Noise - 2,325 entries found
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Health and Safety Executive
Noise in construction: Further guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
This leaflet outlines duties of employers in the construction industry in relation to: assessing and reducing noise levels; providing ear protection; informing workers about personal exposure levels; and marking ear protection zones. Employees' responsibilities include: use and maintenance of ear protection and other protective equipment, and reporting suspected hearing damage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1993. 6p. Illus. 5 ref.
Noise from lawn mowers [Sweden]
Buller från gräsklippare [in Swedish]
This regulation was adopted on 21 September 1993 and is an adaptation of the EEC Directives 84/538/EEC, 87/252/EEC, 88/180/EEC, 88/181/EEC, 79/113/EEC (CIS 95-1193) and 81/1051/EEC (CIS 95-1194). It covers: application and definitions; conditions for release on the market; exposure limits for noise; declaration of conformity; marking; special provisions; advice for the implementation of the ordinance. In annexes 1 to 4: artificial bed materials; methods for determination of noise levels; sample form for declaration of conformity regarding noise; examples of signs for indicating noise levels.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 36p. Illus.
Noise from earth-moving machines [Sweden]
Buller från jordförflyttningsmaskiner [in Swedish]
This regulation was adopted on 21 September 1993 and is an adaptation of EEC Directives 86/662/EEC (CIS 90-382), 89/514/EEC (CIS 91-26), 84/532/EEC, 79/113/EEC (CIS 95-1193) and 81/1051/EEC (CIS 95-1194). It covers: application and definitions; conditions for release on the market; type approval; exposure limits for noise; declaration of conformity; marking; special provisions; advice for the implementation of the ordinance. In annexes 1 to 7: sample forms for type approval; methods for determination of noise levels; sample form for certificate of noise level; sample form for declaration of conformity regarding noise; examples of signs for indicating noise levels.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 36p. Illus.
Noise from compressors, welding generators and power generators [Sweden]
Buller från kompressorer, svetsgeneratorer och kraftgeneratorer [in Swedish]
This regulation was adopted on 21 September 1993 and is an adaptation of the EEC directives 84/533/EEC (CIS 95-1195), 85/406/EEC, 84/535/EEC (CIS 95-1197), 85/407/EEC, 84/536/EEC (CIS 95-1198), 85/408/EEC, 84/532/EEC, 79/113/EEC (CIS 95-1193) and 81/1051/EEC (CIS 95-1194). It covers: application and definitions; conditions for release on the market; type approval; exposure limits for noise; declaration of conformity; marking; special provisions; advice for the implementation of the regulation. In annexes 1 to 5: sample forms for type approval; method for determination of noise level; method for determination of air from compressors; sample form for noise level certification; sample form for declaration of conformity regarding noise; example of a sign for indicating noise levels.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 36p. Illus.
Noise from tower cranes [Sweden]
Buller från tornkranar [in Swedish]
This regulation was adopted on 21 September 1993 and is an adaptation of the EEC directives 84/534/EEC (CIS 95-1196), 87/405/EEC (CIS 87-1171), 84/532/EEC, 79/113/EEC (CIS 95-1193) and 81/1051/EEC (CIS 95-1194). It covers: application and definitions; conditions for release on the market; type approval; exposure limits for noise; declaration of conformity; marking; special provisions; advice for the implementation of the ordinance. In annexes 1 to 7: sample form for type approval; method for determination of noise from tower cranes; method for determination of noise exposure for the crane operator; sample form for certificate of noise level; sample form for declaration of conformity regarding noise; example of signs for indicating the noise level emitted by cranes.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 40p. Illus.
Automatic sound and vibration measuring equipment for the experimental investigation of acoustic radiation by structures
Dispositif automatique de mesure de grandeurs acoustiques et vibratoires pour l'étude expérimentale du rayonnement acoustique des structures [in French]
Technological change in electronics and computers has produced immense changes in the tools available to machine designers, in particular in the area of noise and vibration control. This report describes an installation used for the study of simple and more complex machinery, with the source of vibration and noise being mechanical, acoustical or mixed. Detailed descriptions are provided of the measurement rooms, the assembly of the structures under investigation, the equipment that produces the noise or vibration, the automated measuring system and the samplers used.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 40 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75860 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1993. 51p. Illus. 7 ref. ###
Directive on noise at the workplace - Regulation with commentary [Norway]
Forskrift - Støy på arbeidsplassen: Forskrifter med kommentarer [in Norwegian]
These regulations (effective on 1 Jan. 1994, the date on which the Treaty on entering the European Economic Area came into force) satisfying the requirements of Directive 86/188/EEC (see CIS 87-45) replace the 1982 regulations on noise (CIS 85-658). They lay down 8-hour noise exposure limits for 3 categories of work: work requiring a large amount of mental concentration (maximum permissible level 55dB(A)), work requiring verbal communication or great accuracy and attention (70dB(A)) and work involving noisy equipment (85dB(A)); the recommended limits are 10dB lower. Workers exposed to equivalent continuous noise levels > 85dB(A) or peak noise levels > 130dB(C) should wear hearing protectors. Technical equipment is to be chosen and installed with a view to limiting the noise emitted by it. If there is reason to assume that the noise level exceeds the recommended limits, the employer should have the noise level measured and take measures to reduce exposure. All workers exposed to equivalent continuous noise levels > 80dB(A) or peak noise levels > 130dB(C) should undergo annual audiometric tests. Detailed commentaries.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Sep. 1993. 20p. Illus.
Noise from powered hand-held concrete-breakers and picks [Sweden]
Buller från maskindrivna handhållna betongspett och mejselhammare [in Swedish]
This directive is in compliance with EEC Directive 84/537/EEC (CIS 95-1199). It gives procedures for type testing, approval and marking of these tools with respect to noise. Permissible sound power levels are between 108 and 114dB(A), depending on size of the tool. In an annex are guidelines for noise measurements, calculations and reporting of results.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 29 Nov. 1993. Illus. 33p.
Earmuff effectiveness against chainsaw noise over a 12-month period
A study to measure the ability of new Peltor H7P3 Grade 4 helmet-mounted earmuffs to reduce the level of chain saw noise reaching forestry workers' ears was undertaken over a one-year period. Attenuation measurements indicated that the earmuffs provided effective hearing protection for loggers over the test period in spite of a decrease in attenuation measured at the 12-month stage. Many of the earmuffs would normally have been replaced before the 12-month stage owing to the discomfort associated with cushion deterioration.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.279-283. Illus. 6 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Meetings of 11 December 1992, 15 January, 12 February and 19 March 1993
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances des 11 décembre 1992, 15 janvier, 12 février et 19 mars 1993 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 11 Dec. 1992, 15 Jan., 12 Feb. and 19 March 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): occupational physicians and workers working with food; implementation in enterprises of the French Decree of 29 May 1992 on the prohibition of smoking in premises used by all employees; new techniques of respiratory function testing; qualifications in occupational medicine; attempts at defining ethics in occupational medicine; study of the effects of noise on the hearing of workers in a marshalling yard; assessment of an indicator of workload and ageing; usefulness of aptitude assessments of expatriate workers for overseas living.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.682-694.
Kitazawa S., Shimada T., Yanagisawa T.
Noise generated by an electronic parts feeder and its abatement
Denshi buhin kyokuki kara no soon to sono taisaku [in Japanese]
Vibrating parts feeders are widely used in industry. The type considered here dispenses electronic components. The parts are kept moving through the feed hopper by the vibration of an alternating-current solenoid. In the original design, two feeders each driven by its own solenoid, were mounted on a single base, which rested on the floor. When the two were mounted on a plate that was separated from the base by rubber spacers and were driven by one off-centre solenoid, noise emission was reduced by 14-15dB.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, 1 Feb. 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 1 ref.
Improving workplace acoustics. Notes on the implementation of the Order of 30 August 1990
Correction acoustique des locaux de travail. Commentaires pour une mise en œuvre de l'arrêté du 30 août 1990 [in French]
This data sheet, designed to improve the implementation of the order of 30 August 1990 (see CIS 91-1776) (Journal officiel, 27 September 1990), issued in application of article R.235-2-11 (formerly R.235-11) of the French Labour Code, related to the improvement of workplace acoustics, explains some of the terms used in the order. The order of 30 August 1990 and article R.235-2-11 of the French Labour Code are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1931-151-93, p.337-339.
Casali J.G., Park M.Y.
Laboratory versus field attenuation of selected hearing protectors
Comparaison de l'affaiblissement obtenu en laboratoire et sur le terrain avec différents protecteurs auditifs [in French]
Two studies, each using 40 subjects and 4 hearing protection devices (HPDs), of which 3 were common to both studies, were conducted to determine real-ear spectral noise attenuation in a controlled laboratory environment and in industrial field settings. On average, the laboratory attenuation results obtained after the subject underwent the work activity tasks overestimated the field performance by 8.3dB (under the subject-fit) and 5.7dB (under the trained-fit) for the foam plug, and by 10dB and 6dB, respectively, for the premoulded plug. In contrast, the laboratory results provided much better predictions of field protection for the earmuff. Close examination of the data suggests that a naive subject-fit protocol in the laboratory may yield attenuation results closest to those of well-trained users in the field. Translation of an article that appeared originally in Sound and Vibration, 1991, Vol.25, No.10, p.28-38.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1927-151-93, p.293-303. 20 ref.
Murata M., Takigawa H., Sakamoto H.
Teratogenic effects of noise and cadmium in mice: does noise have teratogenic potential?
The teratogenicity of combined exposure to noise and cadmium was studied in mice. Although combined treatment with cadmium and noise resulted in an increase in total percentages of malformed foetuses compared to the same dose of cadmium alone, the interactions between cadmium and noise showed no synergistic effect on teratogenicity. The magnitude of teratogenicity due to noise is much weaker than that of cadmium, and is therefore easily masked by that of cadmium in statistical tests of the significance of differences.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1993, Vol.39, No.2, p.237-245. 25 ref.
Personal hearing protection
Der persönliche Gehörschutz [in German]
La protezione individuale dell'udito [in Italian]
La protection individuelle de l'ouïe [in French]
This booklet describes noise, how it is measured and how its measurement is evaluated, effects of noise exposure, legal basis for the prevention of hearing loss due to noise exposure, different types of hearing protection, noise insulation (limit values in Switzerland; measures to be taken in view of the EC Directive); adoption of the new single number rating to be applied to hearing protective devices. A review of different hearing protection equipment is given. Acoustic communication in noisy surroundings is explained. Swiss regulations on the subject are reviewed. A chapter is devoted to the reluctance of workers to wear hearing protection equipment.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 61p. Illus. 17 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Sound propagation in factory halls: Influence of room parameters - Part 2. Comparison of calculations and measurements
Schallausbreitung in Arbeitsräumen II: Einfluss der Raumparameter - Vergleich von Berechnungs- und Messergebnissen [in German]
Noise propagation was measured in 115 machine shops, including new and old buildings with and without sound absorbing facilities. Results were compared with the sound decay curves predicted by 12 models of sound propagation. Statistical evaluations of the results obtained at distances between 5 and 16m from a steadily emitting source yielded a standard deviation of 1.8dB between the calculated sound pressure levels and the measured ones. For Part I, see CIS 92-1699. Summaries in French, German and English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. iv, 96p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: DEM 21.50.
Dupuis B., Koch J.
Determination of noise emission by stationary concrete block shaping machines and the state of noise reduction
Bestimmung der Geräuschemission von stationären Steinformmaschinen und Stand der Lärmminderung [in German]
Four types of shaping machines were identified as being used most frequently in the manufacture of concrete blocks. The sound pressure levels and impulse noises associated with the use of >100 representative shaping machines produced between 1980 and 1989 were measured. The sound pressure levels ranged from 99 to 126dB(A). Acoustic enclosures were found to be the best available method of noise control for these machines. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 142p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: DEM 27.00.
Noise reduction measures in the cement industry
Massnahmen zur Lärmminderung in der Betonindustrie [in German]
When shaping machines are used for the manufacturing of paving blocks, concrete slabs and pipes, noise reduction at the source by design modifications of the machinery is not sufficient. Noise levels still amount to between 110 and 125dB. Only acoustic enclosures bring noise exposure down to levels below 85dB(A). Examples of efficient enclosures are presented.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.103, NO.6, p.45-50, 52. Illus.
Reducing the noise emission by metal shuttering in plants manufacturing prefabricated concrete elements
Lärmminderung an Stahlschalungen in Beton-Fertigteilwerken [in German]
Noise sources in manufacturing plants for prefabricated concrete elements were determined. Through the elimination of all loose joints on existing metal shuttering and the use of silenced concrete vibrators, noise level reductions of 15 to 18dB(A) could be achieved. The noise exposure of workers was lowered from 110 to between 90 and 95dB(A).
Mitteilungen der Südwestlichen Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, No.2, p.21-24. Illus. 3 ref.
Carter N.L., Upfold G.
Comparison of earphone and sound field methods for estimating noise attenuation of foam earplugs
The Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) of E-A-R (slow recovery) foam earplugs was determined by three methods of presentation of the test tones during a single fitting of the earplug. The methods were (a) sound-field listening; (b) TDH49 earphone mounted in the shell of a circumaural earmuff; and (c) TDH49 earphone in a Model 51 cushion. Thresholds were tested once under each condition. The mean REAT obtained by the reference (sound field) method could be reliably estimated by both earphone methods for frequencies up to and including 4.0kHz. However, the sound field REAT values of individual subjects could not be predicted reliably from their REAT determined by either type of earphone presentation. Thus, TDH49 earphones in standard audiometric earcushions could be used to check the overall effectiveness of slow recovery foam earplugs in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.307-312. Illus. 16 ref.
Mirbod S.M., Tambara K., Fujita S., Yoshida H., Nagata C., Komura Y., Inaba R., Iwata H.
Survey on noise exposure level in an aluminium can manufacturing plant
This study was designed to quantify noise exposure of labourers at various sections of an aluminium can production plant: cupping press, drawing press, printing, inside spray coating, control room. The spectral analysis of noise indicated that high levels of noise associated with high frequency noise exceeded the permissible limit against hearing damage (85dB(A)), and it generally amounted to levels higher than 90dB(A), whereas noise levels inside the control rooms were in the range of 54-60.5dB(A). The A-weighted equivalent continuous noise exposure levels (dB(A)) during an 8h shift were mostly higher than the prescribed limit. By preliminary audiometric examinations on the right ears of workers hearing threshold shifts were noticed in the range of 7-11dB at 1kHz and 12-16dB at 4kHz. The speech interference levels for workers at different section were between 93.2 and 96.5dB(A) and higher than the maximum vocal efforts.
Industrial Health, 1993, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 19 ref.
Commission Communication in the framework of the implementation on Council Directive 89/392/EEC of 14 June 1989 in relation to machinery, as amended by directive 91/368/EEC of 20 June 1991 [European Communities]
Communication de la Commission dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre de la directive 89/392/CEE du Conseil, du 14 juin 1989, relative aux machines, modifiée par la directive 91/368/CEE du 20 juin 1991 [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This communication announces the titles and references of harmonized CEN standards under the directives 89/392/EEC and 91/368/EEC. The following standards are announced: EN 294 Safety of machinery - Safety distances, EN 349 Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body, EN 418 Safety of machinery - Emergency stop equipment, EN 457 Safety of machinery - Auditory danger signals (modification of ISO 7731:1986), EN 775 Manipulating industrial robots - Safety (modification of ISO 10218:1992), EN 23741 Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources (ISO 3741:1988), EN 23742 Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources (ISO 3742:1988).
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 25 Aug. 1993, Vol.36, No.C.229, p.3.
Laux P.C., Davies P., Long G.R.
The correlation of subjective response data with measured noise indices of low frequency modulated noise
In a subjective rating experiment, subjects were presented with pairs of low frequency modulated noise signals and asked to select which signal was more annoying. These responses were used to construct an annoyance rating scale. Comparison with existing measuring and modelling techniques showed that some recently developed models are more highly correlated to subjective response data than are the more commonly used noise measurement techniques. Additionally, increased correlation to subjective response data can be achieved by including the duration of the modulated signal as a variable in the models that predict annoyance.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 1993, Vol.40, No.3, p.241-253. 26 ref.
Jacobsen P., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Parving A., Gyntelberg F.
Mixed solvent exposure and hearing impairment: An epidemiological male study of 3284 men. The Copenhagen male study
This study investigated the relationship between self-assessed hearing problems and occupational exposure to solvents in 3284 men aged 53-74 years. Exposure to solvents for five years or more resulted in an adjusted relative risk (RR) for hearing impairment of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) in men without occupational exposure to noise. The prevalence of hearing impairment in men not exposed to organic solvents was 24 per cent and the attributable risk from solvent exposure was 9.6 per cent. Exposure for less than five years had no effect on hearing capacity. Occupational exposure to noise for five years or more had an effect twice that of solvents. RR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.7-2.1). In men exposed to both solvents and noise the effect of the latter dominated and no additional effect from solvents was found. Damaging effect on hearing ability from long-term solvent exposure was found in the present study. The relative effect was moderate but with a high background frequency of hearing problems in the unexposed sample the absolute effect, i.e. attributable risk, was considerable and of both clinical and preventive importance.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.43, No.4, p.180-184. 21 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational noise: National Standard and National Code of Practice
This national standard specifies that the standard for maximum exposure to noise in the occupational environment is an 8h equivalent sound pressure level of 85dB(A); the peak noise level is 140dB(lin). The accompanying code of practice for noise management and protection of hearing at work provides practical guidance on how this standard can be achieved. Contents: scope and definitions; general principles and responsibilities; noise control planning; engineering and administrative noise control measures; personal hearing protectors; training and education; noise assessments; audiometric testing.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Sep. 1993. viii, 47p. 35 ref.
Vinzents P., Laursen B.
A national cross-sectional study of the working environment in the Danish wood and furniture industry - Air pollution and noise
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Danish wood and furniture industry at 200 factories. Representative estimates of employees' full-shift exposures to wood dust, vapours from organic solvents, formaldehyde and noise dose were calculated using a model for two-stage cluster designs. Exposures to air pollutants were generally below the occupational exposure limits (OELs), while noise doses were at the same level as the OEL. The overall exposure to wood dust was 0.90mg/m3, exposure to vapours from organic solvents was 0.13C/OEL and noise dose, Leq (8h), was 90.5dB(A).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1993, Vol.37, No.1, p.25-34. Illus. 15 ref.
Five-year follow-up study of hearing loss at several locations within a large automobile company
This longitudinal epidemiologic study was designed to investigate hearing loss over a five-year period among noise-exposed employees of a large automobile company and to assess effectiveness of hearing conservation programmes at locations representing a large spectrum of operations. Methodology based on computerized audiometric test data was developed for measuring occupational hearing loss and evaluating programmes at these locations, which had maximal 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 104-110dB(A). The methods take account of age and hearing level of study subjects at baseline audiogramme and clearly demonstrate the extent of hearing loss during the study period. Among five study locations, the average hearing loss at 2,000-4,000Hz in the worst-loss ear ranged from 3.4 to 6.2dB over the follow-up period after adjustment for presbycusis, the loss was less than 2dB at all but one location, which showed a loss of nearly 4dB. Hearing conservation programmes at four of the five locations were judged to be effective.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.41-54. Illus. 30 ref.
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels (1993) [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1993) [in Japanese]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 174 chemical products (nine additions or updates since 1992) and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.323-345. Illus.
Delhoume P., Vercammen M., Heringa P., Lovat G., Thomé J.P., Arbey H.S.
Analysis of noise generation mechanism: A tool for noise reduction at source - The case of gear noise
L'analyse des mécanismes de génération de bruit: un outil pour la réduction du bruit à la source. Cas des engrenages [in French]
The new European directives require machine manufacturers to reduce the noise generated by their machines to the lowest level possible, in particular by action at source. For each machine part this requires proper knowledge of noise generation mechanisms, and assessment of expected noise levels and an estimation of the contribution of the main parameters to noise emission. This data sheet covers noise emission by machine gears. It demonstrates the variety of different noise generation factors (cog contact and friction, load variation) and how the noise is transmitted through the air or mechanically from the source (the cog contact point) to the radiating surfaces (housing), illustrating the basic mechanisms often found in other types of machinery. The data sheet combines comprehension of the different mechanisms with a number of ways of reducing acoustic emission: geometric parameters, tribological factors, degrees of quality, operating conditions, etc., and clarifies the notions of action at source.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1926-151-93, p.279-292. Illus. 24 ref.
Dolan T.G., Maurer J.F., Dickinson L.G.
Evaluation of an earphone-support device for measuring earplug attenuation
A new procedure for determining the attenuation of earplugs with a standard audiometric headset was evaluated. The procedure utilised a device that supports a conventional supra-aural earphone cushion (MX-41/AR) such that it does not contact the pinna or the earplug during threshold measurement. The attenuation provided by a foam earplug was estimated on a group of normal-hearing subjects using this method. The resulting attenuation values were compared to data obtained using sound field methods (American National Standards Institute [ANSI] S12.6-1984), and to values obtained by simply placing the earphone on the pinna. Results indicated that the test re-test reliabilities of both the earphone-support method and the earphone-only method were comparable to that of the sound field procedure. Also, of the four test frequencies employed, the closest correspondence between attenuation estimates obtained using the ANSI procedures and estimates obtained with the support device occurred at 1 and 2kHz.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1993, Vol.54, No.2, p.45-50. Illus. 15 ref.
Loyau T., Lovat G., Arbey H.S.
Metrology for machine noise reduction - Evolution and prospects
Métrologie pour la réduction du bruit des machines - Evolution et perspectives [in French]
This chronological survey of the development of different techniques for analysing acoustic fields describes existing methods ranging from measurement of ambient sound pressure (e.g. at the operator's workplace), to methods for studying the mechanisms of machine noise generation at source. Particular attention is paid to the measurement of acoustic power and to source location techniques. The development of these techniques runs parallel to that of noise reduction techniques, which have been moving away from measures aimed at lowering noise exposure (personal protection, screens and hoods) towards decreasing noise emission at source (changes in the structure of noisy machinery).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1909-150-93, p.39-46. Illus. 12 ref.
Technology and Health Sciences Division
Noise from false twist texturing machines and its reduction by design and other measures
This report summarises and reviews current knowledge on sources, intensity and control of noise emitted by false twist texturing machines. Contents: false twist texturing processes, machines and automation; data on noise levels on test beds and in the workplace; noise exposure of workers during various processes; machine noise sources; control measures (machine design, maintenance, enclosure, workplace design, machine segregation, noise refuges). Tables of noise levels for different machines are included.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. ii, 28p. Illus. 18 ref.
Honkasalo A., Kyttälä I., Nykänen H.
International noise declaration systems for machinery and equipment
Several European Community directives call for machinery and equipment to be accompanied by statements (labels or other documentation) of their noise emission. However, the quantities, the forms of these statements, or "noise declarations", remain to be defined. On the basis of Finnish experience, the noise label should give the country or free trade area of origin, the symbol (e.g., LWAd) of the declared quantity, its value in dB(A) for noise and m/s2 for vibration, and a reference to the standard, rule or regulation according to which the value was determined (ISO, IEC or national). The proposed system should be based on a European noise data bank that would include the identities of all national reference laboratories as well as records of declarations themselves.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Jan.-Feb. 1993, Vol.40, No.1, p.143-149. Illus. 9 ref.
Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Chia S.E.
Tinnitus in noise-exposed workers
Tinnitus is said to be a common complaint of workers who are exposed to noise. The prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in 647 noise-exposed workers who had been notified as cases of noise-induced deafness were investigated. 151 had tinnitus, giving a prevalence of 23.3%. The tinnitus was bilateral in 42.4% of cases, and of high frequency in 44.4%. In 23.8% it was associated with other symptoms. About 30% of those with tinnitus complained that it interfered with daily activities like telephone conversation and sleep. The workers with tinnitus had consistently higher hearing thresholds at both high and low frequencies than those with no tinnitus. Workers are often told that noise exposure causes deafness, but little is mentioned about tinnitus. Awareness of the possible occurrence of tinnitus may encourage workers to cooperate more actively in a company hearing conservation programme.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.35-38. 12 ref.
Occupational hygiene: Noise
This training manual on noise protection was developed as part of a three-year training programme for factory inspectors in English-speaking African countries. Contents: introduction and definitions; effects of noise on man; noise limits; measuring methods; primary and secondary prevention; hearing conservation programme; test questions.
International Labour Office, African Regional Labour Administration Centre, P.O. Box 6097, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1992. 34p. Illus. 6 ref.
Monyo R.A., Starck J., Mayaka A.N., Wambugu A., Makambaya S., Mulugeta S., Chowdhury A.R., Quainoo A.B., Lehtinen S.
This issue is primarily devoted to the theme of noise prevention in the workplace. Contents: noise as a universal problem; adoption of automation in the mechanical engineering sector in Kenya; case report of noise-induced hearing loss in Kenya; preventing noise hazards at Zimbabwean workplaces; survey of noise levels in the Ethiopian woodworking industry. Other topics: improving working conditions in developing countries; occupational safety and health in Ghana; occupational cancer in developing countries; international symposium on occupational health practices held in Tanzania.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 1992, Vol.2, No.1, p.1-28 (whole issue). Illus. 42 ref.
Grand-Ducal Regulation of 8 July 1992 concerning the limitation of noise emissions ... of construction plant and equipment [Luxembourg]
Règlement grand-ducal du 8 juil. 1992 relatif à la limitation des émissions sonores ... des engins de chantier [Luxembourg] [in French]
Grand-Ducal Regulation of 8 July 1992 concerning a) the limitation of noise emissions from hydraulic and cable shovels, bulldozers, loaders and shovel loaders; b) the amendment of Grand-Ducal Regulation of 28 September 1988 (CIS 92-1441) concerning earth-moving materials and equipment. It has since been modified by Grand-Ducal Regulation of 8 December 1996 (CIS 98-1568). Topics: approval; bulldozers; compliance tests; determination of exposure limits; earthmoving equipment; hazard identification; labelling; law; loaders; Luxembourg; noise level; noise measurement; noise; shovels; sound power.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 8 July 1992, p.1149-1152.
Lang C.M., Nafz H.M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emission by hydraulic pumps and noise reduction
Geräuschemission von Hydraulikpumpen und Lärmminderung [in German]
The aim of this study was to determine the variation in sound pressure level data due to the different types of hydraulic pump test rigs used. Using noise emission data derived from reference pumps, correcting factors were calculated for the noise emissions of over 100 commonly used hydraulic pumps of different design and size. A mathematical model of the relationship between pump design and noise emission was developed. Noise control measures presently applied to the different types of hydraulic pumps are outlined.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 320p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 47.00.
Dövener A., Fritz K.R., Haering H.U., Hübner G., Kurtz P., Lazarus H.
Research results for practical use - Noise reduction - Data sheet to be transmitted to purchasers concerning the noise levels of machinery
Forschungsergebnisse für die Praxis - Geräuschdatenblatt für die Beschaffung von Maschinen [in German]
Main points covered by this information note on the obligations of sellers to transmit a data sheet concerning the noise levels of machinery to purchasers: introduction (relevant legislation: Directives 86/188/EEC and 89/392/EEC (see CIS 87-45 and 92-25, respectively) and VBG 121 (CIS 93-723)); sample data sheet (empty and filled out). List of Forschungsbericht that might be of use: No.209, 399, 447 and 481.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Postfach 17 02 02, 44061 Dortmund, Germany, 1992. 12p. 13 ref.
Noise of office automation apparatus
OA kiki no sōon [in Japanese]
Minicomputers installed in offices, together with their peripheral equipment, are sources of noise. Cooling fans, disk drives and printers are especially important sources. Noise can be reduced by changes in the office environment (e.g., carpeting) and by redesign of the equipment. Examples show how cases can be redesigned to reduce the noise radiated by ducts and vents, fans themselves can be redesigned to reduce aerodynamic noise, and the mechanical properties of impact printer platens can be altered to minimize their amplitudes of vibration.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, 1 Oct. 1992, Vol.16, No.5, p.15-19. Illus. 9 ref.
Main regulatory provisions concerning noisy workplaces [Austria]
Auszug aus den gesetzlichen Bestimmungen für Lärmbetriebe [in German]
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, Oct. 1992. 12p. ###
van den Brulle P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emission from foundry machines II - Blasting machines, automatic moulding machines and shakeout conveyors
Geräuschemission von Giessereimaschinen II - Strahlanlagen, automatische Formanlagen, Förderroste [in German]
Cleaning areas in the metal industry are known for their high levels of noise. Measurements were made on 55 shot blasting machines and 6 air pressure blasting machines. With the help of secondary noise abatement measures, the sound pressure level can be lowered below 85 or even 80dB(A). Instructions to carry out these changes are available from manufacturers. The state of the art of moulding machines, core shooting machines and shake-outs has considerably changed in the last few years. A relationship was found between the quality of the noise abatement measures and the maintenance of machinery. The emission sound pressure level at the work station of well-serviced machines with adequate mufflers is around 85dB(A) for moulding and 80dB(A) for core shooting machines. The sound power level of shake-out conveyors is proportional to the area of the conveyor section and a noise reduction of about 10dB(A) can be achieved by encapsulating the conveyor section.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 184p. Illus. 17 ref.
López Muñoz G.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Noise in the workplace
El ruido en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
Contents of this guide designed to facilitate the implementation of Spanish Royal Decree R.D. 1316/1989 of 27 Oct. which implements provisions of European dir. 86/188/EEC (CIS 87-45) into Spanish legislation: basics in acoustics; measuring instruments and conditions of use; noise measurement; noise legislation and regulations (dir. 86/188/EEC, dir. 89/392/EEC, Royal Decree RD 1316/1989 of 27 Oct.); personal protective equipment against noise (types of equipment, maintenance, comfort, evaluation); evaluation of noise-induced hearing impairment according to Standard UNE-74023 (ISO 1999:1990, see CIS 90-299).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna, 73 - 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1992. 218p. Illus.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health)
Buller [in Swedish]
This directive replaces AFS 1986:15 (CIS 87-46). It covers: general workplace provisions concerning noise (work should be organized in such a way that noise exposure is minimized); technical measures (noise control at the design stage, and during the installation and operation of machinery); work premises; noise measurement; audiometric tests; wearing of hearing protectors. In annex: noise exposure limit values (85dB equivalent level for 8h; 115dB maximum; 140dB for peaks of impulse noise); definitions; detailed commentary.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 23p. 7 ref.
Parrot J., Petiot J.C., Lobreau J.P., Smolik H.J.
Cardiovascular effects of impulse noise, road traffic noise and intermittent pink noise at LAeq=75dB, as a function of sex, age and level of anxiety: A comparative study
The first of these two articles describes a study to compare the effects of pile-driver noise, gunfire noise, road traffic noise and intermittent pink noise on the heart rate of some 120 subjects. During exposure to noise, the overall heart rate increased in nearly all subjects, with men showing greater increases than women. The second article describes the effects of the same types of noise on digital pulse level and blood pressure. The results of both studies are discussed in relation to the age, sex and anxiety characteristics of the subjects.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.63, No.7, p.477-493. Illus. 34 ref.
Acoustic trauma by high-level impulse noise. Evolutive non linear occupational pathology
A propos des traumatismes sonores par les bruits impulsionnels de forte intensité. Pathologie professionnelle évolutive à progression non linéaire [in French]
According to this technical note on acoustic trauma due to high-energy impulse noise, there is much interindividual variation in susceptibility to impulse-noise induced hearing loss. The new quantity E0 is proposed as a measure of the daily tolerable noise dose for a given individual, and it is suggested that the number of high-energy impulse noise events per day be related on an inverse exponential scale to E0.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.175-181. Illus. 21 ref.
Noise control within the UK coalmining industry
Major issues relating to noise exposure evaluation, hearing protection and, in particular, engineering noise control research within the UK coalmining industry are discussed. Problems in the accurate assessment of individual noise exposures and the provision of suitable hearing protection are addressed in the context of European legislation concerning noise at work. Noise control research shows that significant noise reductions can be achieved on mining machinery. Studies of noise levels of various types of machine are summarised (roadheading machines, gearboxes, drills, railed manriding sets) along with resulting noise reductions.
Mining Engineer, Dec. 1992, Vol.152, No.375, p.159-163. Illus. 8 ref.
Gordon R.T., Vining W.D.
Active noise controls - A review of the field
Active noise control (ANC) employs superposition of waves to induce destructive interference to affect noise attenuation. Categories of ANC are one-dimensional field and duct noise; enclosed spaces and interior noise; noise in three-dimensional spaces; and personal hearing protection. Development of ANC stems from potential advantages in cost, size, and effectiveness. ANC of turbulent flow in pipes and ducts is the largest area in the field. Much work into the actual mechanism involved and the causal versus non-causal aspects of system controllers has been done. Fan and propeller noise can be divided into two categories: noise generated directly as the blade passing tones and noise generated as a result of blade tip turbulence inducing vibration in structures. Three-dimensional spaces present a noise environment where physical limitations are magnified. Personal hearing protection has been shown to be best suited to the control of periodic, low-frequency noise.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1992. Vol.53, No.11, p.721-725. 31 ref.
Mital A., McGlothlin J.D., Faard H.F.
Noise in multiple-workstation open-plan computer rooms - Measurements and annoyance
Results of a study of noise levels in two offices with a large number of computer workstations and associated equipment (printers etc.) in both. The 10sec noise levels for all frequencies were between 53 and 62dB(A). The highest noise energy levels were at the frequency of 8,000Hz (64-73dB(A)). The nature of the work required high levels of concentration, and 50% of the workers reported in a questionnaire that the noise level was intolerable or extremely annoying. The noise annoyance was, however, not entirely due to computer equipment: movement of people, conversation and the noise of ventilation equipment were also contributing factors.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.69-82. Illus. 25 ref.
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1992) [in Japanese]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 168 chemical products and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.363-384. Illus.
Lazarus H., Sehrndt G.A., Jacques J.
European standards for occupational and machinery noise control
In view of the new approach of EEC Directives in avoiding trade barriers in the field of technical regulations there is a need for standards defining details of noise control and noise emission determination, declaration and verification. Standards will be available in time, being prepared as they are by joint efforts of international and European standard institutions. Review of the latest developments achieved in this field.
Safety Science, Nov. 1992, Vol.15, Nos.4-6, Special issue, p.375-386. Illus. 8 ref.
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