Noise - 2,325 entries found
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McMahon K.J., McManus P.E.
Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry
The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York City area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1988, Vol.49, No.1, p.34-37. 8 ref.
Acoustics - Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment
Acoustique - Mesurage du bruit aérien émis par les équipements informatiques et de bureau [in French]
Contents of this international standard: scope and field of application; conformance; definitions; methods for determining sound power levels of equipment in reverberation rooms or under essentially free-field conditions over a reflecting plane; a method for measuring sound pressure levels at the operator and bystander positions. Annexes include a standard test table, alternative measurement surfaces for sound power measurements in accordance with the standard, installation and operating conditions for specific equipment categories and a measurement method of impulsive sound pressure levels and discrete tones at the operator position.
International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 June 1988. 37p. Illus. 15 ref.
Floru R., Damongeot A., Di Renzo N.
Vigilance and adverse physical factors - 2. Combined effects of noise and vibration on vigilance during driving - Experimental investigation
Vigilance et nuisances physiques - 2. Effets de l'association du bruit et des vibrations sur la vigilance du conducteur - Etude expérimentale [in French]
2h of simulated driving was employed to study the combined effects of noise and vibration on performance and physiological arousal. Overall performance did not change significantly with experimental conditions, whereas the cerebral and autonomic arousal levels increased with noise and vibration, alone or in combination; performance deteriorated over time, and the arousal level decreased from the beginning to the end of the sessions. Since the same overall performance is observed at a higher arousal level during combined exposure to noise and vibration, there is a compensatory attentional effort for coping with the task under stress. The decrements in performance and physiological arousal over time indicate that this compensatory effort cannot be maintained throughout a long driving task under environmental stress.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.130, Note No.1661-130-88, p.37-52. Illus. 30 ref.
Noise in the textile industry and methods for its control
Šum v tekstil'noj promyšlennosti i metody ego sniženija [in Russian]
This book is intended for engineers and technicians in the textile industry and specialists concerned with the problems of measuring, setting standards for and controlling machinery noise. Contents: evaluation and standardisation of shop noise conditions and determination of textile machinery noise characteristics (measuring instruments, accuracy, computation of noise levels, etc.); textile machinery noise and its sources (sources of acoustic energy, a computerised noise analysis system, noise radiation source identification); noise generation processes and the relation between noise characteristics and design and dynamic parameters (structure-borne noise and a block acoustic model of a machine, acoustical models of noise sources, method for predicting the acoustical characteristics of machinery, etc); methods for controlling machinery noise at source (noise suppression, acoustic design); noise control experience in textile undertakings and economic efficiency of control measures (organisational, technological, structure and architectural methods of noise control, personal protective equipment). In appendix: acoustic energy sources in specific machines.
Legprombytizdat, 1-j Kadaševskij per. 12, 113035 Moskva, USSR, 1987. 144p. Illus. 74 ref. Price: SUR 0.45.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [in Russian]
First of 2 volumes adressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians etc. Contents: principles and organisational forms of OSH and occupational medicine, temporary disability, occupational diseases, epidemiologic studies, hygienic and social aspects of women's employment; labour and health legislation; workplace microclimate; industrial dust; noise, vibration, ultrasound and infrasound; ionising radiation; non-ionising radiation; biological hazards; hygienic standards for chemical substances; sources of physical and mental stress, and prevention of their unfavourable effects.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.1, 368p. 62 ref. Price: SUR 1.60.
Ministério do Plano e da Administração do Território
Decree of 24 June 1987 approving the General Regulation on Noise [Portugal]
Regulamento Geral sobre o Ruído [in Portuguese]
This regulation on noise control applies to most places where exposure to noise can cause annoyance or health damage, including most workplaces. Contents: limitations on the location of new buildings because of noisiness; sound isolation requirements in buildings, schools and hospitals; limitations on noise in industry, and in commercial and service enterprises; noise-generating activities; traffic noise; penalties.
Diário da República, 24 June 1987, I Série, No.142, p.2386-2393.
Lärmbekämpfung [in German]
In Austria, hearing loss caused by occupational noise is a recognised occupational disease. The Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt is responsible for measuring noise exposure at the workplace and for delivering expertise. This leaflet explains the generation and impact of noise as well as the measuring methods and indicates the appropriate types of ear protectors and other noise-abatement measures.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 13p. Illus.
Anderdahl A., Stridh L.E.
Submerged arc welding - A welding process giving a good environment also for the welding of thinner plates
Pulverbågsvetsning - En miljövänlig svetsmetod även i tunnare material [in Swedish]
Report stating that submerged arc welding (SAW) is a convenient welding method not only for use in shipyards and other heavy workshops, but also for welding in the range 1-15mm, giving good economy and a better working environment (reduction of smoke and noise). The report describes these improvements when introducing SAW instead of other are welding methods. Complete welding data intended as a help for making calculations and for introducing new production are included.
Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, March 1987. 67p. Illus. 24 ref.
The workplace environment
Työympäristö [in Finnish]
Workplace environmental factors like heat, cold, noise, illumination and vibration have quite narrow ranges of comfort, outside of which work performance deteriorates. When, e.g., climatic conditions are surveyed at the worksite, their measurement lies within the domain of the industrial hygienist; when noise is so great that it can cause hearing loss, the problem is medical; when environmental factors affect the workers' performance in a man-machine system, the problem can be solved with the aid of knowledge of human factors or ergonomics. This issue deals with the human-factors problems of heat, cold, noise and illumination.
Ergonomiatiedote, 1987, No.3, p.1-17. Illus. 20 ref. Price: FIM 18.00.
Löfstedt P., Landström U.
Noise, vibration and alertness during lorry driving
Buller, vibrationer och vakenhet under lastbilskörning [in Swedish]
Report describing measurements and analyses of noise, vibration and driver alertness during the operation of 2 different types of lorries. On the road, some lorries generated high and others low levels of low-frequency noise. No major differences were found between the 2 types with respect to dB(A) levels and levels of vibration. Drivers became more readily fatigued when driving lorries that generated a high level of low-frequency noise. The correlation between exposure to low-frequency noise and the risk of reduced alertness is discussed.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 49p. Illus. 24 ref.
Lindberg L., Tyrland S., Landström U.
Analyses of sources of propagation of noise and vibration in control cabins
Identifiering av alstringskällor och utbredningsvägar för buller och vibrationer i manöverrum [in Swedish]
Analyses using spectral analysis and coherence studies of a representative Swedish control cabin in a pulp and paper plant. The noise spectrum inside the control room was dominated by three different tones at frequencies of 5, 25 and 125Hz. The 125Hz tone was generated by the gearing system of the machine for paper winding, the 25Hz tone by the heat-recovery fans, and the 5Hz tone by the dissolvers. The transmission of these noises into the control cabin is analysed. Both vibration and noise levels were below the recommended Swedish exposure limits.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 26p. Illus. 9 ref.
Noise and hearing protection
Buller och hörselskydd [in Swedish]
Illustrated booklet to be used for training purposes.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 4p. Illus.
Selected properties of flat materials used for sound absorption
Ausgewählte Eigenschaften flächiger Materialien zur Schallabsorption [in German]
Survey of the various kinds of mats suitable for noise-absorbing linings of e.g., machine enclosures. The mats are made of fibreglass, textiles, mineral wool and polyurethane foam. Description of the materials with regard to specific uses, such as frequency-dependent density, thermal stability, and combustibility.
Beiträge für die Praxis, 1987, No.53, 44p. Illus. Price: DDM 7.00.
Wu T.N., Ko Y.C., Chang P.Y.
Study of noise exposure and high blood pressure in shipyard workers
A cross-sectional and case-reference study of occupational noise exposure and blood pressure was conducted in a shipyard company. There were 158 male workers from the higher noise environment (>85dBA) and 158 matched workers from a lower noise environment (<80dBA). The workers of the 1 group had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age in different environmental noise exposure. Based on 63 matched hypertensive-normotensive pairs from 2,730 shipyard workers, the relative risk of hypertension among workers exposed to an over-85dBA acoustic environment, compared to those under 80dBA, was 2.38. It is suggested that there may be a population of noise-exposed workers at increased risk of high blood pressure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.4, p.431-438. 30 ref.
Schäcke G., Kwiatkowski A., Fuchs A.
Audiometric tests in musicians
Audiometrische Untersuchungen bei Musikern [in German]
Musicians need intact hearing to follow their profession. On the other hand, music can reach sound levels which may be harmful. 108 orchestra musicians were tested. Violinists, violists and cellists had the highest absolute number of abnormalities (9), whereas percussionists had the highest relative proportion (3 of 7). The hearing loss was more distinct on the left ear than on the right one. Orchestra musicians should be tested regularly to diagnose hearing losses more precisely.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.7, p.221-226. Illus. 13 ref.
Kessler M., Korn M., Drysch K., Schmahl F.W.
Noise area: domestic refuse collection
Lärmbereich Hausmüllabfuhr [in German]
Sound level measurements showed the presence of impulse noise. Equivalent sound levels range between 92 and 95dB(A). Audiometric examinations showed that half of the refuse collectors suffered low to severe hearing losses. Noise-reducing devices have been already developed for some garbage trucks. Special attention should be given to the fitting of older equipment.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.2, p.34-39. Illus. 13 ref.
Trynkowska D., Michalski R.
Studies on attenuation and protective properties of hearing protectors with respect to impulsive noise
Badania właściwości tłumiących i ochronnych ochronników słuchu w przypadku hałasu impulsowego [in Polish]
Objective tests of 12 models of ear-muff-type hearing protectors, done under laboratory conditions, resulted in the determination of the total insertion loss and the spectral-response characteristics of the insertion loss. The method for ear-muff testing with respect to impulsive noise, based on a method recommended by ISO/DIS 6290 in the case of stationary pink noise, may be used for comparative purposes and for quality control. Subjective tests carried out in an industrial plant revealed that the use of hearing protectors diminished the temporary threshold shift TTS2, which means that hearing protectors can protect against the harmful effects of impulsive noise.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.135, p.187-214. 28 ref.
Alekseev S.V., Lopotko A.I., Nehorošev A.S.
Prediction of auditory organ strength in workers exposed to noise with various frequencies
Prognozirovanie ustojčivosti organa sluha rabočih v uslovijah vozdejstvija šuma različnyh častotnyh harakteristik [in Russian]
Recording of the acoustic impedance of mechanical structures of the middle ear, intratympanal muscle reflex and thresholds of the intratympanal acoustic reflex (AR) during intrasonic exposure, and studies of the fatiguing action of low-frequency industrial noise on the threshold of the acoustic reflex in workers showed that impedance audiometry can be used for predicting occupational hearing loss.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.36-39. Illus. 7 ref.
Gosudarstvennyj Komitet SSSR po Standartam
Noise. Oil-immersed power transformers. Standards and monitoring methods [USSR]
Šum. Transformatory silovye masljanye. Normy i metody kontrolja [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1989) applies to oil-immersed power transformers in general and also to transformers rated at 100-630kVA at voltages of 6, 10 and 35kV with cores of Group O electrical steel. The standard sets corrected sound power output levels and methods for determining them (techniques and measuring points). In appendixes: definitions of terms; sample form for reporting results of measurements. The standard is identical to CMEA standard ST SEV 4445-83.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva GSP, USSR, 1987. 17p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.05.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise of medium intensity - Inventory of its effects
Geräusche mittlerer Intensität - Bestandsaufnahme ihrer Auswirkungen [in German]
This literature survey covered the neuropsychic effects of 50-85dB noise on behaviour with tasks that are highly complex, difficult, which place high demands on psychomotor activities, involve the acquisition or storing of information and require attention and concentration.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 306p. Illus. Appendices. Bibl. 85 ref. Price: DEM 36.00.
Graben E., Christ E.
Successful noise control measures in concrete reinforcing rod bending factories
Erfolgreiche Lärmminderungsmassnahmen in Betonstahl-Biegereibetrieben [in German]
The authors describe noise control measures in reinforcing rod factories, especially in the transport of the steel rods. The best noise control was achieved by applying special coatings to the transport rollers in binding the steel rods together.
Die BG, Nov. 1987, No.11, p.684-686. Illus.
Baum J., Shack R.
Unit: Harmful noise - Module: Criteria for assessing noise
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are 2 segments: 1 - Measurement scales and procedures (including a comparison of rating scales and a summary of recommendations of British Standard BS4142: 1967); 2 - Criteria for different noise environments (criteria for minimum background and threshold noise levels, general acceptability and comfort, job performance, speech interference, damage risk).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Department of Design, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth, PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1987. 66p. Illus.
Bloch G.W., Kaminsky G.
Longitudinal study of hearing loss in forestry workers
Längsschnittstudie über Hörverluste bei Waldarbeitern [in German]
Audiometric examinations of forestry workers at age 17 and 10 years later revealed hearing loss. in 45% of the 141 examined workers at the 15, 20 and 30dB(A) level. Causes of hearing loss were identified as negligence in wearing hearing protection, as required for work with power saws that emit noise at a level of 110dB(A), and the annual duration of noise exposure. From the development over time of hearing loss, a statistically significant relationship was derived, permitting prediction of the hearing loss due to a further 10 years of occupational noise exposure of the forestry workers. Protective measures are recommended in order to prevent hearing loss.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1987, Vol.41, No.4, p.243-248. Illus. 12 ref.
Audiovisual presentation stressing the importance of hearing conservation in all noisy environments. The dangers of industrial noise are demonstrated, and the selection and correct use of protective devices are shown.
Tel-A-Train Inc., 309 N. Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1987. Videotape (NTSC, PAL), also available as 16mm film. Length: 18min. Price: USD 410.00 (videotape), USD 450.00 (film). Rental: USD 110.00 (videotape), USD 150.00 (film).
The evaluation of impulsive noise
Six persons gave subjective evaluations of noise in experiments on methodological problems, on obtaining reactions to different types of noise, to study effects of decay time and repetition rate, to study differences between peak and background levels, and to study the effect of irregularity in repetition rate. The method used in EEC Directive 79/113 is shown as unsatisfactory and that in NPL Acoustics Report Ac 93 gives the best fit between objective and subjective data.
National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 OLW, United Kingdom, 1987. 91p. Illus. Bibl.
(Japan Association of Industrial Health)
Recommended permissible levels (1987)
Kyoyō nōdo nado no kankoku (1987) [in Japanese]
Exposure limits are given for: about 170 chemical elements and compounds, including mineral dusts; continuous and impulse noise; heat; whole-body vibration. A list of carcinogenic industrial substances and pharmaceuticals is included. Curves relate noise exposure limits to loudness and frequency, and heat exposure limits to energy expenditure. Determination of dusts containing more than 10% free silica and other dusts in the exposure-limit list is discussed in an appendix.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.5, p.397-415.
Damongeot A., Jacques J., André G., Leblond H., Ho M.T., Bernard M., Lafaye R., Krawsky G., Liévin D., Englert M.
Information kit on noise
Dossier bruit [in French]
Information kit containing 6 booklets on: general information on noise (predictive acoustics); basic theory of general and industrial acoustics; effects of noise on man; role of the safety officer in industrial noise control; results of tests of the effectiveness and comfort of personal hearing protectors; list of the main legislative documents dealing with noise in France.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 6 booklets. Illus. Bibl.
Noise reduction in shipyards
A series of 6 booklets designed to teach in detail noise reduction techniques in shipyards. Techniques are usually presented in a contrastive fashion traditional approaches versus alternative methods. The booklets are: 1 - Fairing; 2 - Moving heavy loads, lifting and turning; 3 - Staging and access; 4 - General applications (grinding, insulation pins, general positioning, silencers, plant noise attenuation, forming curved panels, distortion removal); 5 - Noise reduction in the woodworking and machine tools environment; 6 - Noise and the employee in the shipbuilding industry (hearing loss, hearing protection, audiometry and other means of hearing measurement, compensation, the physics of noise, measurement of noise, exposure limits, commentary on legislation in the United Kingdom). Glossary of acoustic terms.
British Maritime Technology, Faggs Road, Feltham, Middlesex TW14 OLQ, United Kingdom, June 1987. 6 booklets. Illus.
Resolution 87/C 328/01 of the European Communities and of the representatives of the governments of the Member States, on the continuation and implementation of a European Community policy and action programme on the environment (1987-1992) [CEC]
Résolution 87/C 328/01 du Conseil des communautés européennes et des représentants des gouvernements des états membres concernant la poursuite et la réalisation d'une politique et d'un programme d'action des C.E. en matière d'environnement (1987-1992) [CCE] [in French]
This Resolution defines the priority areas within which Community action must concentrate. Within the section devoted to the prevention and control of pollution, there are separate paragraphs on the control of chemical substances and preparations, and on the prevention of industrial accidents. In the appendix there are more detailed descriptions of proposed actions on chemical products, biotechnology, noise and nuclear safety.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 7 Dec. 1987, No.C 328, p.1-44.
Ministère de l'agriculture
Decree No.87-766 of 15 Nov. 1987 modifying decree No.81-131 of 10 Feb. 1981 prescribing health and safety requirements for portable petrol or diesel-powered chain saws for cutting wood, cork or similar materials [France]
Décret n°87-766 du 15 nov. 1987 modifiant le décret n°81-131 du 10 fév. 1981 fixant les conditions d'hygiène et de sécurité auxquelles doivent satisfaire les scies à chaîne portatives à moteur thermique utilisées pour le travail sur bois, du liège, etc. [France] [in French]
This modification of decree No.81-131 (see CIS 81-2037) prescribes the maximum noise levels that such equipment is allowed to emit.
Journal officiel de la République française, 19 Sep. 1987, p.10895.
Barone J.A., Peters J.M., Garabrant D.H., Bernstein L., Krebsbach R.
Smoking as a risk factor in noise-induced hearing loss
The relation between cigarette smoking and hearing loss among 2,348 noise-exposed white male participants in a hearing conservation programme was studied. When subjects with hearing loss were defined as those in the top third of the hearing loss distribution (at 3, 4, and 6kHz) for their age category, and controls were those in the lowest third of the distribution, the crude relative risks for smokers were significantly elevated compared with persons who had never smoked. The effects of smoking, having a noisy hobby, and years worked at the plant were independent factors for hearing loss. When hearing loss cases were defined according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criteria for beginning impairment, present smoking was a statistically significant independent predictor of impairment. These results suggest that smokers are at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.741-745. 26 ref.
Industrial noise problems in developing countries
Noise level measurements were made in cotton, paper and textile mills in Bangladesh. Recommendations are made to decrease the noise levels including the use of locally-available materials. The advantages and disadvantages of zoning machines by redesign of workplaces are listed. New legislation is suggested concerning allowable noise levels in industries.
Noise and Vibration Control Worldwide, Sep. 1987, Vol.18, No.8, p.258-260. Illus.
Jessel M., Yamada S.
Active noise control
Passive noise control (mufflers, absorptive enclosures and coverings) is effective for frequencies above 300Hz, but becomes cumbersome and expensive for very low frequencies. Active noise control has now developed in many directions, and it has been shown that several kinds of noise and vibration can be substantially attenuated by active devices. In this review, the Jessel - Mangiante - Canevet theory of "field reshaping" is outlined and several practical systems for active noise reduction are shown.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, July 1987, Vol.8, No.4, p.151-154. Illus. 15 ref.
Ruiz Ripolles M.
Ergonomics - The sound environment
Ergonomía - El ambiente sonoro [in Spanish]
Survey of the ergonomic implications of different types of sounds in the working environment. The effects of noise, sound-signals, speech and music during work upon work efficiency, comfort/discomfort, concentration and perceived stress are evaluated.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1987, Vol.7, No.27, p.3-9. Illus. 15 ref.
Hodgson M.J., Talbott E., Helmkamp J.C., Kuller L.H.
Diabetes, noise exposure, and hearing loss
To examine relation between diabetes, noise exposure, and hearing loss, data were reanalysed from a cross-sectional investigation on noise exposure, hearing loss, and blood pressure conducted in a high-noise and a low-noise plant. 28 of 348 participants met the criteria for diabetes. Diabetics were evenly distributed between high- and low-noise exposure. They demonstrated no evidence of higher hearing threshold shifts than non-diabetics at the same noise levels. Noise and diabetes together do not appear to produce more neuropathic damage than does one insult alone.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1987, Vol.29, No.7, p.576-579. 19 ref.
Ergonomics of forestry machines
Förarmiljön i skogsmaskiner [in Swedish]
The ergonomic design of forestry machines has improved considerably in recent years. The risk of accidents is slight. Increasing mechanisation is, however, posing new problems. Operators of forestry machines suffer from overload injuries in the neck, arms and cervical spine to a greater extent than any other category of workers in forestry. Probable causes are: excessive periods of sitting; excessive work intensity during work in fixed, ergonomically inappropriate positions; repetitive, short-cycle movement patterns; controls offering excessive resistance or with excessive movement spans and located in excessively high positions. The report proposes ergonomic improvements in equipment and work organisation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 36p. 41 ref.
Lataye R., Damongeot A.
Evaluation of the acoustic performance of personal hearing protectors. Influence of the measuring method
Evaluation des performances acoustiques des protecteurs individuels - Influence de la méthode de mesure [in French]
The fact that different methods are used to assess the attenuation of hearing protectors leads to difficulties in the interpretation of performance. The aim of this paper is to recall the various methods and indices currently used to evaluate sound perception attenuation as well as their limitations. It also presents the results of a study carried out at the European level which compared various attenuation indices obtained by using the ISO objective test method, the ISO subjective test method and the AFNOR subjective test method.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1987, No.129, Note No.1648-129-87, p.525-533. Illus. 7 ref.
Acoustics - Estimation of airborne noise emitted by machinery using vibration measurement
Acoustique - Estimation du bruit aérien émis par les machines par mesurage des vibrations [in French]
This technical report gives basic requirements for reproducible methods for using surface vibration measurements to estimate the sound power emitted by machines or equipment. The methods are only applicable to noise which is emitted by vibrating surfaces of solid structures and apply mainly to processes which are stationary with respect to time. Contents: definitions, principle; measuring instrumentation; description, installation and operating conditions; determination of the vibratory velocity on the vibrating measurement surface; calculations; information to be recorded.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1987. 20p. Illus. 10 ref.
Barbara J.J., Damongeot A., Lataye A.
Active hearing protectors - Characteristics, performance and range of application of individual hearing protectors using active elements
Casques antibruit à atténuation asservie - Caractéristiques, performances, limites d'utilisation des protecteurs individuels contre le bruit à restitution sonore asservie [in French]
Results of tests conducted at the research centre of INRS (the French National Research and Safety Institute) on 8 earmuff-type hearing protectors from 4 French suppliers. The equipment was tested on a manikin according to the draft international standard ISO DIS 6290. Results are presented in the form of data sheets that show attenuation curves as functions of sound level for different standard frequencies and for typical noise in the middle of the frequency range. Method for calculating the daily noise exposure of a worker wearing hearing protection and exposed to various types of noise during the day.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.268-279. Illus.
Noise - Con 87 - High technology for noise control
The 126 papers at this conference (State College, PA, USA, 8-10 June, 1987) covered the topics: emission-noise sources (generation and control); physical phenomena; noise control elements; vibration generation, transmission, isolation and reduction; immission - physical aspects of environmental noise (multiple sources and paths); immission - effects of noise; analysis; requirements (standards, legislation); biomedical uses of acoustics.
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, P.O. Box 3206, Arlington Branch, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, USA, 1987. 780p. Illus.
Built-in noise control. Research, observations and applications
Lärmarm Konstruieren - Forschung, Erkenntnisse, Anwendung [in German]
This brochure summarises the methods to be applied in building less noisy machinery: analysis of noise sources; identification of the factors that affect noise emission and determination of their contributions in a given case; application of basic principles of noise reduction. Practical examples are illustrated.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Vogelpothsweg 50-52, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, Feb. 1987. 18p. Illus. Bibl.
Svidovoj V.I., Glinčikov V.V.
Effect of infrasound on the structure of the lung
Dejstvie infrazvuka na strukturu legkogo [in Russian]
Rats were exposed to infrasound at levels of 90-140dB and frequencies of 2, 4, 8 and 16Hz for 3h/day for 40 days. Histological, morphological and electron microscopic examination showed that the first structural and functional changes at the cellular level were reversible. However, after 15 days of exposure to 140dB infrasound at 8 and 16Hz, breakdown of the walls of the alveoli was seen, and blood vessels were damaged by resonance effects. The observed changes in lung tissue depended to a great extent on frequency and exposure time.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1987. No.1, p.34-37. Illus. 5 ref.
Mershon D.H., Lin L.J.
Directional localization in high ambient noise with and without the use of hearing protectors
Personal hearing protective devices (HPDs) are becoming increasingly common in settings where levels of noise above 85dB(A) represent a potential threat to hearing. Several previous studies have indicated that the use of such devices adversely affects the localisation of sounds, but none of these experiments employed very precise measures of location discriminability. The major study in the present report examined just such fine discrimination, using a forced-choice task, and compared the effects of three different HPDs. Localisation signals were 1.5s bursts of noise (≥1kHz). Both of the described experiments were conducted in environments designed to simulate real working conditions. Results indicated that greater attenuation (especially at higher frequencies) was the primary factor associated with poor performance on the fine discrimination task.
Ergonomics, 1987, Vol.30, No.8, p.1161-1173. Illus. 20 ref.
Barbara J.J., Damongeot A., Lataye R.
Acoustic helmets with adaptive attenuation
Casques antibruit à atténuation asservie [in French]
Results of tests performed by the research centre of INRS on tightly-fitting acoustic helmets provided by 4 French manufacturers. Testing was by means of an artificial ear, following ISO standard DIS 6290. Results are presented in tables and graphs, showing sound attenuation as a function of the external sound level in different frequency bands, as well as for a typical noise with a preponderance of medium frequencies. Method to follow for the calculation of daily exposure to noise by a worker wearing a helmet and exposed to several types of noise during the day.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.268-279. Illus.
Mogilevskij L.M., Guz' B.A., Bugaenko S.N.
Improving working conditions of OKĖ 4,0-800-75A mine wagon tippler operators
Ulučšenie uslovij truda operatora oprokidyvatelja OKĖ 4,0-800-75A [in Russian]
Working conditions of rotary wagon tippler operators were studied with the aim of introducing necessary improvements. To control noise and airborne dust and normalise microclimate conditions, a sound-insulated and air-ventilated control cab was developed, supplied from a compressed-air line. Ventilation arrangements are described and illustrated and in-cab temperature and relative humidity diagrams relating these parameters to the functioning of ventilation are presented. The cab brings the inside noise and dust levels down to the existing health standards and normalises in-cab relative humidity and air gas composition parameters.
Gornyj žurnal, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.53-55. Illus. 3 ref.
Council Directive of 25 June 1987 amending Directive 84/534/CEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound level of tower cranes [CEC]
Directive du Conseil, du 25 juin 1987, modifiant la directive 84/534/CCE concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des grues à tour [CCE] [in French]
This directive lays down the permissible sound power level of airborne noise emitted into the environment and the permissible sound pressure level of airborne noise emitted at the operator's position for tower cranes used to perform work on industrial and building sites. The method of measuring airborne noise emitted by these cranes at the operator's position is appended.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 8 Aug. 1987, Vol.30, No.L220, p.60-64. Illus.
Skrainer S.F., Royster L.H., Berger E.H., Pearson R.G.
The contribution of personal radios to the noise exposure of employees at one industrial facility
The contribution made to an employee's noise dose from the output of personal radios was determined at a textile manufacturing facility where the daily time-weighted average sound level (TWA) was approximately 87dB(A). The measured mean equivalent diffuse field output level of the personal radios was 83dB(A) with a range from 70 to 98dB(A). The daily TWA of a typical employee who did not use a personal radio was 86.6dB(A), whereas the exposure of personal radio users was 88.5dB(A) - an increase of 1.9dB(A). This increase in exposure was estimated to result in 4dB of additional permanent noise-induced hearing loss at 4kHz for the 5th percentile (most sensitive portion) of the population after 20 years of exposure beginning at age 20. The additional contribution of the personal radios to the employee's daily TWA did not pose a significant additional threat to their hearing. Specific hearing conservation criteria, however, were recommended for continuation of personal radio use at the facility.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.390-395. Illus. 17 ref.
Hetu R., Boudreault V., Fortier P., Lemoine O., Phaneuf R.
Audiometric survey protocol for use in noisy factories
Protocole d'enquête audiométrique en usine bruyante [in French]
A new method for the audiometric screening of workers is presented. It includes the collection of medical data, the computerised statistical analysis of the data and the interpretation of the results. This method can be used to estimate the extent of hearing loss in a population of workers attributable to occupational exposure to noise.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1987, No.128, Note No.1640-128-87, p.407-415. Illus. 23 ref.
EEC Directive on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to noise at work: Problems of interpretation and application
La Direttiva CEE sulla protezione dei lavoratori contro i rischi dell'esposizione al rumore: Problemi di interpretazione e applicazione [in Italian]
Comments on the EEC Directive (see CIS 87-45), on official Italian attitudes to it, and on its possible incorporation into Italian legislation.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1987, Vol.78, No.1, p.15-27. 9 ref.
Working conditions in the shoe industry. Study in 4 factories
Conditions de travail dans l'industrie de la chaussure - Etude dans quatre entreprises [in French]
In order to improve working conditions in a particular sector, a sound knowledge of the hazards and stresses which characterise that sector is required. Therefore, several research teams carried out a survey of working conditions in 4 shoe factories. The survey comprised observation, workplace environment measurements and questionnaires, concentrating mainly on solvent exposure and ventilation, physical environmental stressors (noise and heat), stresses related to time and work organisation and workplace layout.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1626-127-87, p.199-215. Illus. 44 ref.
Danière P., Robinet D., Sueur J., Boulanger P., Donati P., Galmiche J.P., Roure L.
The noise and vibration environment at the operator work station on earthmoving equipment
L'environnement acoustique et vibratoire aux postes de conduite des engins de terrassement [in French]
The purpose of this study was to meet the need of noise and vibration control standards at operator work stations on earthmoving equipment. A large number of vehicles were studied (91 for noise and 70 for vibration) in order to cover all the most commonly used types of machine. Analysis of noise at the driver work station showed that these machines are still very noisy. It was possible, using simplified tests, to measure the driver noise exposure level adequately and thus to draw up specific test codes. Vibration measurements gave a picture of vibration exposure at the operator work station on the vehicles tested and also of the efficiency of seat suspension. The findings revealed that the vertical suspension systems on the vehicles tested are frequently unsuitable.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1987, No.126, Note No.1616-126-87, p.63-73. Illus. 16 ref.
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