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Environmental noise measurements
A review of the most common environmental noise rating methods, with emphasis on the basic quantities recommended by ISO standard 1996/1. The application of the Brüel and Kjaer 4427 Noise Level Analyzer to some practical measurement situations is described. The evaluation of the sound exposure level of a moving source under various conditions is outlined in an appendix.
Brüel & Kjær Technical Review, 1986, No.1, p.3-36. Illus. 12 ref.
André G., Damongeot A.
Sound and ultrasound emission during ultrasonic welding - Hazards and preventive measures
Emissions sonores et ultrasonores lors du soudage par ultrasons - Risques et moyens de prévention [in French]
The levels, nature and frequency of acoustic vibrations (sound and ultrasound) at 56 ultrasound welding machine work stations were studied. A comparison of the results with recommended limit values in effect in France (relating to noise and ultrasound) revealed risks to the health of workers. This article presents preventive methods (enclosure, sound reduction at source, acoustic damping, screens, etc.) that have already been tested and whose effectiveness has been measured.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1986, No.123, Note No.1577-123-86, p.151-166. Illus. 5 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Fifth ECSC Research Programme on: "Technical control of nuisances and pollution at the place of work and in the environment of iron and steel works"
5ème programme de recherche CECA: "Lutte technique contre les nuisances sur les lieux de travail et dans l'environnement des installations sidérurgiques" [in French]
Priorities of this research programme: control of air contamination in the workplace and in its environment; pollution control of fresh and sea-water; the problem of wastes; impact studies; the problem of noise.
Office des publications officielles des Communautés européennes, 5, rue du Commerce, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1986. 128p.
Commission Directive of 11 July 1985 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 84/536/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of power generators [European Communities]
Dir. de la Commission du 11.7.85 portant adaptation au progrès technique de la dir. 84/536/CEE du Conseil, concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des groupes électrogènes de puissance [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive modifies Annex I of Directive 84/536/EEC (CIS 95-1198). Topics: description of technique; directive; electric generators; electric power generation; European Communities; noise level measurement; noise level; permissible levels.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 30 Aug. 1985, No.L 233, p.18-19.
Commission Directive of 11 July 1985 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 84/535/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of welding generators [European Communities]
Dir. de la Commission du 11.7.85 portant adaptation au progrès technique de la dir. 84/535/CEE du Conseil, concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des groupes électrogènes de soudage [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive modifies Annex I of Directive 84/535/EEC (CIS 95-1197). Topics: description of technique; directive; European Communities; noise level measurement; noise level; permissible levels; welding generators.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 30 Aug. 1985, No.L 233, p.16-17.
Commission Directive of 11 July 1985 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 84/533/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of compressors [European Communities]
Directive de la Commission du 11 juil. 1985 portant adaptation au progrès technique de la directive 84/533/CEE du Conseil, concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des motocompresseurs [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive amends Annexes I and II to Directive 84/533/EEC (CIS 95-1195). Topics: compressors; description of technique; directive; European Communities; noise level measurement; noise level; permissible levels; sound power.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 Aug. 1985, No.L.233, p.11-15. Illus.
Noise Abatement (Noise Labelling of Equipment) Regulations (No.2) 1985 [Australia - Western Australia]
These regulations (published in the Government Gazette No.64 of 19 July 1985, amended in 1986) were issued under the Noise Abatement Act 1972 and deemed to have been made under the Environment Protection Act 1986. They require the labelling of machinery to show the maximum acoustic output produced by it. The format of the labels required is shown in the annex.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.3, 5p. (pages numbered 78,051 - 78,055).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise control by design XIV. Control of noise of electric tools used in woodworking
Lärmarm konstruieren XIV. Lärmminderung an Elektrowerkzeugen für die Holzbearbeitung [in German]
In this report elements of electric tools are presented with regard to their contribution to the total noise emission. Solutions for noise control by design, and results attained are given.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, PF 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 125p. Illus.
Maslov N.N., Elsukov V.A.
Occupational safety and health in underground railways
Ohrana truda na metropolitenah [in Russian]
Contents of this book for supervisors and technical personnel: basic principles (labour activity, conditions and characteristics of work, standards in occupational hygiene, classification and methods of determination of dangerous and hazardous industrial agents); methods and means of protection against dangerous physical and hazardous industrial factors; chemical, psychophysiological and biological hazards; electrical safety; compliance with occupational hygiene requirements in the design, modernisation and exploitation of underground railways; management of occupational hygiene in underground railways; injuries and measures for their prevention.
Izdatel'stvo Transport, Basmannyj tup. 6a, 103064 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 144p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: SUR 0.50.
Noise: Sound without value
Data sheet on how noise damages hearing, units, noise levels and control, farm machinery, and ear protection.
Farm Safety Association, Unit 22, 340 Woodlawn Road West, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 1985. 2p.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise from pneumatic systems
This guidance note gives practical advice on how to reduce noise resulting from the use of compressed air. Contents: pneumatic exhausts and jets; the factory airline; the noise characteristics of compressed air jets; pneumatic exhausts (noise reduction, installation and maintenance, selection factors).
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Oct. 1985. 6p. Illus.
Wickström G., Hasan J., Jalonen J., Järvinen R., Mikola H., Soini S., Toivonen S., Vaahtoranta K., Viljanen V.
Effects of vibration and noise on vigilance and sleep in icebreaker personnel
Tärinän ja melun vaikutus vireyteen ja uneen jäänmurtajilla [in Finnish]
Exposure to vibration and noise was measured on 4 icebreakers. Vigilance and sleep were monitored in 10 of the catering staff on 2 icebreakers before, during and after the icebreaking season; 10 catering workers ashore served as a control group. The icebreaker personnel was exposed to vibration and noise for 24h a day. Vibration was strongest on the bridge (the highest part of the ship), while noise levels were highest in the hull. Vigilance seemed to be a little lower and sleep somewhat shorter among the icebreaker personnel than among those working ashore. Determination of possible long-term effects of vibration and noise would require prolonged monitoring of the workers' psychophysiological functions.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1985, Vol.3, No.3, p.314-323. Illus. 19 ref.
Kono S., Suzuki Y., Sone T.
Some consideration on the auditory perception of ultrasound and its effects on hearing
It is well known that some auditory sensation is caused by ultrasound through bone conduction. In order to understand the mechanism of the perception of ultrasound and its effects on man, the authors investigated its pitch, loudness, temporary threshold shift and masking caused by ultrasound, including its threshold. Some interesting facts were found from these experiments. Namely, we can clearly perceive the pitch of ultrasound, which varies slightly with the frequency of the stimulus, while the loudness level of ultrasound whose pressure level is 2dB above the threshold level is ≥ 60phon. Moreover, ultrasound can mask sounds in the audio frequency range and a temporary threshold shift is observed in that range. From these results, it is concluded that ultrasound is perceived by vibration around the base of the basilar membrane and that the distribution of the excited position varies with the ultrasonic frequency. The possibility exists that exposure to ultrasound can cause hearing damage.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, Jan. 1985. Vol.6, No.1, p.3-8. Illus. 5 ref.
Martinik K., Voplatek V., Opltová L.
Unspecific responses to noise load
Nespecifická odpověd' organismu na zvukovou zátěž [in Czech]
The response of the cardiovascular system at the beginning of sound stimulation is regarded as individual and as composed of nonuniform components. The change in pulse rate of experimental subjects was initially dependent on the level of the applied noise. In the adaptation phase, the time required for normalisation of pulse rate values was in direct proportion to the level of sound stimulation. Significant changes were found also by specific spatial methods of monitoring the cardiovascular system. The results of all observations, including biochemical parameters and EEG records, were modified by the personality traits of the subjects.
Československá hygiena, Aug. 1985, Vol.30, No.6, p.321-333. 32 ref.
Revised Regulation 116/85 respecting hearing conservation and noise control in workplaces [Canada - Manitoba]
Regulation issued under the Workplace Safety and Health Act (1976). Coverage: definitions; assessment of noise exposure; hearing protection; responsibilities of employers and employees; audiometric testing; other medical examinations; hearing conservation records. A short guide to the implementation of workplace hearing conservation programmes is also included.
Queen's Printer, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, May 1985. 18p.
Catalogue of noise-reducing measures
Katalog Lärmminderungsmassnahmen [in German]
These supplements describe technical measures for noise reduction in piston compressors, guillotine shearing machines, roll stands, welding transformers, automatic folding machines, tractors, pneumatic hammers, fan cowls in factory halls, waste-gas flues, work places for punching of steel plates, crank presses, roller conveyors, vibrator conveyors, conveyance of steel ingots and also in the case of large-area noise sources in the open air, like small cooling towers or transformers.
Arbeitsschutz, Arbeitshygiene, 1985, suppléments 33, 34, 35, 36, p.249-278.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Noise. Metal-cutting machine tools. Permissible noise characteristics [USSR]
Šum. Stanki metallorežuščie. Dopustimye šumovye harakteristiki [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1986) applies to metal cutting machine tools in use in the USSR and for export, with the exception of impulse noise. It establishes permissible noise levels for machine tools running idle and under load, methods and circumstances of noise measurement. A model form for reporting noise level measurements is shown in an appendix.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 15p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Bottoms D.J., Stayner R.M.
Noise and vibration in agriculture and forestry: Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Ergonomics Symposium, Silsoe, England, 9-12 September 1985
Eighteen papers on various aspects of noise and vibration in the use of agricultural and forestry machinery (mostly tractors and chainsaws).
National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS, United Kingdom, 1985. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.
Acoustical Society of America, New York
Catalog of acoustical standards
This booklet lists the acoustical standards published by the Acoustical Society of America and by ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and includes a summary and price for each standard.
American Institute of Physics, Publication Sales Dept., 335 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1985. 27p.
Ivanov V.A., Kravec V.A.
Investigation of the vibration of punch presses in the shoe industry and of ways to reduce it
Issledovanie vibroaktivnosti vyrubočnyh pressov obuvnoj promyšlennosti i puti ee sniženija [in Russian]
The noise and vibration emitted by two typical presses for punching out shoe soles were measured and the vibroacoustic fields on and around the machines were mapped. Noise and vibration levels were positively correlated. Maximum noise and vibration in the operating cycle occurred at the point where the sole material had just been punched through. It is proposed that hard rubber or plastic be used to shroud the presses, that they be coated with mastic having a modulus of elasticity of 109N/m2, and that areas of high-frequency vibration be damped with softer coatings (modulus of elasticity 107N/m2).
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Oct. 1985, No.10, p.41-42. 2 ref.
Kracht L., Parthey W., Heidekrüger A.
Catalogue of standards and regulations relating to noise control
Titelverzeichnis von Vorschriften zum Gebiet Lärmschutz [in German]
This international catalogue contains in particular the titles of standards, but it contains as well titles of relevant laws, regulations, decrees etc. (1500 citations in all). The following organisations and countries are covered: the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), Argentina, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, USSR, USA. Analytical index.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Strasse 1, 8020 Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 1985. 143p. Price: M.12.00.
Miyakita T., Miura H.
Study on an evaluation index for noise susceptibility
The relationship between the magnitude of the acoustic reflex and the bandwidth of the reflex-activating sounds was investigated. A two-phase linear regression model was fitted to the sets of data, and the critical bandwidth (CBW) was estimated in 83 subjects with normal hearing acuity and without occupational noise exposure. The effects of noise exposure on the difference between the acoustic reflex threshold (ART) for white noise and the ART for 1kHz pure tone, and on the critical bandwidth were then investigated. The value of this ART-difference may be used as a sensitive indicator for detecting and evaluating the early stages of noise-induced hearing impairment and individual susceptibility to noise.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.55, No.4, p.285-293 and p.295-303. Illus. 56 ref.
The noise handbook
This book is intended to give a current picture of the effects of noise on man, the incidence of noise in various environments and situations, the protection afforded by the law and the state of the art in noise control. It is aimed at a wide range of specialists. Chapters cover: noise measurement; physiological and psychological effects of noise; noise sources (industrial and other); noise control; noise and the law in the UK, US and EEC.
Academic Press Inc., 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 76D, United Kingdom, 1985. 407p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$71.00.
Sibarov Ju.G., Skolotnev N.N., Vasin V.K., Naginaev V.N.
Labour protection in computer centres
Ohrana truda v vyčislitel'nyh centrah [in Russian]
This training manual for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in computer centres. Contents: fundamentals of labour legislation, organisation of safety work, safety standards; occupational accidents and diseases; occupational hygiene (main issues of occupational hygiene, labour physiology and psychology, microclimate, noise control, lighting, ventilation and heating); electrical safety (effects of electricity on the human body, protective measures); fire protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per.4, Moskva, USSR, 1985. 175p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Rbl.0.35.
Kolganov A.V., Muhin V.V., Lastkov D.O., Rešetjuk V.A.
Hygienic aspects of the information model of noise
Gigieničeskie aspekty informacionnoj modeli šuma [in Russian]
In a rolling mill, noise dose during a shift and noise entropy were measured at two levels for 117 workers. Tonal audiometry, tonometry, pulsometry and rheocencephalography were performed before and after a shift. A questionnaire survey of 60 coalworkers and metalworkers was also performed. Increasing entropy at constant dose altered the threshold of hearing. The rate of reception of information before a shift was greatest when both entropy and dose were minimal, whereas after a shift the rate was highest for maximum entropy and minimum dose. Temporary and permanent threshold shifts responded in the same way to changes in the variables. Thus, the biological activity of noise depends not only on its energy and entropy, but also on their interrelationship.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1985, No.6, p.19-22. 11 ref.
Labour protection in shipbuilding
Ohrana truda v sudostroenii [in Russian]
This manual intended for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in the shipbuilding industry: fundamentals of labour legislation, assessment of occupational safety, safety engineering and occupational hygiene (working conditions, harmful and hazardous factors, workplace air, ventilation, lighting, electrical safety), fire protection (flammability of substances, prevention of fires, fire-fighting work), social and economic aspects of labour protection (economic consequences of unfavourable working conditions, economic efficiency of labour protection).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, ul.Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985, 223p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
Jindřichová J., Veselý C., Štěpánek O.
Noise-induced hearing damage in tractor drivers
Poškození sluchu z hluku u traktoristů [in Czech]
110 tractor drivers were examined. Audiometry disclosed a 4.5% reduction in hearing in 8 out of 17 (47%) in the ≤29-year age group, a 4.1% loss in 23 out of 36 (63%) in the age group of 30-39, a 5.6% loss in 14 out of 25 (56%) at 40-49 years and a 9.5% loss in 18 out of 25 (72%) in the 50-59-year group (>31% loss in 3 of the group). In the age group above 60 years, 5 out of 7 had an average hearing loss of 13.3%; in one it was 41.4%. Comparison of the degree of hearing changes with UNESCO data for the corresponding non-exposed age groups shows an excessive increase of moderate hearing changes in relation to age and a greater incidence of serious damage in the older age groups.
Pracovní lékařství, 1985, Vol.37, No.5, p.150-152. 10 ref.
Brückner C., Suworov G.A., Müller W., Denisov E., Skarinov L., Richartz G., Reichelt M., Dietze B., Kliesener H., Seidel H., Bartsch R.
Influence of differently structured noises on some physiological and psychological parameters
Die Beeinflussung einiger physiologischer Funktionen des menschlichen Organismus durch Lärm verschiedener Strukturen [in German]
The reaction of persons to noises of varying structures (the rate of impulses was changed) was studied in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, reaction time, temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing and the psychological factor "mood". Besides well-known effects, a special kind of TTS dependent on the structure of noise was found.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1985, Vol.31, No.4, p.198-201. Illus. 14 ref.
Effects of noise exposure on the fingertip senses and the blood flows of brain and fingers
167 knitting workers exposed to noise (noise group) and 60 packers not exposed to noise (control group) were investigated. Studies were carried out on the vibration and pain senses of the fingertips, the bilateral circulation of blood in the brain and the ring fingers, and the temperature and pain senses of the skin after cold water immersion among these workers. There were significant differences between the indices of the noise group and those of the control group, which suggests that noise affects the whole body.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.4, p.210-213. Illus. 11 ref.
Wang T. et al.
Study of the health effects of loom noise on retired female weaving workers
Medical examinations were carried out for both auditory and extra-auditory systems on retired female weaving workers who had been exposed to loom noise for years. Most of them had not only severe hearing loss, but also changed in nervous, cardiovascular, digestive and genital systems. It is suggested that loom noise has its long-term effects on weaving workers and prevention of it is important.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.5, p.275-278. 6 ref.
Möckel L., Weist R.
New ways of soundproofing metal-forming machines
Neue Wege der Kapselung von Umformmaschinen [in German]
To obtain a combination of primary and secondary soundproofing measures, a total enclosure of machines is required. The enclosures must meet all requirements of occupational safety, serviceability, safety of transportation and tool changing. A soundproofing enclosure with corresponding modules already successfully used on several types of presses has been developed for a wide field of application. On an automatic machine for can lids, a reduction of 15dBA in the overall noise level has been obtained. This is near the theoretical value of the obtainable sound reduction.
Maschinenbautechnik, 1985, Vol.34, No.4, p.179-180. Illus.
Voskun M.D., Efrejtorova I.I., Gaffner N.F., Haritonov V.B., Tazutdinova I.A., Ušakov V.A.
Sound-control material for the tractor industry
Šumozaščitnyj material dlja traktornoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Description of a sound-absorbing material developed in a collaborative project by an industrial combine and 2 research institutes in the USSR. The material consists of 0.35mm polyvinyl chloride film, perforated with 1mm holes in a 5x10mm pattern and backed by a 20mm layer of polyurethane foam. It is suitable for lining the cabs of tractors and other pieces of agricultural equipment. The material absorbs sound best in the frequency range 800-2000Hz. When tested in tractor cabs, the material brought the interior noise level down below maximum allowable levels over the whole frequency range tested, and reduced overall noise 3dB below the level observed with the present standard liner material. Physical and mechanical properties of the material are tabulated.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Jan. 1985, No.1, p.9-10.
Noise-Con 85. Computers for noise control
Proceedings of the Seventh US National Noise Control Engineering Conference, Columbus, Ohio, 3-5 June 1985. The 72 research reports are grouped under the headings: numerical methods in noise control; computer-aided testing; office equipment and environment; computer-aided design and modal analysis; noise control solutions; damping and brake squeal; computer-aided design of ducts and mufflers; signal processing and diagnostics; plant and community noise; personal computers and spreadsheets; intensity measurements; propellers, fans and cutters.
Noise Control Foundation, PO Box 3469 Arlington Branch, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, USA, 1985. 502p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$48.00.
Ujudin E.A., Terehin A.S.
Protection against noise of mine fans
Bor'ba s šumom šahtnyh ventiljatornyh ustanovok [in Russian]
This guide covers: physical aspects of noise of mine fans (sound field, permissible noise levels, noise sources, etc.), methods of acoustic design of fans (emission of noise in ducts of ventilating systems, design of sound isolation of fans, calculation of noise emission in production areas, etc.), noise dampers (basic diagrammes of dampers, sound insulating materials and devices for dampers, noise dampers for mine fans of underground railways, fans for local and general ventilation, air conditioners, dust collectors, etc.); noise and vibration isolation, vibration damping; examples of acoustic calculations; measurement of fan noise. The guide can be used in the design of fans for above-ground structures and in the control of noise from other equipment in which air or gases flow.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tretjakovskij pr.1/19, 103633 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 191p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: Rbl.0.60.
Protection against noise in industry
Bor'ba s šumom na proizvodstve [in Russian]
This technical guide is a summary of methods of protection against mechanical, aerodynamic, hydrodynamic and electromagnetic noise. Contents: physical characteristics of sound waves and sound sources, general principles of noise control (physiological, hygienic, social and economic aspects of protection against noise; requirements for the design of equipment, processes, production areas and for building on the territory of enterprises); methods of control of noise (sound absorption and insulation, vibration absorption and insulation, noise dampers, active methods of compensation of vibration and noise fields, reduction of noise levels in fans); personal protective equipment, noise measurement.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per.4, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 399p. Illus. 335 ref. Price: Rbl.1.80.
Hearing protection for the construction industry
Aspects covered in this illustrated data sheet: fundamentals of sound and noise; noise measurement; hearing process; hearing loss; hearing protection (types, effectiveness, selection criteria, fit, care and use); audiometry.
Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 2A5, 1985. 16p. Illus.
Linenko-Mel'nikov Ju.P., Krasnik V.G.
Improvement of working conditions in the dressing of drilling tools
Uluščenie uslovij truda pri vosstanovlenii burovogo instrumenta [in Russian]
Replacement of the standard ZS-30 drill-sharpening stand with the new SAEZ-8 stand markedly improves working conditions for the operator. Used with diamond grinding wheels instead of the older silicon carbide or other abrasive wheels, the new unit reduces the amount of operator effort required from 318 to 10.0kN, reduces dust in the operator's breathing space from 7.5 to 0.1mg/m3, lowers the ambient noise level from 85 to 80dB, and brings vibration levels in all octave bands from 16 to 4000Hz within the limits set by standards.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.42.
Results of occupational research - Results of applied research - Noise control
Arbeitswissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse - Forschungsergebnisse für die Praxis - Lärmminderung [in German]
Information notes issued as supplements to the series abstracted as CIS 84-1794. They contain the results of applied research on noise control in bottling plants, chutes, forging presses, truing machines, blanking presses, band saws and knock-out equipment.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 9 notes, 8-10p. each. Illus. Bibl.
Collection of French standards - Acoustics. Vol. 1: Vocabulary, instrumentation. Vol. 2: Basic standards for measurement and hearing protection. Vol. 3: Specific tests in building construction and with various materials
Recueil de normes françaises. Acoustique. Tome 1: Vocabulaire, instrumentation. Tome 2: Normes fondamentales de mesurage, protection de l'ouïe. Tome 3: Essais spécifiques au bâtiment et à divers matériels [in French]
Among the standards in this collection are: vocabulary of acoustics; measuring instruments; guide to noise measurement and to the measurement of noise effects in man; determination of the acoustic power emitted by noise sources; labelling of equipment and machinery; hearing protection; acoustics in building construction; specific test codes for machines and equipment (other than those used in building construction); electric typewriters, rotating machines, machine tools, textile machinery, compressor units, etc. In addition, Vol.I contains a French-English-German glossary.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, Cedex 7, 92080 Paris-La Défense, France, 1985, 4th ed., Vol.I: 473p., Vol.II: 387p., Vol.III: 567p. Illus.
Lang J., François P., Eggink E., Heinrich H., Kracht L., Irmer V.
Indication of the noise emission of machines and equipment
Die Kennzeichnung der Geräuschabgabe von Maschinen und Geräten [in German]
Papers presented at a seminar of the Austrian Working Group for Noise Control (Vienna, Nov. 1984): the situations in Austria (labelling of machines emitting 80dB(A), measuring techniques); France (trends in regulation, measuring methods and equipment, construction equipment); the Netherlands (regulation, emission limits, declaration of noise emission); the German Democratic Republic (regulation, measuring methods, monitoring of noise emission); and the Federal Republic of Germany (regulation, trends).
E und M, Nov. 1985, Vol.102, No.11, p.445-474. Illus.
Körpert K., Westphal G.
Factors that influence the wearing of hearing protection by Austrian workers
Einflussfaktoren für das Tragen von Gehörschutz bei Arbeitnehmern in Österreich [in German]
Five factors were studied: noise level, duration of exposure, branch of industry, geographical region, hearing ability. The data were taken from 191,938 routine audiometric tests carried out from 1976 to 1983. The percentage of workers wearing hearing protection doubled during this period, but further measures are necessary to increase the use of hearing protectors among women, workers with hearing impairment and persons working in high-noise areas. The adequacy of the hearing protectors must also be ensured.
Zeitschrift für Lärmbekämpfung, 1985, Vol.32, p.151-158. Illus. 7 ref.
Fouriaud C., Jacquinet-Salord M.C., Degoulet P., Lang T., Aime F., Laprugne J., Main J., Oeconomos J., Phalente J., Prades A.
Influence of life style and working conditions on the blood pressure of North African workers in the Paris region
Influence des conditions de vie et de travail sur la pression artérielle dans une population de salariés maghrébins de la région parisienne [in French]
657 North African workers were examined during their annual visit to the occupational physician. A significant relationship was found between high blood pressure and certain working conditions: assembly-line work (systolic blood pressure), long-term exposure to noise levels above 85dB(A) (systolic and diastolic blood pressure). An inverse relationship was found between high blood pressure and physical work-load. Etiological implications and the notion of high-risk groups for hypertension are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.2, p.79-83. 10 ref.
Develay P., Delrieu J., T'Kint de Roodenbeke
Glass blowers in scientific laboratories. Occupational hazards
Les verriers de laboratoires scientifiques. Risques professionnels [in French]
Description of glass technology (materials and equipment) and analysis of the principal occupational dangers: predictable risks (heat, non-ionising radiations - risks of eye and skin injury); unexpected risks, connected with noise and dust (asbestos, silica, emery); infrequent risks, such as poisoning by harmful vapours. Summary of occupational accidents and diseases in this field. Suggestions for preventive measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.37-43. 14 ref.
Hansson J.E., Eklund L., Kihlberg S., Kjellberg A., Sternerup I., Utter A., Weman K., Östergren C.E.
Exposure to vibration in car repair work - Comparison of tools and methods
Vibrationsexponering vid bilreparationsarbete - Jämförelse av verktyg och arbetsmetoder [in Swedish]
Measurements of vibration and, in certain instances, noise plus subjective evaluation of vibration were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairmen in 7 companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chip hammers, impact wrenches, grinders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration levels. The average daily exposure was 22-70min at the different garages. The risk of vibration damage is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories, so the choice of tool has a major impact on exposure to vibration. The selection of welding methods (shielded-arc, pulsed, spot or resistance) influences noise and vibration exposure; in addition to the welding process itself, the preparation and finishing of workpieces with power tools must be taken into account.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 48p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: Swe.cr.40.00.
Romero Sanchez J.J., Bernaola Alonso M.
Noise and toxicity of explosives used in demolition work
Ruido y toxicología de los explosivos en las demoliciones [in Spanish]
Aspects covered: effect of noise on workers using explosives; propagation of sound from explosions; toxicity of contaminants produced by the explosions (gases, vapours, dust); preventive measures and personal protective equipment; instrumentation for measuring the concentration of contaminants in air; description of potential health hazards (deafness, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases).
Salud y trabajo, July-Aug. 1985, No.50, p.9-17. Illus.
Körpert K., Vanek R.
Noise measurement in industrial installations using ultrasound, and evaluation criteria for the prevention of harmful effects
Geräuschmessungen an industriellen Ultraschallanlagen und Vergleich mit Beurteilungskriterien zur Vermeidung gesundheitlicher Auswirkungen [in German]
Study of criteria designed to evaluate the harmful effects of ultrasound, as shown in the scientific literature. In addition to potential harm to hearing, subjective effects are also noted. A review of permissible levels and evaluation criteria in various countries is followed by the results of noise measurements performed in 53 enterprises where ultrasound is used for washing, welding and drilling. A comparison of the results with evaluation criteria shows that the only measurable quantity appropriate to this kind of evaluation is the AU-weighted sound pressure level.
Acustica, 1985, Vol.58, No.1, p.48-56. Illus. 19 ref.
Kuronen J., Laitinen H.
Cost-benefit analysis of measures for noise prevention
Meluntorjunnan kannattavuuden arviointi yrityksissä [in Finnish]
The costs of planning, materials and installation, together with the losses caused by interruptions of operations, make up the toal cost of noise prevention measures. As accurate planning helps to avoid costly mistakes, it is unwise to skimp on planning costs. The benefits of noise prevention are measureable in monetary terms. Before a cost-benefit analysis is done, it must be shown that the measures under consideration will actually reduce noise and will be compatible with the production process. The analysis itself can be performed in terms of economic profitability, cost abatement ratios, cost effectiveness ratios and priority numbers. Each of these approaches to cost-benefit analysis has disadvantages; combined approaches are better. One acceptable model uses economic profitability and priority numbers, supplemented with a variable for the payback period. This model is well suited to cases where there is a risk of hearing loss; in other cases, the cost effectiveness ratio is the most suitable.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa, Finland, 1985. 25p. 6 ref. Price: Fm.15.00.
Hancock P.A., Pierce J.O.
Combined effects of heat and noise on human performance: a review
Capabilities in a variety of neuromuscular and mental tasks are reviewed with respect to vulnerability to joint thermal and acoustic action. Most of the evidence indicates that such stressors do not interact significantly within the ranges experienced commonly in the industrial setting. However, various experimental and methodological inadequacies in the meagre information caution at the present time against a simple interpretation of this apparent insensitivity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1985, Vol.46, No.10, p.555-566. Illus. 32 ref.
Noise and noise control
Lärm und Lärmbekämpfung [in German]
The introductory chapters of this work describe the physics of sound, personal protection against noise, technical measures for the reduction of noise and the vocabulary of technical acoustics. The main body of the text is devoted to noise measurement methods and to technical measures of noise control with practical examples: sound isolation, silencers, noise screens. A computer program used int he solution of noise control problems (involving acoustics and noise toporaphy in factories) is reporduced in full. Explanations are given of the mechanisms by which noise is produced and of possible ways to reduce noise at source.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, no date. 102p. Illus. 5 ref.
Low-noise construction No.12 - Mechanical impedance
Lärmarm konstruieren XII - Mechanische Impedanzen [in German]
Supplementary explanation of sheet No.6 of Directive VDI 3720, relating to noise transmitted by a solid medium: additional theory, design of low-noise constructions taking impedance into consideration, a schematic evaluation method for impedance, examples of calculations. In addition to the magnitude of impedance, the real component of admittance is also of great practical importance for the determination of energy flux caused by a sound source.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 78p. Illus. 10 ref. (Also published: Zeitschrift für Lärmbekämpfung, 1985, Vol.32, No.5, p.126-134).
Integrating-averaging sound level meters
Sonomètres intégrateurs-moyenneurs [in French]
This international standard describes instruments for the measurement of frequency-weighted and time-averaged sound pressure levels. It takes into account the requirements of CEI 651, sound level meters, and specifies additional characteristics for the measurement of the equivalent continuous sound pressure level, Leq, of steady, intermittent, fluctuating and impulsive sounds. The terms "integrating sound level meter" or "averaging sound level meter" may be used. From the contents: object and general requirements; definitions; general characteristics; frequency weighting and amplifier characteristics; averaging and indicator characteristics; overload indication; sensitivity to various environments; calibration and verification of the basic characteristics; rating information and instruction manual.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1985. 49p. Price: SF.66.00.
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