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Integrating-averaging sound level meters
Sonomčtres intégrateurs-moyenneurs [in French]
This international standard describes instruments for the measurement of frequency-weighted and time-averaged sound pressure levels. It takes into account the requirements of CEI 651, sound level meters, and specifies additional characteristics for the measurement of the equivalent continuous sound pressure level, Leq, of steady, intermittent, fluctuating and impulsive sounds. The terms "integrating sound level meter" or "averaging sound level meter" may be used. From the contents: object and general requirements; definitions; general characteristics; frequency weighting and amplifier characteristics; averaging and indicator characteristics; overload indication; sensitivity to various environments; calibration and verification of the basic characteristics; rating information and instruction manual.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1985. 49p. Price: SF.66.00.
Iki M., Kurumatani N., Hirata K., Moriyama T.
An association between Raynaud's phenomenon and hearing loss in forestry workers
Comparative study of 37 workers with Raynaud's phenomenon with a control group matched for age and duration of exposure to noise in order to eliminate any confounding effect from these two factors. The cases has a higher median hearing threshold than the controls at every frequency. The difference was significant at 4 and 8kHz and almost significant at 2kHz. According to the study's classification of audiograms, the cases had more advanced types of noise-induced hearing loss than the controls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1985, Vol.46, No.9, p.509-513. Illus. 27 ref.
Wiernicki C., Karoly W.J.
Ultrasound: biological effects and industrial hygiene concerns
High power ultrasound, characterised by high intensity outputs at frequencies of 20-100kHz finds increasing applications throughout industry. The biological effects from contact exposure may include disruption of biological membranes, damage to the nervous system, the ear, the eyes, spermatogenic, teratogenic, genetic and cellular effects. The effects of airborne ultrasound include hearing loss, headaches, nausea, fatigue and raising of skin temperature. The calculated lethal dose for man is about 180dB at 20kHz. Exposure standards and industrial hygiene controls are discussed. The main recommendation is to avoid contact with ultrasound sources at all time.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1985, Vol.46, No.9, p.488-496. Illus. 64 ref.
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
10th International Symposium on the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases in the Chemical Industry
10čme Colloque international pour la prévention des risques et des maladies professionnelles dans l'industrie chimique [in French]
Papers presented in their original language at this congress (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, 10-12 June 1985); every paper is followed by a summary in English, French and German. Subjects under discussion: safety considerations during the design of equipment and the construction of large refineries and of petrochemical complexes; sampling stations (design, noise, automatic monitoring, layout of workstations, pressure loads on the control room after an explosion); sound insulation, fire protection; measurement and control technology, safety devices.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Gaisbergstr.11, D-6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 808p. Illus.
Damongeot A., André G.
Exposure limits to high-pitched sound (8-16kHz) and to low-frequency ultrasound (16-100kHz). Bibliographic review and interpretation
Limites d'exposition aux sons aigus (8 ŕ 16kHz) et aux ultrasons de basse fréquence (16 ŕ 100kHz). Revue bibliographique et interprétation [in French]
Review of the harmful effects produced by exposure to ultrasound and very high-pitched sound in industry, and of the exposure limits in various countries. Recommendations for the choice of machinery and operating method that might result in exposure to ultrasound transmitted by contact. Exposure limits recommended for air-transmitted ultrasound vary with the time of exposure. Practical advice is given for the evaluation of the harmful effects of ultrasound.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, Note No.1537-120-85, p.317-324. Illus. 11 ref.
Effects of local vibration transmitted from ultrasonic devices on vibrotactile perception in the hands of therapists
9 ultrasonic therapists and 9 controls have been studied with regard to vibration perception thresholds within the frequency range of 5 to 400Hz. Thresholds on the tip of the index and middle finger for both left and right hands were studied. In contrast to the controls, the therapists had been exposed professionally to local vibration with high frequencies (1MHz) from the handles of ultrasonic transducers used for therapy in medical service. A reduction of vibration perception was observed for the therapists when compared to the controls. This supports the suspicion that high-frequency vibration may have a negative influence on man.
Ergonomics, May 1985, Vol.28, No.5, p.793-803. Illus. 22 ref.
Federal Government Ordinance of 11 December 1984 concerning the physical aptitude and health of personnel in certain occupations
Verordnung der Bundesregierung vom 11. Dezember 1984 über die gesundheitliche Eignung von Bediensteten für bestimmte Tätigkeiten [in German]
This ordinance applies to workers employed by the Austrian federal government who are at risk of exposure to harmful substances, noise, or heat. The aptitude of such workers should be verified by pre-employment medical examinations and periodic check-ups. Dangerous substances, the nature of the medical examinations, and the responsibilities of various parties are specified. The periodicity and scope of check-ups in connection with each risk factor are given in a table.
Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, 4 Jan. 1985, Vol.1985, No.2, p.319-324.
Contribution of the occupational physician to the prevention of occupational deafness
Contribution du médecin du travail ŕ la prévention de la surdité professionnelle [in French]
This medical thesis is based on an analysis of the working conditions of 22 workers in a maintenance and repair shop for jet aircraft fuel systems of a large air transport company. The shops and test beds are described, unfavourable features of the environment are stated, and measurements of noise and vibration are presented. Auditory and extra-auditory effects were studied in connection with complaints mentioned by the workers. A review of French legislation on the protection of workers exposed to noise shows that the most important provision is for the audiometric monitoring of noise-exposed workers. The occupational physician has a primary role, both in preventive work and in sensitising workers to the hazards of noise and the importance of wearing personal protective equipment (examples).
Université Paris-Nord, Faculté de médecine de Bobigny, France, 1985. 86p. Illus. 25 ref.
Jacques J., Lucarelli D., Barbry J.L., Sueur J., Coureaut J.P.
Noise in cold press shops
Le bruit dans les ateliers de frappe ŕ froid [in French]
This research project covered: the measurement of noise levels in a number of enterprises; an acoustic study examining the efficiency of various means of noise reduction (enclosure, sound-absorption treated ceilings, noise screens) depending on the arrangement of the presses and the layout of the shops; a review of the literature presenting possibilities of noise reduction at source. The conclusion is that, given the high sound levels in this industry (90-102dB(A)), the only means of reducing noise levels to about 85dB(A) is the complete enclosure of machines. Noise reduction at source, applied together with enclosure, would lead to even lower noise levels.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1985, No.118, Note No.1516-118-85, p.59-72. Illus. 12 ref.
Lane C.L., Dobie R.A., Crawford D.R., Morgan M.S.
Standard threshold shift criteria
Standard threshold shift (STS) criteria were evaluated using techniques borrowed from decision theory and signal detection theory to separate audiometric STS's in true-positive and false-positive shifts. The current OSHA (USA) definition of a "change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10dB or more at 2, 3 or 4kHz in either ear" and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgey recommandation of a 10dB or greater change for the worse for either the 0.5, 1 and 2kHz pure tone average or the 3, 4 and 6kHz pure tone average in either ear, were supported. Revisions of baselines after an STS occurs are supported.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.27, No.1, p.34-42. 18 ref.
Council Directive 84/538/EEC of 17 September 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of lawnmowers [European Communities]
Directive 84/538/CEE du Conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des tondeuses ŕ gazon [Communautés européennes] [in French]
Topics: approval; directive; European Communities; lawn mowers; noise control; noise level measurement; noise; sound power.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 19 Nov. 1984, No.L 300, p.171-173.
Council Directive of 17 Sep. 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of powered hand-held concrete-breakers and picks [European Communities]
Directive du conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des brise-béton et des marteaux-piqueurs utilisés ŕ la main [Communautés européennes] [in French]
After 5yrs from the notification of this Directive (26 Sep. 1984), the maximum permissible sound power level emitted by powered hand-held concrete-breakers and picks used in civil engineering work and on building sites shall be 108dB(A)/1pW, 111dB(A)/1pW and 114dB(A)/1pW, depending on the mass of the appliance (<20kg, 20-35kg, >35kg, respectively). Type-examination certificates shall be issued by appropriate bodies within the European Communities certifying that the appliances have satisfied this noise emission limitation rule. In annex: method of measuring airborne noise emitted by these appliances; model information document for a type of powered hand-held concrete-breaker or pick to be submitted for its EEC type-examination; model for mark for sound power level.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 Nov. 1984, No.L 300, p.156-170. Illus.
Council Directive of 17 Sep. 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of power generators [European Communities]
Directive du conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des groupes électrogčnes de puissance [Communautés européennes] [in French]
After 5yrs from the notification of this Directive (26 Sep. 1984) the maximum permissible sound power level emitted by power generators shall be 102dB(A)/1pW when the electric power output does not exceed 2kVA, and 100dB(A)/1pW otherwise. Type-examination certificates shall be issued by appropriate bodies within the European Communities certifying that power generators have satisfied this noise emission limitation rule. In annex: method of measuring airborne noise emitted by power generators; model information document for a type of power generator to be supplied for the EEC type-examination; model for mark for sound power level.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 Nov. 1984, No.L 300, p.149-155. Illus.
Council Directive of 17 Sep. 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of welding generators [European Communities]
Directive du Conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des groupes électrogčnes de soudage [Communautés européennes] [in French]
For the purposes of this Directive, a welding generator is any rotary device producing a welding current. The maximum permissible sound power level of airborne noise for welding generators, 5yrs or more after the notification of the Directive (26 Sep. 1984), shall be 101dB(A)/1pW (when the nominal maximum welding current ≤ 200A) and 100dB(A)/1pW when such current > 200A. Type-examination certificates shall be issued by appropriate bodies within the European Communities certifying that welding generators have satisfied this noise limitation rule. In annex: method of measuring airborne noise emitted by welding generators; model information document for a type of welding generator to be supplied for EEC type-examination; model for mark for sound power level.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 Nov. 1984, No.L 300, p.142-148. Illus.
Council Directive of 17 Sep. 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of tower cranes [European Communities]
Directive du conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des grues ŕ tour [Communautés européennes] [in French]
The maximum permissible sound power level emitted by the lifting mechanism of tower cranes, more than 5yrs following the notification of this Directive (26 Sep. 1984), shall be 100dB(A)/1pW. Type-examination certificates shall be issued by appropriate bodies within the European Communities certifying that tower cranes have satisfied this noise emission limitation rule. In annex: method of measuring airborne noise emitted by tower cranes; model of information document for a type of tower crane to be supplied for the purposes of EEC type-examination; model for mark for sound power level.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 Nov. 1984, No.L 300, p.130-141. Illus.
Council Directive of 17 Sep. 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of compressors [European Communities]
Directive du conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des motocompresseurs [Communautés européennes] [in French]
For purposes of this Directive, a compressor is any motor-driven device for circulating or compressing air, with the exception of fans and vacuum pumps. The maximum permissible sound power level of compressors, more than 5yrs following the notification of the Directive (26 Sep. 1984), is in the range of 100-104dB(A)/1pW (depending on the strength of the nominal air flow). In annexes: methods for measuring airborne noise emitted by compressors; model information document for a type of compressor to be supplied for EEC type-examination; model for mark for sound power level.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 Nov. 1984, No.L 300, p.123-129. Illus.
Noise protection - Noise prevention in industry and agriculture
Zajvédelem - Zajelhárítás az ipari és mezőgazdasági üzemekben [in Hungarian]
Advanced-level textbook on noise protection aimed at OSH professionals. Contents: the basics of acoustics; vibration and noise sources; sound propagation; subjective acoustics; measurement instruments and methods; effects of noise and vibration on man and exposure limits in the workplace; basics of noise control; technical means of vibration and noise reduction; materials and equipment used for noise control and available in Hungary; personal protective equipment. Specific noise and vibration measurement methods are given in the appendix.
Népszava, Budapest, Hungary, 1984. 318p. Illus. 112 ref. Price: HUF 145.00.
Hedendahl J., Jacobsson E., Landström U.
Low-frequency noise and pure tones in control rooms - III. Low-frequency noise and pure tones in rooms constructed of wood, steel and brick materials
Lĺgfrekvent buller och rena toner i hytter - III. Lĺgfrekvent buller och rena toner i trä-, plĺt- och murade hytter [in Swedish]
This report is a description of the absorption properties of enclosures built with wood, metal and brick walls. The investigation included 87 control rooms in iron and steel works, pulp factories and sawmills. The reduction in low-frequency noise inside the rooms was most effective in the case of brick walls. Wood and metal walls were the least effective in absorbing low-frequency noise. The report includes a discussion of the physical background of the generation of low-frequency noise in control rooms and cabins.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 34p. Illus. 8 ref.
Löfstedt P., Limnell I.
Infrasonic noise in milling plants
Infraljud i spannmålskvarnar [in Swedish]
Infrasonic noise measurements were made in different types of milling plants. The highest levels were found in the area of the screening machine. Generation of infrasound was correlated with the rotation of the screen (200-250rpm). The infrasound was dominated by frequencies in the range 3.3-4.2Hz. The noise levels in the screening areas of the milling plants varied between 114-118dB(IL). These levels exceeded the present Swedish limit values for infrasound (110dB). However, in most cases the levels were below the new suggested limit defined for third-octave frequency bands.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 29p. Illus. 9 ref.
Stepkin R.L., Mosely R.E.
Noise control - A guide for workers and employers
Contents of this profusely illustrated training booklet: introduction (effect of noise on health); noise control: basic concepts and terms; application of noise control principles (sound behaviour; sound from vibrating plates; sound production in air, gases; flowing liquids, sound movement indoors, in ducts, and from vibrating machines; sound reduction in enclosure walls); noise control measures (modifications in machinery and equipment, materials handling; enclosure of machines; control of noise from vibrating surfaces; damping with absorbants; sound insulating separate rooms; maintenance; planning for noise control); how OSHA can help employers and employees; how to make noise measurements; how to solve noise problems; and OSHA standard 1910.95, occupational noise exposure and OSHA administrative agencies in US states.
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, USA, 1984. 133p. Illus.
Bauakademie der DDR, Institut für Projektierung und Standardisierung
Acoustical measurement. Determination of structure-borne sound emission of machinery [German Democratic Republic]
Messverfahren der Akustik. Bestimmung der Körperschallemission von Maschinen und Anlagen [in German]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) includes: terms and definitions; description of the method; equipment (vibration sensor, acoustic filter, vibration meter, mounting of the machine under test); performance of measurements; reporting of results.
Verlag für Standardisierung und Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Sep. 1984. 4p. Illus.
Vavilin O.A., Rusak O.N., Dejko G.K.
Protection against noise in industrial microbiology
Bor'ba s šumom na predprijatijah mikrobiologičeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Aspects covered in this manual: noise monitoring and standard setting, methods of acoustic and construction protective measures (design of sound-absorbing and sound-insulating devices and materials, soundproofed covers, screens and cabins, layout of noisy equipment, acoustic facing of walls, etc.); methods of reducing noise produced by main and auxiliary equipment, economics of noise control.
Izdatel'stvo Lesnaja promyšlennost', ul. Kirova, 40a, 101000, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 126p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Rbl.0.45.
Catalogue of noise-reducing measures
Katalog Lärmminderungsmassnahmen [in German]
These supplements describe technical measures for noise reduction in pipe lines, adjusting valves for compressible fluids, jets of compressed-air plants, a marking device on the base of the plasma torch, air gratings, at grinding operations in foundries by robotisation, in a high-speed press, a strip steel cutting plant, coal loading bins, in an air cooled electromotor, transformers, in a preheater in glass works, and in machinery by design of the isolating machine housing. The feasible solutions are illustrated by examples.
Arbeitsschutz, Arbeitshygiene, 1984, Supplements 29, 30, 31, 32. p.217-248. Illus.
Acoustics - Noise labelling of machinery and equipment
Acoustique - Etiquetage du bruit des équipements et des machines [in French]
This international standard prescribes a manner in which the noise emission of machinery and equipment (essentially stationary) shall be expressed for labelling purposes, and prescribes the minimum information to be given in a label attached to the machine or in documents supplied to the user. Scope and field of application, references, definitions, determination of the labelled value (A-weighted sound power level, information to be considered when determining the labelled value), labelling.
International Organization of Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1 Aug. 1984. 5p. Illus. 12 ref.
Training Programme on Industrial Hearing Conservation: course material
Course material for a 2-day training programme on industrial hearing conservation held in Tiruchirapalli (India), 11-12 May 1984. Contents: effects of noise on health; noise assessment and abatement; hearing measurement; medical aspects of noise-induced hearing loss; practice of hearing conservation programmes; health education on hearing conservation.
Model Centre for Occupational Health Services, Tiruchirapalli 620 014, India, 1984. 71p. Illus.
Hedendahl J., Jacobsson E., Landström U.
Low-frequency noise and pure tones in control cabins. I. Background and estimation of low-frequency noise and pure tones in control cabins. II. Low-frequency noise and pure tones in sawmills, wood pulp factories and iron- and steel-works
Lĺgfrekvent buller och rena toner i hytter - I. Bakgrund samt bedömningsförfarande avseende lĺgfrekvent buller och rena toner i hytter. II. Lĺgfrekvent buller och rena toner i hytter inom sĺgverk, cellulosaindustri och järn/stĺlverk [in Swedish]
Part I describes methods for recording and analysing low-frequency nose and pure tones in control rooms and cabs. A procedure for estimating infrasound perception thresholds and changes in noise level is also given. Part II gives results for 87 control cabs in sawmills, pulp factories and iron- and steel-works. In only one cab (a sheet-metal cab for a chip crusher) were Swedish limits for infrasound and pure tones exceeded. In approximately one-fourth of the cabs, infrasound was perceptible. In 35% of the cabs, the infrasound level was higher inside than outside.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 73p. Illus. 8 ref.
Andro M., Dorval P., Le Bouar G., Le Pluart C., Le Roy Y., Roullot C.
Occupational accidents in ocean fishing. Part III. Analysis of the working environment in ocean fishing - (Small-scale and semi-industrial fishing)
Les accidents du travail dans la pęche maritime. Partie III. L'analyse des situations de travail dans la pęche maritime - (Pęche artisanale et pęche semi-industrielle) [in French]
Study conducted aboard 4 trawlers. Description of the vessels (3 small-scale and 1 semi-industrial). Work organisation (tasks on board) and work rhythm. Exposure to noise: sound spectra taken on different decks, analysis by octave bands, evaluation of the health hazard. Exposure to vibration: physiopathological effects, effects on equipment, evaluation of body strain due to vibration, measurements done.
Laboratoire de recherche "sécurité et conditions de travail ŕ la pęche maritime", Institut universitaire de technologie de Lorient, 10 rue Jean Zay, 56100 Lorient, France, 1984. 88p. Illus. Bibl.
Schirmer W., Haustein B.G., Kracht L., Plundrich J., Rau G., Wiltzsch M.
Machine noise abatement - working methods and examples
Lärmminderung an Maschinen - Arbeitsmethoden und Beispiele [in German]
The experience of acousticians and machine designers concerning the integration of noise control into product development, and steps in the search for noise control solutions are evaluated. Special attention is given to a survey of methods useful to engineers for calculating mechanical noise (excitation spectrum, structure-borne sound transmission, acoustic behaviour of plate-shaped machine parts, integrated sound control enclosures); machine acoustic measurement techniques (noise characteristics and source determination, coherence and intensity measurement, vibroacoustic measurement techniques, model measurement technology) are also surveyed. The sequence of operations and the results of noise abatement are described for 12 machines.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Str. 1, 8020 Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 1984. 212p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: M.16.00.
Haustein B.G., Schirmer W.
About openness to influence of the vibration behaviour of machine housings and frames for the purpose of noise reduction
Zur Beeinflussbarkeit des Schwingungsverhaltens von Maschinengehäusen und -gestellen zum Zweck der Geräuschminderung [in German]
Statements of the vibroacoustic behaviour of passive machine structures and its openness to influence are generally deduced from the behaviour of a flat homogeneous plate. The more detailed picture that emerges from experimental studies is shown by data from vibroacoustic measurements on various passive structures: a sewing machine housing, a 350kg cast housing in box-like form, a hermetic compressor casing of 3mm steel sheet, a press frame.
Maschinenbautechnik, 1984, Vol.33, No.3, p.115-119. Illus. 6 ref.
Problems in the design of sound control enclosures and cabins
Probleme bei der Entwicklung von Schallschutzkapseln und -kabinen [in German]
Determining and weighting demands on the product to be developed allow a well-timed recognition of unjustified demands and avoidance of misdevelopment. It may be permissible for enclosures to radiate sound in certain directions, and sound may impinge on cabins more intensely from some directions than from others; these directional effects can be used in the design of cost-effective sound-control measures. It should also be borne in mind that low-frequency sound is attenuated by different mechanisms from mid-range and high-frequency sound.
Maschinenbautechnik, 1984, Vol.33, No.3, p.106-110. Illus. 10 ref.
25 years of international collaboration and experience in noise control
25 years of international collaboration and experience in noise control [in German]
Proceedings of the XIIIth Conference of the International Association against Noise, held in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, from 28 May to 1 June 1984.
International Association against Noise, Noise and Vibration Control Society of Bosnia and Hercegovina, Hasana Brikica 24, 71000 Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, 1984. 149p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$33.00.
Wildoer J., Knothe K.
Contribution to the description of sound excitation in solids by cam mechanisms
Ein Beitrag zur Beschreibung der Körperschallanregung durch Kurvengetriebe [in German]
Speed raising in order to obtain an increase in productivity is connected with intensification of sound generation. The example of a machine for packaging shows that it is possible to reduce the sound generation in the machine casing by increasing the surface quality of the cam face.
Maschinenbautechnik, 1984, Vol.33, No.9, p.412-414. Illus. 3 ref.
Noise from flow machines. A contribution to noise reduction in machines and installations
Geräusche von Strömungsmaschinen. Ein Beitrag zur Lärmbekämpfung an Maschinen und Anlagen [in German]
It is important to predict aerodynamic noise early in the design and construction of machines and equipment, in order to reduce the annoyance to people in factories and in the neighbourhood, and in order to improve the quality of products. A theory of sound generation and radiation of cascades, namely blade and vane rows, in flow machines is presented. The sound power of cascades is calculated by use of different models. It is possible to predict the overall noise and the noise spectrum which are related in complicated equations to the geometry, the aerodynamic parameters and operating conditions of the machines and installations.
VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Karl-Heine-Strasse 27, 7031 Lepzig, German Democractic Republic, 1984. 133p. Illus. 99 ref. Price:M.41.00.
Suvorov G.A., Šcarinov L.N., Denisov Ė.I.
Hygienic standardisation of industrial noise and vibration
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie proizvodstvennyh šumov i vibracij [in Russian]
This manual covers: background information on the main approaches to standardisation of noise and vibration; the general influence of these factors on the human body, with emphasis on evaluation of noise and vibration doses and load in the determination of permissible levels; correlations of noise and vibration energy exposure with immediate and delayed reactions of the human body; effects of chronic exposure. Contents: noise and vibration as occupational factors, methods of measurement of noise and vibration in industry, principles of standardisation, methods and criteria of assessment of their negative effects, basis for differentiated standardisation of noise and vibration, prevention of unfavourable effects of noise and vibration.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 103062 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 240p. Illus. 130 ref. Price: Rbl.1.60.
Proceedings of the fourth Finnish-Soviet joint symposium on industrial hygiene, toxicology, work physiology and psychology
Papers presented at the title symposium (Helsinki, Finland, 6-8 June 1983). Topics: hygienic rating of chemical compounds in combination with other chemicals and other factors; chemical factors in plastics processing; combined effect of carbon disulfide, noise, alcohol and stress; neurotoxicity of certain pyrolysis and pyrosynthetic products; mutagenicity and gonadotropic action of styrene; cellular glutathione metabolism and thermal degradation products of plastics; metallic aerosols; work organisation, production technology and mental strain in the printing industry; psychological and social aspects of shift work; behavioural effects of solvents on animals; measurement, effects and control of noise and vibration; occupational photosensitisation; protective gloves; pesticide exposure in forestry; monotonous work; workload and physical fitness.
Institute of Occupational Health, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki 29, Finland, 1984. 256p. Illus. 188 ref.
Effect of simultaneous thermal and acoustic stress on temporary auditory threshold shift (TTS2)
Auswirkungen gleichzeitiger Hitze- und Schallbelastung auf die zeitweilige Hörschwellenverschiebung (TTS2) [in German]
Ten male volunteers were subjected to 6 combinations of temperature and broadband noise: 24° or 35°C at sound pressure levels of 75, 85 or 95dB(A). Auditory thresholds were measured immediately before and 2min after a 70min exposure period. The temporary threshold shift produced by the noise was consistently higher (by 2.0-4.5dB) at the higher temperature.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Nov. 1984, Vol.30, No.11, p.646-647. Illus. 5 ref.
Dieroff H.G., Kup W., Oeken F.W., Wilke J.
Otorhinolaryngology and occupational medicine
Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde und Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
This book for health care practitioners discusses work-related impairments of the ear, nose and throat. Chapters cover: the ear as an organ of hearing; the vestibular apparatus; the nose and sinuses; the laryngeal mucosa; the oral cavity; the senses of smell and taste; the larynx and trachea; the vocal apparatus; carcinoma in the ear, nose and throat region; rules and recommendations concerning the assessment and correction of negative factors in the workplace.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Grünstrasse 18, DDR-1020 Berlin, 1984. 254p. Illus. Bibl. Price: M.47.50.
Noise emission of forging presses and possibilities of noise reduction
Geräuschemission von Schmiedepressen und Möglichkeiten der Lärmminderung [in German]
Report on investigations of noise production on 42 forging presses in the field and in the laboratory: established knowledge, principles of noise measurement, types of forging presses, definition of practical operating conditions, noise measurements on eccentric presses, noise measurements on spindle presses, noise level at the workplace, possibilities of noise abatement. The sound power levels are shown as a function of the rated force of the machines, separately for blow-and operating-noise. There were measured sound power levels of 120-133dB for eccentric presses and of 122-134dB for spindle presses.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 190p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: DM.26.00.
Physiology and industrial hygiene in timber production with multi-operation machines
Fyziológia a hygiena práce pri výrobe dreva niektorými viacoperačnými mechanizmami [in Slovak]
The use of new technology (multi-operation machines) for felling, trimming, de-rooting and cutting of smaller parts into chips decreases the energy expenditure of workers, but the operations demand greater attention and quick reaction, and are often carried out in a forced position for a long period. Noise and vibration levels range around upper permissible limits and often exceed them. It is thus important to select and train workers carefully, to reduce their exposure to negative factors by rotation, and to ensure that they use personal protective equipment.
Lesnictví, Feb. 1984, Vol.30, No.2, p.127-136. 6 ref.
Hearing loss in pilots of Z-37 Čmelák agricultural airplanes
Snížení sluchu u pilotů zemědělského letounu Z-37 Čmelák [in Czech]
Pilots of the agricultural aircraft Z-37 ("Čmelák") are exposed for about 500 hours a year to a noise level (Leq) of 105-106dB(A). Hearing changes were determined in 139 pilots by audiometry. Regression correlation showed that age-dependent hearing loss at 4000Hz was 1.6dB/year. Hearing acuity in pilots decreases by 30dB at a frequency of 4000Hz after 30 years of flying or at the age of 50. The pilot should use a protective helmet. Regulations should be unified for aircraft manufacturers and employers of pilots.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.2, p.61-63. 8 ref.
Risk of hearing damage in the shoe industry
Riziko poškození sluchu v obuvnickém průmyslu [in Czech]
Noise spectra were obtained for mechanical and hydraulic cutting machines. Mechanical cutters were noisier. Levels of noise emitted by the mechanical cutters varied by 10dB, depending on the material being cut. Audiometric data were collected for 557 workers at 10 workstations and the percentages of male and female workers with normal hearing, hearing loss, and perceptual hypacusis were tabulated with age and seniority data.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.2, p.56-60. Illus. 15 ref.
Tománek R., Sedlmajerová D.
Biological evaluation of noise aggressivity and our criteria for preventive hearing protection
Biologické hodnocení agresivity hluku a naše kritéria preventivní ochrany sluchu [in Czech]
On the basis of audiometric tests of miners, methods for the biological evaluation of noise aggressivity and criteria for dispensary treatment and job transfer were verified in a 2-year comparative study. The results confirmed the merit of audiometric monitoring, especially at 4000Hz. Regression plots of hearing loss as a function of age or length of service are sensitive indicators of early hearing damage.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.2, p.45-49. Illus. 20 ref.
Müller W., Richartz G.
New limitation of noise immission at workers' places of employment
Zur neuen Begrenzung der Lärmimmission an den Arbeitsplätzen von Werktätigen [in German]
A standard recently promulgated in the German Democratic Republic (TGL 32624) is based on the observation that compensable hearing damage by noise becomes negligible at levels below 85dB(A); this level has been fixed for the prevention of inner ear damage due to noise. Certain jobs involving intense concentration require lower ambient noise levels. TGL 32624 establishes 7 categories of job and assigns a workplace noise level limit to each. These range from 80dB(A) for certain laboratory and production jobs down to 35dB(A) for surgical operating rooms. Introduction of the 85dB(A) limit puts more workers into the "noise-exposed" category for purposes of reporting and medical surveillance. The standard expressly requires the wearing of personal hearing protection in noisy workplaces. Measurement and evaluation of workplace noise under this standard follow specifications of other standards.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1984, Vol.30, No.10, p.561-565. 27 ref.
Noise protection - Recommendations
Protection contre le bruit - Recommandations [in French]
Contents: Belgian regulations on noise; the physics of sound; noise measurement (equipment and techniques for measurement in open and closed spaces); effects of noise on hearing (acute and chronic effects, measurement of hearing loss); standards on noise limitation (ISO and ACGIH, among others) in cases of exposure to continuous noise, to noise at one frequency or in a narrow frequency band and to impact noise; interference with work; noise and ergonomics; protective measures (protection at source; personal protection).
Commissariat général ŕ la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1984. 79p. Illus.
Noise emission by wood milling and planing machines - Measures for noise reduction
Geräuschemission von Fräs- und Hobelwerkzeugen für die Holzbearbeitung - Massnahmen zur Lärmminderung [in German]
The cutting tool is the main source of noise in most cases when working with woodworking machines. This report describes the principles of noise measurement and gives examples of actual noise measurement. The main sources of the noise are identified. The influence of the characteristics of the cutting tool is studied as well as the possibility of reducing noise by appropriate design. In an appendix: list of cutting tools studied, with their characteristics and acoustic power (under normal working conditions or when running idle).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. Illus. 87p. 10 ref. Price: DM.16.50.
Fasold W., Kraak W., Schirmer W.
Taschenbuch Akustik [in German]
7 of the 14 chapters of this manual are of particular relevance to OSH professionals: physical fundamentals (generation and propagation of sound, statistical energy analysis); effects of sound on man (prediction of hearing damage, effect of sound on work efficiency, audiometry); noise control requirements (GDR, other countries and international organisations); measuring technology (fundamentals of signal analysis, sound power measurement, scale model techniques); machinery acoustics (generation and reduction of noise, special machinery, equipment and transport facilities, e.g. electric motors, textile machines, metalworking, ships); acoustics of buildings (sound insulation, sound-absorbing materials, sound isolation for workrooms); acoustics in city planning (sound propagation). Other chapters concern musical acoustics, room acoustics, electroacoustics, ultrasound applications, Rayleigh wave acoustics, hydroacoustics, automatic speech identification.
Verlag Technik, Oranienburger Str. 13-14, DDR-1020 Berlin, 1984. 1824p. Illus. 2 vol. Price: M.130.00.
Influence of whole-body vibration and noise on the functional state of operators
Vlijanie obščej vibracii i šuma na funkcional'noe sostojanie čeloveka-operatora [in Russian]
6 psycho-physiological parameters were measured in 10 volunteers exposed to vibration (10Hz,1m/s2) and noise (90dBA), and to vibration only at the same level. Vibration was produced by a laboratory vibration stand. There was no essential difference between the psychophysiological effects of vibration and noise, and of vibration alone.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1984, No.10, p.38-39. 6 ref.
Hearing threshold and heart rate in men after repeated exposure to dynamic muscle work, sinusoidal vs stochastic whole body vibration and stable broadband noise
The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the temporary threshold shifts (TTS2) and heart rates in persons exposed to either noise or vibration alone or a combination of both during their work, and (2) the influence of dynamic muscular work on the threshold shift. Noise had the most notable effect on the TTS2 values at hearing frequencies of 4 and 6kHz. Noise plus vibration and noise plus dynamic muscular work caused the most obvious combined effects. The combined effect of all 3 factors (noise, vibration, work) on the TTS2 values was significant at hearing frequencies of 4 and 6kHz. The added effect of vibration was particularly evident when the vibration was stochastic and when the persons had a low working efficiency (2W). Increasing the working efficiency seemed to delay increases in the hearing threshold. Thus TTS2 values seem to reflect the changes in heart rate values.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.54, No.1, p.19-32. 39 ref.
Waack H.P., Töpfer K.
Infrasound in rail vehicles
Infraschall auf Schienenfahrzeugen [in German]
In railway operations, the low-frequency vibration of large surfaces or gas volumes often generates infrasound. Measurements in locomotives and coaches showed that the infrasound level near passing trains is generally below detection limits, and that it does not affect riding comfort in coaches. In the cab of diesel locomotives, the infrasound level may sometimes exceed 105dB, and thus have some slight effect on the driver's general condition. The threshold of perception, nuisance levels and danger levles of infrasound have not yet been definitively established.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1984, Vol.31, No.4, p.181-188. Illus. 7 ref.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
General purpose fans - Methods for determining noise characteristics
Ventiljatory obščego naznačenija. Metody opredelenija šumovyh harakteristik [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1985) applies to one-stage centrifugal and one-stage axial fans with wheel diameters from 200 to 500mm and establishes methods for noise measurement. Contents: general provisions (list of noise characteristics of fans and methods to measure these characteristics), methods of measurement (measurement of noise inside an air duct connected to a fan; measurement of the reflected sound field; measurement of the noise in the duct outlet); processing of the results; safety requirements. Terms and definitions used in the standard, a method of calculation of the sound pressure levels radiated from throttle devices and a method to determine the reflection coefficient of terminal absorbing devices are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984, 21p. Price: Rbl.0,05.
Protection of workers against noise and vibration in the working environment. Code of practice
La protection des travailleurs contre le bruit et les vibrations sur les lieux de travail. Recueil de directives pratiques [in French]
Third impression with modifications of the English version of this code. The French and Spanish versions issued in 1977 remain unchanged (see CIS 77-1282). This code of practice was adopted by a meeting of experts convened by the ILO. Intended to provide guidance for governments, employers and workers, it sets out the principles that should be followed for the control of workplace noise and vibration, and contains the information required for the establishment of control programmes for individual plants. Definitions are followed by chapters devoted to: general principles; organising principles of prevention; noise measurement and assessment (hearing conservation, oral communications, fatigue, measuring instruments, instrument accuracy and calibration, recording of data); noise limit levels (hearing impairment, ultrasound and infrasound, fatigue and comfort, etc.); vibration measurement; vibration limits; whole-body vibration; identification of risk areas; noise and vibration control; new equipment; noise and vibration control in the working environment; protective equipment and reduction of exposure time; health supervision. Appendices: international standards; information on health hazards of noise, ultrasound, infrasound and vibration; maximum allowable levels of ultrasound; noise hazard contours; signs indicating noise zones, etc.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1984. 90p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 17.50.
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