolania [in Slovak]
Zmanjševanje tveganj zaradi hrupa pri delu [in Slovenian]
Begrænsning af risici ved støj på arbejdspladsen [in Danish]
Each day, millions of employees in Europe are exposed to noise at work and all the risks this can entail. For European Week for Safety and Health 2005, the Agency produced a report looking at how the European directive structure and the complementary standards ensure that risks to workers from noise are addressed to reduce the high personal, social and economic cost of ill health and accidents arising from noise exposure. This fact sheet summarizes the report.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2005. 2p. Illus. 8 ref. [in Czech] [in German] [in Greek] [in English] [in Spanish] [in Estonian] [in Finnish] [in French] [in Hungarian] [in Italian] [in Lithuanian] [in Latvian] [in Maltese] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Slovak] [in Slovenian] [in Swedish] [in Danish]

CIS 07-1458 Pereira Santos M., Sebben V.C., Farenzena P.R., Dexheimer C.F., Pereira Santos C., Steffen V.M.
Exposure to chemical agents and noise in the leather industry
Exposição a agentes químicos e ruído em indústria de couro [in Portuguese]
This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and the occupational exposition to noise and toluene. Seventy-three tannery workers were divided into three groups: exposed to noise, exposed to noise and chemicals and unexposed. Data on the workers' clinical and occupational histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Exposure to toluene was evaluated by environmental and biological monitoring. Noise level and audiometric tests were also conducted. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Findings are discussed. The hearing losses found in the noise group and noise and chemical agents group were significant when compared to the control group.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.111, p.51-56. 17 ref.

CIS 07-1162 Arezes P.M., Miguel A.S.
Hearing protection use in industry: The role of risk perception
The objective of this study was to analyse the associations between individual risk perception factors of noise exposure and the use of hearing protection devices. It involved a sample of 434 industrial workers exposed to noise levels greater than the action level defined in Portuguese legislation (85dB(A)). Data on workers' risk perception of noise exposure and their use of hearing protection were obtained by means of a questionnaire. Multivariate analysis revealed that risk perception plays a significant role as a predictor of workers' behaviour with respect to the use of hearing protection devices. Results suggest that risk perception should be considered as an essential issue in the design and implementation of hearing conservation programmes.
Safety Science, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.253-267. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 07-696 Schneider E., Paoli P., Brun E.
Noise in figures
This report is part of a series of risk thematic reports dedicated to a specific risk, sector or group of workers. It sets out to describe the situation in Europe as regards exposure to noise at work, to identify groups at risk and to highlight trends and emerging issues of concern. These activities are part of a larger project aiming at the earlier identification of emerging trends and risks at work in order to assist in better targeting of resources and to enable more timely and effective interventions. Contents: exposure to noise at work; health effects; European Agency survey on risks related to noise; European Agency data collection methodology; legislation; conclusions.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 07-687 Staubli B.
Noise in computer-equipped office workplaces: new evaluation criteria
Le bruit aux postes de travail informatisés: nouveaux critères d'appréciation [in French]
This article discusses unpleasant noise in office environments. Unlike noise in industrial settings which can cause hearing loss, unpleasant noise influences the capacity to communicate, hinders the ability to concentrate and adversely impacts reaction times. Several methods aimed at lowering noise levels in offices, and in particular in open-plan offices, are proposed.
Communications de la CFST, Dec. 2005, No. 60, p.11-12. Illus. [in French]

CIS 07-686 Waldmann H., Matzinger C.
Hearing protection: Less often means more
Les appareils de protection de l'ouïe: moins signifie souvent plus... [in French]
The main reasons that workers do not protect themselves sufficiently against noise include lack of awareness of the risk, the use of inappropriate means of protection and the lack of proper communication on the risk. Topics addressed by this article on hearing protection: risk awareness and individual responsibility; technical measures; instructions for use; level of protection required; new means of hearing protection; sound attenuation that allows verbal communications; responsibilities of employers.
Communications de la CFST, Dec. 2005, No. 60, p.8-10. Illus. [in French]

CIS 07-651 Ferrite S., Santana V.
Joint effects of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss
This cross-sectional study was carried out to examine whether smoking, noise and age jointly affect hearing acuity. It involved 535 male workers of a metal processing factory. Pure-tone audiometric tests were used to assess hearing loss. and noise exposure assessment was based on a job-exposure matrix. Data on socio-demographic, life-style, occupational and health-related factors were collected by questionnaire. Results indicated that age and occupational noise exposures were separately and positively associated with hearing loss. For all the factors combined, the estimated effect on hearing loss was higher than the sum of the effects from each isolated variable. It is concluded that the synergistic effect of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss is consistent with the biological interaction.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.48-53. 32 ref.

CIS 07-433 Airo E.
Communication and noise
Obščenie i šum [in Russian]
The increasing amount of speech communication and its importance at work has raised new concerns that occupational health professionals need to address. This article discusses some of the main issues relating to speech communication at work. Topics addressed: speech-intensive work in low-noise environments; speech communications in noisy environments; hearing loss; hearing protection; issues related to new work environments such as call centres.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2005, Vol.8, No.2, p.38-40 (English); p.41-44 (Russian). Illus. 18 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1259 Health and Safety - The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain the provisions of EC Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253). Provisions are made for: lower and upper exposure action values (80-85dB(A) for daily or weekly levels, 135-137dB(C) as peak sound pressures); exposure limit values (87db(A) for daily and weekly levels, 140dB(C) as peak sound pressures); assessment of exposure levels to noise in the workplace; elimination and control of exposure to noise at the workplace; hearing protection (including the designation of Hearing Protection Zones); maintenance and use of protective equipment; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; exemption certificates from hearing protection and for emergency services. Regulations S.I. 1989 No.1790 on the same subject (see CIS 90-21) are repealed. In schedules: noise level calculation methods.
TSO Online Bookshop,, 2005. 16p. Price: GBP 3.00. [in English]

CIS 06-1447 Prevention of risks from occupational noise in practice
This report presents 19 practical examples of how enterprises and organizations from across the European Union have taken a variety of actions to reduce the exposure of workers to noise. The cases should inspire owners, managers and workers about what could be achieved within their enterprise. Some enterprises developed their own solutions using in-house expertise. Others found it useful and cost effective to use consultants with expert knowledge and practical experience in preventing exposure to noise. The majority included the involvement of employees and their representatives to identify problems and develop solutions; this is crucial to success, as workers have firsthand experience of their work environment.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 95p. Illus. Index. [in English]

CIS 06-1450
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling noise at work - The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
This publication provides guidance for employers on protecting workers from the risks caused by noise at work. As well as setting out the legal obligations of employers under the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1259), it introduces a revised approach to the management and control of noise in the workplace. The main sections provide guidance on the assessment and management of noise risks, together with practical advice on noise control, buying and hiring quieter tools and machinery, selection and use of hearing protection and the development of health surveillance procedures. Various appendices set out advice aimed at providers of technical advice and services to the employer, as well as the legal duties of manufacturers and suppliers of noisy machinery. Replaces CIS 98-1714.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2005. iv, 134p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 13.95.

CIS 06-1448
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at work - Guidance for employers on the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
This booklet aims to help employers understand what they need to do under the United Kingdom Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 and how they can protect their employees from noise. It will also be useful to employees and safety representatives. Topics addressed: how loud noise can damage hearing; what employers have to do under the Noise Regulations 2005 to protect the hearing of their workers; how to assess and control noise at work; choosing quieter equipment and machinery; types of hearing protection; when to inform and consult workers; health surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Oct. 2005. 18p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 06-1204 Noise reduction and control
Réduction et contrôle du bruit [in French]
ES/Reducción y control del ruido [in Spanish]
Eliminating or reducing excessive noise at work is not simply a legal responsibility for employers; it is also in an organisation's commercial interests. This fact sheet outlines the main steps that should be taken to reduce and control noise at work (elimination of the noise source, control of noise at the source, collective control measures, supply of personal protective equipment, information and training of personnel, monitoring, workers' participation). It is also available in Czech, Danish, French, German, Spanish, Estonian, Greek, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Slovenian, Slovak, Finnish and Swedish (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía, 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 2p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1203 The impact of noise at work
Les conséquences du bruit au travail [in French]
ES/Los efectos del ruido en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Exposure to noise at work can harm workers' health. The most well-known effect of noise at work is loss of hearing, a problem observed among coppersmiths in 1731. However, it can also exacerbate stress and increase the risk of accidents. This factsheet describes the effects of workplace noise (hearing impairment, noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus, noise and chemicals, noise and pregnant women, increased risk of accidents, disturbance of speech communication, stress). It is also available in Czech, Danish, French, German, Spanish, Estonian, Greek, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Slovenian, Slovak, Finnish and Swedish (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía, 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 2p. Illus. 7 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1202 An introduction to noise at work
Introduction à la question du bruit au travail [in French]
ES/Introducción al ruido en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Noise-induced hearing loss is the most common reported occupational disease in the EU. This factsheet outlines the key issues surrounding noise at work. Contents: noise intensity; effects on health and safety (hearing loss, physiological effects, stress, increased risk of accidents); groups at risk; employers' responsibilities; employee involvement; legislation. The fact sheet is also available in Czech, Danish, French, German, Spanish, Estonian, Greek, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Slovenian, Slovak, Finnish and Swedish (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía, 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1198 L'Espérance A., Boudreau A., Gariépy F., Bacon P.
Noise reduction in child day care centres by reducing the reverberation time - Analyses and case studies
Réduction du bruit dans les centres de la petite enfance par la réduction du temps de réverbération - Analyses et études de cas [in French]
Employees and children in child day care centres are exposed daily to excessive noise levels which can be above 90 dBA over short periods. This study investigated the effectiveness of acoustic materials in reducing noise levels. Measurements were made of noise levels, reverberation time and acoustic radiation in 20 centres and noise dosimetry was carried out to evaluate worker exposure. Following an analysis of the results, various solutions for noise reduction were suggested. The addition of acoustic material on the ceiling and walls resulted in a reduction in noise levels of between 6 and 7 dBA.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iv, 65p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. Report is also available on CD-ROM (included). [in French]

CIS 06-1197 Swinnen C.
Hearing protection at Ford in Genk
Protection auditive sur mesure chez Ford Genk [in French]
A Belgian automobile plant has adopted a new type of custom-made hearing protector, after testing and evaluating its cost-effectiveness. While the initial purchase of the otoplastic hearing protectors is relatively costly compared to single-use hearing protectors, they are considered to be economical in the long run. They are designed to prevent allergic reaction and they also offer excellent noise protection. Results of surveys among users of these devices show that they are well tolerated.
Prevent Focus, Dec. 2005, No.10. p.14-17. Illus.

CIS 06-754 Ordinance No.66/2005 (22 Dec.) of the Minister of Health concerning the minimum occupational health and safety requirements of employees exposed to noise [Hungary]
Az egészségügyi miniszter 66/2005. (XII. 22.) rendelete a munkavállalókat érő zajexpozícióra vonatkozó minimális egészségi és biztonsági követelményekről [in Hungarian]
Regulation issued under the authority of Act No.93 of 1993 concerning occupational safety and health (CIS 04-5). It implements in Hungary the provisions of European Directive 2003/10/EC (CIS 06-253). Contents: aim and scope (it lays down the minimum requirements for the protection of workers against the possible effects of noise, especially insofar as they pose a risk to hearing); definitions; exposure limit values (87dB(A) and 200Pa) and exposure action values (80-85dB(A) and 112-140Pa); obligations of employers (determination and assessment of risks, provisions aimed at avoiding and reducing exposure, personal protection, limitation of exposure, worker information and training, consultation and participation of workers); health surveillance; derogations. In annex: detailed description of noise measurement and evaluation in the workplace.
Magyar Közlöny, 22 Dec. 2005, No.166, p.10515-10524. [in Hungarian] [in Hungarian]

CIS 06-944 Royal Decree 1316/1989 and Directive 2003/10/EC on noise
Real Decreto 1316/1989 y Directiva 2003/10/CE sobre ruido [in Spanish]
In Spain, exposure to noise is regulated by Royal Decree 1316/1989 (see CIS 90-720), soon to be superseded by the transposition of Directive 2003/10/EC on noise into national legislation. This article compares and comments on the main requirements specified by each of the two regulations.
ERGA Noticias, 2005, No.90, p.4.

CIS 06-947 Perry M.J., May J.J.
Noise and chemical induced hearing loss: Special considerations for farm youth
Farm youth face multiple risks for injury and illness in agriculture. This literature survey reviews evidence illustrating the noise and chemical exposure hearing risks that farm youth potentially face. Sources of noise and potentially toxic chemical exposures common in the farm environment are discussed. These exposures involve up to two million children in the USA and require both public and occupational health solutions. Since existing studies have not sufficiently explored potential ototoxic effects of these exposures on children and adolescents, recommendations are outlined for research characterizing both chemical and noise exposures to farm youth and their combined effects on hearing.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.2, p.49-55. 34 ref.

CIS 06-941 Ologe F.E., Akande T.M., Olajide T.G.
Noise exposure, awareness, attitudes and use of hearing protection in a steel rolling mill in Nigeria
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 116 workers in a steel rolling mill in Nigeria to collect information on their knowledge and attitudes towards hazardous occupational noise and preventive measures. Noise mapping of the factory was also performed. Average noise levels ranged from 49dB(A) in the administrative area to 93dB(A) at the steel finishing stage. There was high awareness of noise hazards (93%) and methods of prevention (92%) but only 27% of workers possessed hearing protectors and only 28% of these stated that they used them all the time. Initiatives are required to increase the use of effective preventive measures.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.55, No.6, p.487-489. 10 ref.

CIS 06-940 Ward T.
Sound advice
The new Control of Noise at Work Regulations will come into force in the United Kingdom in April 2006, replacing the current Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21). They will require employers to implement modern hazard evaluation methods and risk prevention. This article proposes a practical framework for ensuring compliance with the regulations at the enterprise level. It involves carrying out a risk assessment, reducing exposure to noise, providing workers with hearing protection, ensuring exposure limits are not exceeded, informing and training workers, and finally carrying out health surveillance.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 2005, Vol.23, No.10, p.50-52. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 06-939 Virkkunen H., Kauppinen T., Tenkanen L.
Long-term effect of occupational noise on the risk of coronary heart disease
The effect of occupational noise exposure on coronary heart disease (CHD) was studied among 6005 randomly-selected Finnish middle-aged male industrial workers in a prospective 18-year follow-up study. Data on CHD were obtained from official Finnish hospital and death registers. The Finnish job-exposure matrix FINJEM provided estimates of the proportion of noise-exposed persons and the mean level of exposure among those exposed by occupation. The medium-term (9-year follow-up) relative risk of CHD for the combined noise (continuous noise exceeding 80dB and impulse noise) was 1.38, and the long-term (18-year follow-up) RR was 1.54. For blue-collar workers the corresponding estimates were 1.11 and 1.29. Adjustment for other risk factors did not materially change the results. Results indicate that exposure to noise, especially impulse noise, is associated with a moderate, but significant, increase in CHD risk that persists even after workers have passed retirement age.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2005, Vol.31, No.4, p.291-299. 28 ref.

CIS 06-937 Wright Reid A.
Notes of caution
The new Noise at Work Regulations 2005 due to be implemented in April 2006 in the United Kingdom apply to most industries, but the music industry has been given a further two years to comply. This article explains why the extra time is needed and discusses ways in which hearing damage among musicians can be prevented.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 2005, Vol.23, No.9, p.51-54. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 06-936 Turney T.
Getting the measure
The Noise at Work Regulations 2005 due to be implemented in April 2006 in the United Kingdom specify lower permissible noise exposure limits than the earlier Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21). If risk assessment shows that employees are likely to be exposed to noise above the action level of 87 dB(A), then measuring the noise level for these individuals is essential. This article discusses the issue of noise measurement and explains how to conduct a noise survey using sound level meters and noise dosimeters.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2005, Vol.23, No.8, p.36-38. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 06-879 Kim J., Park H., Ha E., Jung T., Paik N., Yang S.
Combined effects of noise and mixed solvents exposure on the hearing function among workers in the aviation industry
This study investigated the effect of occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing loss among aircraft maintenance workers. The study population comprised 542 male workers for whom exposure and medical examination data were available. The prevalence of hearing loss found in the group exposed to noise and mixed solvents simultaneously (54.9%) was higher than those in the other groups (6.0% in the unexposed, 17.1% in the noise-only exposed, and 27.8% in the solvents-only exposed). The relative risks, adjusted for age, were estimated to be 4.3 for the noise-only group, 8.1 for the noise and solvents group, and 2.6 for the solvents-only group. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to mixed solvents had a toxic effect on the auditory system. This raises the issue of whether hearing conservation regulations should be applied to all workers exposed to solvents.
Industrial Health, July 2005, Vol.43, No.3, p.567-573. 25 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-698 Reducing the risks from occupational noise
This report provides an overview of noise control methods based on European noise control policy as formulated in the relevant directives and international standards. Contents: scope of the noise problem; effects of noise (hearing disorders, work-related stress, cause of accidents); European occupational noise policy; management of noise (noise reduction, personal protection); examples of workplace interventions. Includes lists of relevant European directives and standards.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 85p. Illus. 46 ref. Index. Price: EUR 15.00. [in English]

CIS 06-533 Engel Z., Piechowicz J., Pleban D., Stryczniewicz L.
Vibroacoustic industrial risk minimization: Handbook
Minimalizacja przemysłowych zagrożeń wibroakustycznych: Poradnik [in Polish]
This handbook describes methods for reducing vibroacoustic risks in industrial workplaces. Includes methods for the acoustic assessment of machines, details of silencers and other protective measures and a list of regulations and standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 206p. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 06-694 Van Campen L.E., Morata T., Kardous C.A., Gwin K., Wallingford K.M., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys
Noise exposure was evaluated for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area noise levels ranged from 58 to 104dBA for various work tasks. Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in car assembly. The OSHA permissible exposure limit of 90dBA for an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85dBA for hearing conservation implementation. During the races, noise levels averaged above 100dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments and refuelling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140dBA. NIOSH-recommended exposure limits were exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations include vocal communication by radio and the use of headsets, allowing hearing protectors to be worn at all times.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.383-390. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-693 Magaud-Camus I., Floury M.C., Vinck L., Waltisperger D.
Noise at the workplace in 2003: A stressor affecting three employees out of ten
Le bruit au travail en 2003: une nuisance qui touche trois salariés sur dix [in French]
The SUMER 2003 survey in France (see CIS 95-161) showed that close to a third of all workers are exposed to noise. Some 7% of all employees are exposed to harmful noise levels, and 25% to other types of noise while being less of a health hazard nonetheless have an impact. Industrial and construction workers are the most affected, however these sectors are those that generally provide acoustic protection. Employees exposed to harmful noise levels at work have a more stressful form of work organization than other employees and are also more exposed to other physical hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.327-334. Illus. 2 ref.$File/TF142.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-691 Hong O.S.
Hearing loss among operating engineers in American construction industry
This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among engineers operating heavy construction machinery. Demographic and occupational data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and the 623 participants underwent audiometric tests and otoscopic examinations. Over 60% showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive higher frequencies of 4 and 6kHz. The degree of hearing loss was particularly high among workers who reported long years of working in the construction industry. Average reported use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) was 48% of the time they were required to be used. A significant inverse relationship was found between 4-6kHz hearing loss and use of HPDs.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2005, Vol.78, No.7, p.565-574. Illus. 53 ref.

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