Noise - 2,325 entries found
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Danière P., Robinet D., Sueur J., Boulanger P., Donati P., Galmiche J.P., Roure L.
The noise and vibration environment at the operator work station on earthmoving equipment
L'environnement acoustique et vibratoire aux postes de conduite des engins de terrassement [in French]
The purpose of this study was to meet the need of noise and vibration control standards at operator work stations on earthmoving equipment. A large number of vehicles were studied (91 for noise and 70 for vibration) in order to cover all the most commonly used types of machine. Analysis of noise at the driver work station showed that these machines are still very noisy. It was possible, using simplified tests, to measure the driver noise exposure level adequately and thus to draw up specific test codes. Vibration measurements gave a picture of vibration exposure at the operator work station on the vehicles tested and also of the efficiency of seat suspension. The findings revealed that the vertical suspension systems on the vehicles tested are frequently unsuitable.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1987, No.126, Note No.1616-126-87, p.63-73. Illus. 16 ref.
Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources - Survey method using a reference sound source
Acoustique - Détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique émis par les sources de bruit - Méthode de conrôle faisant appel à une source sonore de référence [in French]
This standard specifies a survey method. It applies particularly to machines and equipment which cannot be moved from their installed location for the purposes of measuring noise. Contents: acoustic environment, instrumentation, installation and operation of sources, sound pressure levels on measurement surface, calculation of sound power level, information to be recorded, information to be reported.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 6 Jan. 1987. 16p. Illus.
Miyakita T., Miura H., Futatsuka M.
An experimental study of the physiological effects of chain saw operation
This study was designed to determine whether a combination of noise and vibration produced more pronounced changes in temporary shifts of finger skin temperature and temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing than those resulting from exposure to either stress alone. Nineteen healthy subjects were exposed to 6 different combinations of vibration, noise and handle holding by using a chain saw for a pre-determed time. The mean value of normalised finger skin temperature decreased much more when the subjects operated a chain saw at high speed than when they operated the chain saw with the noise isolated by double hearing protection. Noise may play a part in inducing the constriction of peripheral vessels seen with local exposure to vibration, and hand-arm vibration may produce an additive effect on the noise-induced TTS.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1987, Vol.44, No.1, p.41-46. Illus. 27 ref.
Factories and Machinery Act 1967 - Factories and Machinery (Noise Exposure) Regulations 1986 [Malaysia]
Contents of these Regulations: definitions; obligations of employees; permissible exposure limits (continuous sound level: 90dB(A), at any time: 115dB(A)); exposure monitoring; methods of compliance; hearing protection devices; audiometric testing programmes; employee information and training; warning signs; record keeping. In the schedules: exposure limits in function of duration of exposure; maximum allowable octave-band sound pressure levels for audiometric test rooms.
Offprint, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1986. iii, 16p.
Council Directive of 22 Dec. 1986 on the limitation of noise emitted by hydraulic excavators, rope-operated excavators, dozers, loaders and excavator-loaders [CEC]
Directive du Conseil du 22 déc. 1986 relative à la limitation des émissions sonores des pelles hydrauliques et à câbles, des bouteurs, des chargeuses et des chargeuses-pelleteuses [CCE] [in French]
This directive defines the types of equipment concerned and lays down the conditions according to which the approved bodies shall issue an EEC type-examination certificate. Methods of measurement of airborne noise emitted as well as technical procedures for the checking of the conformity of production models with the type examined are given.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec. 1986, No.L.384, p.1-11. Illus.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
A measuring system for acoustic scale models
Ein Messsystem für die akustische Modelltechnik [in German]
This report describes a measuring system which can be used for listening into a scaled-down model space. For the first time, this method guarantees the measurement of sound signals within model spaces in a way corresponding to natural hearing. It provides the possibility to carry out many different measurements in reduced model spaces. Essential measuring devices are described, as are the measures necessary for ensuring that the acoustic field in the model resembles the full-scale field.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, PF 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986. 155p. Illus. 206 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise control for planing and milling machines used in woodworking
Lärmminderung an Fräs- und Hobelwerkzeugen für die Holzbearbeitung [in German]
Planing and milling machines for woodworking rank among the noisiest machines. This report illustrates the main parameters influencing noise emission. In many cases machine characteristics cause an additional increase in noise emission. Noise levels can be reduced by using tools with helical or narrow cutting edges.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, PF 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986. 95p. Illus. 13 ref.
Weck M., Humpert R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emission of machine tools during operation
Geräuschemission von Werkzeugmaschinen bei der Bearbeitung I [in German]
The noise emission of cutting machine tools depends to a high degree on the machining operation in question. The noise is partly produced by the machine itself, partly by the machining operation. Whereas the noise emission of cutting machine tools is well known and documented in standards and guidelines, no reliable knowledge concerning noise emitted during machining has so far been published. This project therefore describes sound emission during machining operations and determines the relevant parameters.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, PF 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986. 127p. Illus. 20 ref.
Textbook on the evaluation and control of noise
Manual para la evaluación y control de ruido [in Spanish]
Advanced-level textbook. Contents: noise in general (the physics of noise, units of measurement, anatomy and physiology of hearing); noise measurement; control methods (noise reduction at the source and during transmission, hearing protection); warning signs in noisy work areas.
Gerencia de Seguridad Industrial, Coord. Ejec. de Servicios Generales y Seguridad Industrial, Instituto Mexicano de Petróleo (PEMEX), Ciudad de México, Mexico, may 1986. 87p. Illus. 20 ref.
Council Directive of 22 Dec. 1986 on the limitation of noise emitted by hydraulic excavators, rope-operated excavators, dozers, loaders and excavator-loaders [CEC]
Directive du Conseil, du 22 déc. 1986, relative à la limitation des émissions sonores des pelles hydrauliques et à câbles, des bouteurs, des chargeuses et des chargeuses-pelleteuses [CCE] [in French]
This directive applies to the sound-power level of airborne noise emitted in the environment and the sound-pressure level of airborne noise emitted at the operator's positions of these earth-moving machines. The method of measurement of airborne noise is given as well as model plates stating the sound-power and sound-pressure levels at the operator's position.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec. 1986, Vol. 29, No. L384, p.1-11. Illus.
García Gimeno A.
Hearing protectors - Attenuation (dB) (update)
Protectores auditivos. Atenuación en dB A (actualización) [in Spanish]
The noise reductions achieved by 33 newly-commercialised ear protectors (ear muffs and earplugs) are evaluated in this information note.
INSHT, Torrelaguna, 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 2p.
Calculation of the sound power of axial flow machines
Berechnung der Schalleistung von axialen Strömungsmaschinen [in German]
In this paper a method is developed for the calculation of the power of sound generated aerodynamically, especially in the blade and vane rows of axial flow fans. By the use of different acoustic models it is possible to predict the overall noise and the spectrum of sound energy. A comparison is made between the results of computation and measurements of the noise generated by different axial fans and compressors.
VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Karl-Heine-Str. 27, 7031 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, 1st edition, 1986. 151p. Illus. 106 ref. Price: DDM 45.50.
Sound intensity measurements in noise reduction of edge bander machines
Intensiteettimittaukset reunalistoituskoneen meluntorjunnassa [in Finnish]
The sources of the noise generated by an edge bander machine were located. The sources of greatest noise were encased in plywood lined with plastic foam, and the holes through which noise emanated were covered with vinyl plastic where possible. When all other working units were running idle, the sound power level was 107dB(A) before noise reduction operations and 98dB(A) afterwards. The average sound level around the machine dropped from 95dB(A) to 84dB(A). During normal work, when a worker used a band saw in addition to the edge bander machine, the equivalent continuous sound level was 85-86dB(A). Manual measurements of sound power levels with the sweeping method gave consistent results in the 1/3 octave bands above a certain frequency. For point measurements, the length of the side of the measuring square was approximately the same as the distance of the most powerful noise source from the measuring surface. The range of variation in sound power measurements can be reduced in the 1/3 octave bands by increasing the sweeping time.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia lisänumero 2.1986, Työterveyslaitos, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki, Finland, 1986. 54p. + Annexes. Illus. 67 ref. Price: FIM 80.00.
Pal'cev Ju.P., Syromjatnikov Ju.P., Komarova A.A., Jazburskis B.I., Čekmarev O.M.
Occupational hygiene and health status of medical staff working with lasers and ultrasonic equipment
Gigiena truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja medicinskogo personala, rabotajuščego s lazernoj i ul'trazvukovoj apparaturoj [in Russian]
Forty-seven ophthalmologists and 41 surgeons who use lasers as well as 28 physicians who work with ultrasonic equipment (control group) were subjected to detailed medical examination. The ages of the subjects ranged from 20-50yrs. Physicians exposed systematically to laser radiation showed functional disturbances of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and of the vestibular organs. Ophthalmologists had such specific changes as point opacities of the crystalline lens. Physicians exposed to ultrasound risk having direct contact action of high-frequency ultrasound and manifest disturbances in vegetative regulation of the circulatory system, thermo-regulation of the extremities and changes in the bones of the hands following the pattern of enostosis. Prophylactic measures are proposed: in surgery - use of special instruments with dull and black surfaces to reduce levels of reflected laser radiation and local exhaust in laser "scalpels" to remove the products of pyrolysis of tissues; in ophthalmology use of protective screens, shields and glasses.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1986, No.10, p.27-31.
Melder W., Rohnen H.W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise reduction and new technologies
Lärmminderung und neue Technologien [in German]
New developments in information technology, production engineering, appliances and facilities, transport and driving gear technology as well as noise reduction technology were examined in order to assess their technical value and their relevance to noise emission at workplaces. Information and laser technology were the basic technologies for all industry branches. For assessment purposes admissible levels were determined which depend on the characteristic value for the number of machines in a production room, the level of reduction per doubling of the distance and the applicable weighting level limit value for the working area. The positive and the negative noise potentials of new technologies were determined with consideration being given to the number of persons concerned. Concrete examples show how to proceed when developing new techniques in order to reduce noise emissions.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986. 224p. Illus. Bibl. 204 ref. Price: DEM 29.00.
Noise protection - Prevention of noise in industry and agriculture
Zajvédelem - Zajelhárítás az ipari és mezőgazdasági üzemekben [in Hungarian]
Advanced-level textbook aimed at safety and health professionals and at all those who seek technical solutions to reduce exposure to noise or vibration. Contents: basics of the physics involved in vibration, wave propagation and acoustics; sound and vibration sources; propagation of sound waves; subjective acoustics; measurement methods and measuring instruments; effects of noise and vibration on man (maximum allowable exposure levels); basics of noise reduction; technical means of vibration and noise reduction; description of equipment available in Hungary; personal protective equipment. In the appendix: mathematics of various noise and vibration measurement methods.
Népszava Lap- és Könyvkiadó, Budapest, Hungary, 1986. 318p. Illus. 112 ref. Price: HUF 145.00.
Sköllerhorn E., Hedendahl J., Landström U.
Hygienic evaluation of low-frequency noise and pure tones in tractors
Hygienisk bedömning av lågfrekvent buller och rena toner i traktorer [in Swedish]
This noise evaluation study included 33 tractors of different models. The measurements were made under different driving conditions and included 3 different noise domains: dB(lin) and dB(A) levels, low-frequency pure tones and infrasound. The Swedish hygienic limit for whole-day exposure was exceeded in 10 tractors under at least one driving condition. Infrasound levels from one tractor only exceeded the present Swedish hygienic limit for infrasound (during street-sweeping and transportation). The perception level for infrasound was exceeded in a number of cases.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 67p. Illus. 43 ref.
Application of sound absorbing materials to an acoustic enclosure for screw compressors
Bōon pakkeji-kei sukuryū-shiki kūki asshukuki ni okeru kyūonzai no shiyō [in Japanese]
The relation between the average sound pressure level and the average absorption coefficient in an acoustic enclosure was experimentally investigated. Sound-absorbing glass-fibre materials with different volume densities were used. A simple method for calculating transmission loss of an acoustic enclosure is proposed. Calculated values of transmission loss agreed with measured values. The inner sound field of the acoustic enclosure was analysed by a boundary element method. The values of acoustic impedance, as measured by 2 microphones, were used as boundary conditions. Computed sound pressure levels in the sound field of the enclosure internally covered with materials with different sound absorption coefficients are shown.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, Feb. 1986, Vol.10, No.1, p.7-10. Illus. 6 ref.
Strandberg U.K., Bjerle P., Danielsson Å., Hörnqwist-Bylund S., Landström U.
Studies of circulation changes during exposure to infrasound
Studier av cirkulationsförändringar under exponering för infraljud [in Swedish]
This report relates an investigation of 11 healthy subjects who were exposed to infrasound (16Hz, 125dB) in a specially prepared pressure chamber during 60 minutes. Exposure to infrasound was correlated to increased diastolic and decreased systolic blood pressure. The pulse rate was increased. No effects were observed on peripheral and deep circulation. The background for the effects on changes in blood pressure during infrasonic exposure was not clarified by the investigation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 29p. Illus. 13 ref.
Isakov V.M., Federovič M.A.
Sound and vibration insulation in the electric equipment industry
Vibrošumozaščita v ėlektromašinostroenii [in Russian]
Contents: electric machines and their vibroacoustic characteristics; prediction of the vibroacoustic characteristics of electric machines; methods and means of reducing noise and vibration; trends in the improvement of the design of low-noise electric equipment.
Ėnergoatomizdat, Matsovo pole 1, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1986. 207p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: SUR 1.20.
Koelega H.S., Brinkman J.A.
Noise and vigilance: An evaluative review
The literature on the effects of noise on monitoring performance shows a disappointing lack of consistency. The hypothesis of the present study was that task classification in terms of demands made on the observer should reconcile conflicting findings. Twenty-one sensory vigilance studies, selected from 98 visual performance experiments, were analysed in detail. Even when studies possess similar task characteristics, they are hard to compare due to the many types of noise variables involved and the measures of performance used. It was concluded that nothing is known about the effects of variable noise on sustained attention, despite the importance of this kind of noise for everyday life. Disparate task definitions contribute to variable or inconsistent results in vigilance, so it does not make sense to search for the effect of independent variables on "vigilance".
Human Factors, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.4, p.465-481. 121 ref.
Analysis of methods for assessment and measurement of industrial impulse noise
Analiza metod oceny i pomiaru przemysłowego hałasu impulsowego [in Polish]
Methods for the assessment and measurement of industrial impulse noise were analysed on the basis of international standards and standards and regulations valid in European countries and in the USA. Polish regulations were evaluated in this context. Additions to the regulations and directions for future activity are proposed.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1986, Vol.36, No.131, p.207-226. 46 ref.
Infrasonic noise emitted by fluid-flow machines; its sources and reduction measures
Hałas infradźwiękowy wytwarzany przez maszyny przepływowe - jego źródła i metody ograniczenia [in Polish]
Fluid-flow machines, such as compressors, power station equipment, industrial fans, and Diesel ship engines may emit infrasonic noise in which the maximum energy falls within the range of infrasonic frequencies from 2 to 16Hz and low acoustic frequencies. Sources of this noise are indicated and measures for its reduction given, e.g. application of mufflers in intake systems of piston compressors, redesigning and application of mufflers of special design in machines and other devices used in thermal and hydraulic power stations, reduction of low frequency vibrations of Diesel ship engines and their parts.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1986, Vol.36, No.131, p.189-205. 27 ref.
Umemura M., Aizawa N
Influence of noise on mental work
Sōon ga seishin sagyō ni ataeru eikyō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Subjects performed 3 tasks while being subjected to noise. The tasks were: addition or subtraction of 120 pairs of 2-digit numbers; inspection of a page of numbers and marking those that met certain criteria; inspection of a page of Japanese syllabic characters and erasure of 4 specified characters. Error rates and completion times increased with increasing sound pressure level (from background to 90dBA) for the arithmetic operations and evaluation of numbers, but not in the case of character recognition. This may be due to involvement of the sense of hearing in the first 2 tasks.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, 1986, Vol.22, No.5, p.259-268. Illus. 10 ref.
Gordeladze A.S., Glinčikov V.V., Usenko V.R.
Experimental infrasound-induced myocardial ischaemia
Ėksperimental'naja išemija miokarda vyzvannaja infrazvukom [in Russian]
The effect of infrasound on white rat and guinea pig myocardium was studied by exposing the animals for 40 days to 8Hz infrasound of 120dB intensity for 3h daily. A specially designed acoustic instrument was made for the experiment. 8Hz infrasound at 120dB damages cardiomyocytes and disturbs microcirculation. The size of myocardial lesions grew in proportion to the length of exposure. Simultaneously, infrasound stimulates the development of compensatory and adaptive reactions that could mask clinical symptoms and make diagnosis difficult. The concealed effect of infrasound on myocardium demands timely detection of this hazard in industry.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1986, No.6, p.30-33. 6 ref.
Suvorov G.A., Brueckner K., Müller W., Škarinov L.N., Denisov E.I., Šinev V.G., Širokov A. Yu., Haritonov V.I., Richartz T., Ditze B.
Effect of intermittent noise with different time characteristics on some physiological functions of man
Vlijanie na nekotorye fiziologičeskie funkcii organizma čeloveka nepostojannyh šumov različnyh vremennyh struktur [in Russian]
Studies on acoustic analyser function and on subjective and physiological reactions in human beings experimentally exposed to several types of intermittent noise with various time characteristics at similar equivalent levels (Leq-90 and 95dB). The methods used: pure-tone and pulse audiometry, test for subjective perception of noise irritation, critical flicker fusion frequency, visual reaction, blood pressure, cardiointervalmetry. The effect of noise of a given level varied with pulse frequency; the most severe negative effects were seen at 0.3Hz. Impulse noise produces mainly irritant effects on the central nervous system but constant noise has a depressing effect. The results show that intermittent noise (30Hz) causes the same physiological disorders in the organism as continuous noise.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1986, No.4, p.17-20. Illus. 2 ref.
Standard for the evaluation of occupational exposure to noise
Norma para avaliação da exposição ocupacional ao ruído [in Portuguese]
This Brazilian technical standard contains: definitions, minimal specifications of measuring instruments, measurement procedures, special situations. Appendices contain: a standard form to be used for field measurements; methods of calculation based on the data obtained; the formula for Equivalent Noise Level, as defined by Brazilian legislation.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1986, Vol.14, No.53, p.62-68.
Noise reduction at buckle folding machines
This guide contains measures which can be used on new machines as well as on machines already in service. Covered are: noise levels at the machines; noise reduction at new machines; noise reduction for other machines (general principles, noise hoods, practical design considerations, compressor noise, full machine enclosure); legal requirements in the United Kingdom; availability of noise hoods for the machines; bibliography.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1986. 9p. Illus. Appendices. Bibl. Price: £2.50.
Noise in construction: Guidance on noise control and hearing conservation measures
This guide is intended for company and site management for hearing conservation on the site. Covered are: general; planning against noise; noise control; hearing conservation; training and information; legislation; check list for site management and supervisors; measurement of noise; acoustic enclosures; addresses.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1986. 10p. Illus. 16 ref. Appendices. Price: £3.00.
Noise and vibration on offshore petroleum installations
Bruits et vibrations sur les plates-formes pétrolières [in French]
Study of 2 important occupational hazards to which offshore petroleum installation workers are exposed to: noise and vibration. Recommendations for harmonisation of regulations on an international basis, for medical supervision of personnel and for the adoption of protective equipment that does not interfere with communication and alarm systems.
Revue française de santé publique, 1986, No.34, p.36-39.
Noise exposure of locomotive maintenance personnel in railway repair and servicing shops of the Deutsche Reichsbahn
Zur Lärmbelastung des Wartungspersonals von Triebfahrzeugen in Bahnbetriebswerken der Deutschen Reichsbahn [in German]
The standardised assessment of noise exposure of locomotive maintenance personnel in railway repair and servicing shops of the Deutsche Reichsbahn in the German Democratic Republic has great importance with regard to the drawing up of type-specific registration lists for this occupational group, workers' fitness examinations and check-ups and a reduction in adverse working conditions. In 8 railway repair and servicing shops the workplaces of locomotive servicemen and assistants were investigated by integrated individualised measuring methods and the noise levels in the workplaces were ascertained as a function of the technique applied. Personnel servicing diesel locomotives are exposed to noise which can be diminished in part by simple technological changes. Both servicemen and assistants exclusively maintaining electric locomotives do not come under the noise exposure category if certain tests using high-pressure air are not applied.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1986, Vol.33, No.1, p.1-10. 4 ref.
Grzesik J., Pluta E.
Dynamics of high-frequency hearing loss of operators of industrial ultrasonic devices
Results of audiometric tests of 26 operators of ultrasonic equipment before and after a period of 3 years were compared. The determined hearing threshold shift in the range 500Hz-13kHz could be explained as the effect of aging, whereas in the range 13-17kHz the stated mean threshold elevation of 2-5dB, beyond the hearing loss connected with aging within 3 years, is the consequence of high-frequency noise exposure. On this basis, a high-frequency hearing loss of 1dB/year in the case of continued exposure to high-frequency noise was calculated. Apart from the observed threshold elevation, the fraction of ears responding to acoustic stimuli at the highest frequencies decreased by about 10% with frequency increase of 1kHz in the range of 13-19kHz. This indicates that the hearing organ is more susceptible to high-frequency noise at the highest audible frequencies.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.2, p.137-142. Illus. 7 ref.
Grzesik J., Pluta E.
High-frequency-noise-induced hearing loss: a field study on the role of intensity level and accumulated noise dose
Based on audiometric tests (in the range 10-20kHz) of 106 operators of ultrasonic equipment, as well as on measurements of high-frequency noise, the problem of safety limits for high-frequency noise exposure was investigated. Analysing the relation between noise levels of 1/3 octave bands at center frequencies of 10, 12.5 and 16kHz and the accumulated noise dose on the one hand, and changes in hearing at 10-12, 11-13 and 14-16kHz respectively, on the other hand, a harmless level up to 80dB and a harmless noise dose up to 1 unit for people not older than 40 years have been found. For older people this level and this noise dose can be harmful.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.2, p.127-136. 7 ref.
Inter-noise 86: progress in noise control
There were 261 papers presented at this annual international conference (21-23 July 1986, Cambridge, Mass., USA). Section headings are: general; emission: noise sources, physical phenomena, noise control elements; vibration: generation, transmission, isolation, and reduction; immision: physical aspects of environmental noise and effects of noise; analysis; requirements for noise control; special subject areas of interest.
Noise Control Foundation, Arlington Branch, P.O. Box 3469, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, USA, 1986. Vol.I: p.1-796. Illus. Appendix. Index. Vol.II: p797-1472. Illus. Appendix. Index. Price for 2 volumes: US$75.00.
Kaczmarska A., Zdrzalik W.
Methodology of measurement and evaluation of impulse noise in a forging shop
Metodyka pomiaru i ocena hałasu impulsowego w kuźni [in Polish]
Definition of impulse noise according to Polish Standard PN-81/N-01306 and methodology of measurements carried out under the direction of the Chief Sanitary Inspector dated 4 Oct. 1985. Measurement findings were tabulated. Hazard was assessed by comparing (for each work-station) the number of impulses for each work-shift with the permissible number of impulses.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 1986, No.5, p.7-9. 4 ref.
Hayden B., Macken K.
Noise - Is your hearing at risk?
An article aimed at those without specialised training, published in an Irish safety and health periodical. Coverage: the anatomy of hearing, effects of noise on hearing, audiometry, safe exposure levels, noise control, measurement of noise.
Sciath, Oct. 1986, No.72, p.6-9. Illus.
Kramarenko R.A., Timofeev I.R.
Tests with devices that reduce the airflow noise produced by drop forging hammers
Ispytanija ustrojstv, snijajuščih aėrodinamičeskij šum, sozdavaemyj štampovočnym molotom [in Russian]
Results of tests carried out on sound absorbing devices of the "active" and "passive" types. During the experiments, the air pressure and impact noise level were measured at different points inside and outside enclosures made up of reinforced plastic panels lined with antidrumming compound and plastic foam (active absorption) and close to plastic screens arranged and inclined in various ways (passive absorption). According to the shape of the absorption "channel" made up by the active enclosures, the impact noise was reduced by 7 to 15dB, while the screens enabled a reduction of 9 to 14dB to be obtained.
Kuznečno-štampovočnoe proizvodstvo, June 1986, No.6, p.29-30. Illus. 3 ref.
Noise in truck driver cabs and hearing damage in truck drivers
Bruit dans les cabines de poids lourds et atteinte auditive des conducteurs [in French]
This study is concerned with drivers of long-distance trucks and aims to establish whether a causal relationship exists between noise levels inside the driver's cab and hearing damage in the drivers. Literature survey of the subject. Measurements of noise levels and hearing tests of 250 drivers. At low frequencies the noise exposure of drivers is below danger levels. Nevertheless, many drivers exhibit a bilateral hearing deficit (particularly in the left ear and at the frequency of 4000Hz). This deficit is related to age, job seniority and - to a lesser degree - the number of hours per week of exposure to noise. This hearing deficit is not sufficiently serious at retirement age to make the drivers eligible for compensation in France. More research is needed on the impact of low-frequency noise on hearing.
Recherche Transport Sécurité, Mar. 1986, p.13-20. Illus. 16 ref.
Buller [in Swedish]
Contents of these regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1987): general noise protection rules (work should be organised with a view to limiting exposure to noise); technical measures (noise control at the design stage and when machinery and equipment are installed and maintained); work premises (which should be designed and arranged so as to ensure that exposure to noise is as low as possible); noise measurements; audiometric tests; wearing of hearing protectors in all cases where exposure exceeds the limit values. Annexes: noise exposure limit values (85dB equivalent level for 8h; 115dB maximum level; 140dB for peaks of impulse noise); definitions; detailed commentaries.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 20 Aug. 1986. 22p.
Bioresponses in men after repeated exposures to single and simultaneous sinusoidal or stochastic whole body vibrations of varying bandwidths and noise
This study deals with the changes in temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), upright body posture sway amplitudes in the X and Y direction, heart rate, R-wave amplitude, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and the index characterising haemodynamic activity, when the subjects were exposed to noise alone, to vibrations alone or to simultaneous noise and vibration. The TTS2 values at 4 and 6kHz increased as a result of simultaneous exposure to noise and vibration more than as a result of exposure to noise alone. Amplitudes of body upright posture sway changed after exposure to vibration alone, and after exposure to noise alone. The changes in the heart rate, R-wave amplitude and blood pressure values also depended on the bandwidth of the vibration, the number of consecutive exposures and on whether the subjects were simultaneously exposed to noise in addition to vibration. As a rule, the effects of sinusoidal vibration differed from those due to stochastic vibrations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.4, p.267-295. Illus. 26 ref.
Council Directive of 12th May 1986 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to noise at work (EEC)
Directive du Conseil du 12 mai 1986 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques dus à l'exposition au bruit pendant le travail (CEE) [in French]
Assessment of noise levels (measurement of daily personal noise exposure of a worker LEP and of the weekly average of the daily values LEP); information and training of workers; reduction of the noise hazard, hearing protection; requirements concerning noise produced by new equipment, plant and factories. Indications for measuring noise are appended.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 24 May 1986, Vol.29, No.L 137, p.28-34.
Second joint Finnish-GDR Symposium on load and strain of central regulation processes
These extended abstracts cover 7 studies under the title "Psychology", 6 studies under the title "Psychophysiology", 5 under the title "Vibration" and 4 under the title "Clinical and Experimental Neurology". Occupational health care systems in Finland and in the German Democratic Republic are described. Summaries in German and Russian are also included.
Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1986. 191p. Illus. 114 ref.
The European Noise Directive for worker protection - Where do we go from here?
Implications for the United Kingdom of the European Communities Directive of 12 May 1986 on the Protection of Workers from the Risks Related to Exposure to Noise at Work (86/188/EEC), covering noise assessment and surveys in the workplace, information and training of workers, reducing the noise hazard, hearing protection, hearing checks, and noise standards for new equipment, plant and factories.
Safety Practitioner, Oct. 1986, Vol.4, No.10, p.5-7. 8 ref.
Scheidt R., Bartsch R., Brückner C.
The extra-aural effect of noise - a literature survey
Die extraaurale Wirkung von Lärm - eine Literaturübersicht [in German]
148 selected publications on predominantly extra-aural effects of noise were evaluated. In particular, those publications were dealt with which contain a starting-point for further research. Older publications were cited if more recent sources of information were not available. Research on endocrinological reactions is often interpreted differently because an isolation of the stress factor due to noise is difficult. These results are partially contradictory because of differences in external conditions, test groups and motivations for participation. There were often only a small number of persons tested, making the design and analysis of the test results not comparable in a methodical and statistical manner.
Zeitschrift für Lärmbekämpfung, Nov. 1986, Vol.33, No.6, p.151-159. 148 ref.
Landry J.C., Jaccard J., Levantal M.
Symphony orchestra musicians: how much auditory load are they exposed to?
Musiciens d'un grand orchestre: quelle charge sonore ? [in French]
The sound level to which musicians of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande were exposed was measured during 5 rehearsals and 6 performances. The measurements involved players of 39 different instruments, representing the whole range of the orchestra. The discomfort level expressed by musicians depended on dynamic factors as much as on the absolute sound level they experienced. Sound levels were highest for players of the loudest instruments (brass and percussion). Musicians who expressed the greatest level of discomfort were those who played instruments of relatively low power (such as strings), but who were playing in the immediate vicinity of brass instruments. During a concert, some musicians are exposed to sound levels above the permissible level set by the Swiss National Accident Insurance Board (90±2.5dB(A)). This happens, for example, during the performance of the Flying Dutchman by R. Wagner.
Revue suisse pour l'industrie chimique, 1986, Vol.8, No.4a, p.5057. Illus. 6 ref.
Bielmann P., Hétu R.
Occupational noise and cardiovascular diseases
Le bruit en milieu de travail et les maladies cardiovasculaires [in French]
Literature review concerning the potential effects of noise on the cardiovascular system. It is postulated that blood pressure, blood lipid levels, heart rate and vascular tone can be influenced by noise exposure. In particular, blood pressure appears to be the best predictor for long-term effects of noise on the cardiovascular system and certain lipoproteins could become specific markers for coronary heart disease in exposed workers. However, the distinction between personal risk factors, other confounding factors and a noisy environment in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is important. Several research avenues are proposed for a more precise definition of the potential effect of occupational noise exposure on cardiovascular disease.
Travail et santé, Spring 1986, Vol.2, No.1, p.36-40. 58 ref.
Jegaden D., Le Fluart C., Marie Y., Piquemal B.
Contribution to the study of the relationship between noise and arterial hypertension (as studied in 455 merchant seamen aged 40-55 years)
Contribution à l'étude de la relation bruit-hypertension artérielle. A propos de 455 marins de commerce âgés de 40 à 55 ans [in French]
The merchant seamen included 291 general-service personnel and seamen working on deck (exposed to permanent noise-levels of 50-75dB(A)), and 164 engine-room workers (exposed to noise levels of 95-110dB(A))). Hypertension was sisgnificantly more common among engine-room workers (18.9%) than among the others (11.68%), which suggests that there is a relationship between noise exposure and hypertension. This relationship is very likely at noise levels above 85dB(A)), as well as after several decades of exposure. No synergy seems to exist between noise and other risk factors, such as obesity and alcohol consumption.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médecine du travail et de sécurité sociale, 1986, Vol.47, No.1, p.15-20. 30 ref.
Division of Radiation Science and Acoustics - Annual report 1985
The aim of this division of the National Physical Laboratory is to ensure that the United Kingdom has the measurement capabilities it needs in the fields of ionising radiation, acoustics and ultrasonics. The Division's programme for 1985, covering the development, maintenance, proving and operation of measurement standards and calibration facilities is presented in detail.
National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 OLW, United Kingdom, 1986. 77p. Illus.
(Comité technique national des industries textiles, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Textile industry: workers especially exposed to noise
Industries textiles: travailleurs particulièrement exposés au bruit [in French]
Recommendations adopted 30 Oct. 1985. They concern noise-control measures to be installed in workplaces where natural or synthetic fibres are produced or processed.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1986, No.4, p.312-313. Illus.
Acoustics - Test code for the measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical machinery
Acoustique - Code d'essai pour le mesurage du bruit aérien émis par les machines électriques tournantes [in French]
The 1st part of this international standard specifies an engineering method for free-field conditions over a reflecting plane for the measurement of airborne noise from electrical machines, such as motors and generators without any limitation on the output or voltage. The 2nd part specifies a survey method. The chapters deal with: scope and field of application, definitions, acoustic environment, instrumentation, installation and operation of the machine, sound pressure levels on the measurement surface, calculation of surface sound pressure level and sound power level, information to be recorded and reported.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève, Switzerland, 15 June 1986. 15+14p. Illus.
Environmental noise measurements
A review of the most common environmental noise rating methods, with emphasis on the basic quantities recommended by ISO standard 1996/1. The application of the Brüel and Kjaer 4427 Noise Level Analyzer to some practical measurement situations is described. The evaluation of the sound exposure level of a moving source under various conditions is outlined in an appendix.
Brüel & Kjær Technical Review, 1986, No.1, p.3-36. Illus. 12 ref.
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