Noise - 2,325 entries found
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Barbara J.J., Soudry C., Pringalle C.
Personal protective equipment. Effective protection afforded by hearing protectors
Equipements de protection individuelle. L'efficacité effective des protecteurs de l'ouïe [in French]
Presentation of the characteristics of individual hearing protection equipment (earplugs, earmuffs and helmets) with passive or active sound attenuation. Description of applicable French occupational safety and health regulations (rules to be respected by the employer, the occupational physician and the worker) and standards. Presentation of the principal factors that determine the effective protection afforded by the equipment.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1995. No. 542, p.606-614. Illus. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Sound solutions - Techniques to reduce noise at work
This document presents a series of 60 case studies illustrating noise control techniques implemented in various industries. The nature of the noise problem is described along with the solution, the cost and the noise reduction benefit achieved. Sources of noise include: aggregate handling, air dryers, axial fans, bottling lines, centrifugal fans, compressed air equipment, compressors, engines, impact presses, pneumatic equipment, punch presses, rotary blowers, saw blades, steam discharge and thicknessing machines. A check-list for use by managers when considering alternative noise control methods is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 80p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 10.95.
van den Brulle P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitschutz
Acoustic design of offices with VDUs
Schalltechnische Gestaltung von Büroräumen mit Bildschirmen [in German]
Working at visual display units requires high concentration, which is often disrupted by high noise levels. The acoustic parameters influencing the noise level in offices have been analyzed and measured as well as the noise produced by the equipment attached to visual display workstations in 82 offices. Recommendations are given for the selection of quieter equipment and for an ergonomic layout ensuring a more favorable acoustic environment.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 176p. Illus. Price: DEM 32.00
Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Vol.B7. Environmental protection and industrial safety I
Continuation of the collection abstracted under CIS 93-953, 95-265 and 95-693. The two volumes devoted to environmental protection and industrial safety examine the relationship between chemical technology and the environment and workplace. Contents: ethics and industrial chemistry; ecology and ecotoxicology; human toxicology (metabolic processes of toxic substances, mechanisms of toxicity and chemical carcinogenesis, toxicological methods, evaluation of toxic effects); legal aspects (European, US and Japanese legislation); environmental management; noise and vibration (sources, measurement, effects on humans); causes, effects and control of air and soil pollution. Industrial safety issues are addressed in several articles.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, P.O. Box 10 11 61, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, rev.ed., 1995. xvii, 728p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 625.00.
Ising H., Babisch W., Kruppa B., Lindthammer A., Wiens D.
Chronic exposure to noise at work: A major risk factor in myocardial infarction
Chronischer Arbeitslärm - ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor für Herzinfarkt [in German]
According to this case-control study conducted through a questionnaire survey, the relative risk of myocardial infarction (adjusting for confounding variables) increased significantly with increasing exposure levels to noise. Exposure to noise at work ranked second after smoking as a risk factor and accounted for 30% of the myocardial infarctions. Summary in English.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Apr. 1995, Vol.38, No.4, p.127-130. Illus. 22 ref. ###
Ivanovič E., Kolarova D., Enev S., Savov A., Kojčeva V.
Assessment of the noise factor and state of the auditory analyzer in rolling mill workers
Ocenka ha šumovija faktor i săstojanieto na sluhovija analizator pri rabotnici ot prokatnoto proizvodstvo [in Bulgarian]
At the main workplaces in a sorting and sheet-rolling works, noise was measured and hearing sensitivity was investigated in 229 men aged 36.1±9.8 years (mean length of service 9.7 years), taking into consideration the excessive equivalent levels and its impulsive nature. Hearing thresholds for 4 and 6kHz and average speaking frequency were elevated, and the proportion of subjects with hearing thresholds above 30dB for all frequencies tested was larger among roll operators, furnace workers, cutters, crane operators, markers, packers, quality control staff and dispatchers than among subjects working at lower noise levels or exposed for shorter times to intense noise. Change in hearing sensitivity was more closely related to age than to duration of occupational experience. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.100-109. Illus. 11 ref.
Noise control - The law and its enforcement
This manual explains the law and practice relating to environmental and occupational noise in the United Kingdom. Contents: noise and sound; health effects; noise measurement; noise reduction techniques; noise nuisance; sources, effects and statutory control of noise in public places, abatement zones, construction sites, and from road traffic and aircraft; planning and development; occupational noise exposure (noise exposure and hearing loss, employer's duties and liability, statutory right to benefit, hazard evaluation, hearing conservation, role of safety committees). Summaries of relevant legal decisions are included.
Shaw & Sons Limited, Shaway House, 21 Bourne Park, Bourne Road, Crayford DA1 4BZ, Kent, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 1995. xli, 387p. approx. 190 ref. Index. Price: GBP 24.95.
Health and Safety Executive
Dust and noise in the construction process
This report gives advice on methods of eliminating and controlling dust and noise hazards during the construction process by means of the correct specification of materials, components and assembly processes. Contents: definition of terms; principles of risk assessment and control; dust hazards during demolition, grit blasting, asbestos removal, handling loose powders and other activities; noise hazards (noise action levels, effects of noise); methods of avoiding or controlling these hazards; responsibilities of designers, planning supervisors and principal contractors; use of personal protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 38p. 43 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance in noisy industries: Advice for employers
Contents of this leaflet aimed at employers: meaning of health surveillance in noisy industries; how to decide when such surveillance is needed; how to introduce it for employees; how to use its results.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Apr. 1995. 12p. 9 ref. Free.
Gehörschützer [in German]
Contents of this information note on hearing protection: general concepts; hearing and hearing protection; principles of hearing protection equipment (types, classification); recommendations on equipment purchase; obstacles to the wearing of hearing protectors; selection, use and maintenance. In annex: check lists.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, July 1995. 20p. Illus. 7 ref.
Eye and hearing protection
Lunettes de protection et protecteurs d'ouïe [in French]
Augen- und Gehörschutzmittel [in German]
Mezzi di protezione degli occhi e dell'udito [in Italian]
Main contents of this guide to eye and ear protectors: protective glasses (the eye, uses of protective glasses, polycarbonate devices, cleansers, glass cases); hearing protectors (the ear and hearing function, types of protectors, earmuffs, plastic, foam earplugs, spare parts). Placing an order.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1995. 26p. Illus.
Harmful effects of noise at the workplace
Belästigender Lärm am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Nuisances sonores à l'emplacement de travail [in French]
Main contents of this guide on the assessment and prevention of harmful effects of noise in the workplace: legislation, standards, directives applicable in Switzerland; basic acoustics; noise perception; noise measurement techniques; acoustic load due to noise; harmful effects of noise in the workplace; reactions to noise; mitigation of noise; engineering controls. Appendices: acoustical measurement units; limit values according to standard SIA 181.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Apr. 1995. 51p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Core training elements for the National Standard for Occupational Noise
This is one of a series of core training manuals for the performance-based standards addressing major hazards and developed by Worksafe Australia. It is recommended to include its contents in any Australian training programme on occupational noise. The core training elements are grouped under: scope; target groups; training aims; training objectives; performance indicators; main topic/content areas; notional times; training and learning methods; resource list. In appendix: a series of "breakdown" (data) sheets, presenting the role of everyone in the workplace in dealing with specific issues: legislation relating to the risks associated with exposure to occupational noise; health and safety effects of exposure to occupational noise; identification, assessment and control of risks; communication and consultation regarding the implementation of management strategies for dealing with occupational noise; design of a management programme for occupational noise; implementation of appropriate exposure monitoring and health surveillance for occupational noise; training outcomes for manufacturers, importers and suppliers of material likely to produce exposure to noise.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Aug. 1995. vi, 25p. 10 ref.
http://www.nohsc.gov.au/PDF/EducationAndTraining/coreTraining_noise.pdf [in English]
European Parliament and Council Directive 95/27/EC of 29 June 1995 amending Council Directive 86/662/EEC on the limitation of noise emitted by hydraulic excavators, rope-operated excavators, dozers, loaders and excavator-loaders [European Communities]
Directive 95/27/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, du 29 juin 1995, modifiant la directive 86/662/CEE relative à la limitation des émissions sonores des pelles hydrauliques et à câbles, des bouteurs, des chargeuses et des chargeuses-pelleteuses [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive defines the maximum sound-power levels of airborne noise (in function of their net installed power) emitted by these earth-moving machines and required to obtain an EC type-examination certificate. A diagrammatic sketch of the provisions relating to the permissible sound-power level as a function of the net installed power is given in appendix. For directive 86/662/EC see CIS 90-382.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 18 July 1995, Vol.38, No.L 168, p.14-17. Illus.
Li P., Dai G., Li L.
Development of micropore mufflers
Developments in micropore mufflers during the past 20 years are reviewed. The fundamentals of micropore mufflers are presented along with theories and calculations for their design. Both simple and expansion micropore mufflers are described and aspects of noise reduction and flow are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.52-63. Illus. 10 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
Noise control at foundry shakeouts
This document provides guidance on the control of noise emissions from plant used to break up and remove moulding sand from castings in the foundry industry (shakeout or knockout). Contents: sources of shakeout noise and factors affecting noise levels; noise reduction at new and existing shakeouts; suggested treatments for boxed and boxless moulds, manipulators and ceramic mould removal; practical examples of noise control measures (enclosures, screens, noise refuges, automation, separation of operations, maintenance, replacement/modified shakeout). In an appendix: the noise hazard; principles and methods of noise reduction; a strategy for noise control; legislation and employer's duties.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 58p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 14.50.
Control of noise in the music entertainment industry - A code of practice
Topics: Australia; directive; entertainment services; exposure evaluation; noise control; noise level; noise measurement; sound absorption; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, May 1994. 38p. Illus. Price: AUD 3.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Rotary knife wood turning lathes: Safeguarding and reducing risks to health
Topics: acoustic enclosure; data sheet; dust control; exhaust ventilation; interlock protection; lathes (woodworking); mechanical hazards; noise control; preventive maintenance; respirators; safety devices; United Kingdom; wood dust; woodworking industry; woodworking machines.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 4p. Illus. 16 ref.
The quiet workplace. Handbook for the acoustic design of industrial workplaces
Det tysta jobbet. Handbok för ljudprojektering av industriarbetsplatser [in Swedish]
Taking the generation and propagation of noise into account when planning every investment, change of equipment, reparation or renovation as well as changes of premises and routines will enable an enterprise to reduce noise levels in a few years at no or little additional cost. Proper acoustic design in the construction of new buildings will also give very good results at no additional cost. All parties involved in the design of workplaces must participate in noise reduction planning since this involves all technical personnel (architects, construction workers, consultants, machine designers, purchasers etc.). Effective cooperation is the key to success. It is also important for workers to be consulted. This handbook also provides technical information such as how to calculate the noise doses in planned premises, determine the effects of different noise-reduction measures and choose products.
Arbetsmiljöfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1994. 120p. Illus.
Hartikainen A.L., Sorri M., Anttonen H., Tuimala R., Läärä E.
Effect of occupational noise on the course and outcome of pregnancy
A prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of occupational noise exposure on the course and outcome of pregnancy, especially on maternal blood pressure, preterm birth, birthweight and malformations. The exposed group consisted of 111 pregnant women, and the reference group comprised 181 pregnant women with approximately similar work conditions but without noise exposure. Despite of the problems with interpreting results, it seems that working in an environment of high noise exposure can be considered a form of risk during pregnancy.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1994, Vol.20, No.6, p.444-450. 20 ref.
Breuer-Stercken A., Hörster J., Jochum S.
Pleasingly quiet - Designing silent hydraulic pumps with the help of the finite element method
Schön leise - Lärmarme Hydraulikpumpen konstruieren mit Hilfe der Finite-Elemente-Methode [in German]
The finite-element-method for predicting the vibrations of hydraulic pumps is based on dividing the pump into smaller sections. The noise and vibration excitation in the individual sections is simulated by mathematical models. A radial piston pump is used to illustrate the method. The influence of variables such as wall thickness or location of various components on the noise radiated by the pump can be predicted. Development time can be cut due to a lower number of prototypes needed in the design of silent hydraulic pumps.
Maschinenmarkt, Sep. 1994, Vol.100, No.38, p.66-70. Illus.
Scarselli R., Nesti M., Perticaroli S., Marconi M., Benvenuti F., Azzaretto E., Camillucci L.
Project of a system for the reporting of occupational data on the health monitoring of workers exposed to lead, asbestos and noise (Decree 277/91, art. 4-21-35-49)
Schema progettuale di sistema informativo per la registrazione dei dati inerenti i levelli di esposizione e la sorveglianza sanitaria dei lavoratori esposti a piombo, amianto e rumore (D.Leg 277/91, artt. 4-21-35-49) [in Italian]
The Italian Superior Institute for Prevention and Work Safety (ISPESL) describes in this study a project for data collection on the health monitoring of workers exposed to lead, asbestos and noise. Appropriate questionnaires for risk assessment have been devised and are described. This is being performed because of the requirements of Italian Decree 277/91 (CIS 93-1404). The target is to build up an Italian national registry like those already existing in Finland, the US and the UK.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.7, No.1 (Supplement), p.1-64.
Hesse J.M., Irle H., Strasser H.
Experimental study of hearing damage by impulse noise
Laborexperimentelle Untersuchung zur Gehörschädlichkeit von Impulsschall [in German]
Ten volunteers aged 23 to 43 years were exposed to six noise events, the energy of which was equivalent to 8h exposure to 85dB(A). They were exposed to 94dB(A) for 1h and to 113dB(A) for 45s. In the following four exposures the 113dB(A) were split up into 180 impulses each lasting 250ms, 450 impulses of 100ms each, 1,800 impulses of 25ms each, and 9,000 impulses of 5ms each. The temporary threshold shift measured 2min after noise exposure was terminated (TTS2) and the required recovery time were significantly better after exposure to 113dB(A) for 45ms than after exposure to 94dB(A) for 1h. TTS2 and recovery time worsened significantly, however, with an increasing number of impulses of decreasing duration.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.237-244. Illus. 35 ref.
Heeg F.J., Deurer W., Feld K.H., Kleine G., Lüttke-Nymphius M., Räder K., Rodzinski H.
Improvement of the working conditions and health protection of stonecutters
Verbesserung der Arbeitsbedingungen sowie des Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutzes für Steinmetzbetriebe [in German]
Exposure to quartz dust and noise, lighting conditions and work postures were determined in 10 stone dressing plants in Germany. A questionnaire survey of the stonecutters was conducted in order to determine the subjectively perceived conditions of work. An enclosure for drawing off the quartz dust and an adjustable table to improve work posture are described. Work organization was changed. The layout of an optimized stone dressing plant is illustrated.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.205-216. Illus. 10 ref.
Conseil national du bruit
Exposure of workers to noise - Method for measurement
Exposition des travailleurs au bruit - Méthode de mesurage [in French]
Measuring noise exposure following the provisions of French legislation on workers' protection creates several practical problems: description of work tasks related to noise exposure, choice of measuring apparatus, implementation techniques. In this normative document, these problems are dealt with in such a way as to optimize and control measurement accuracy, facilitate its being carried out and make its results easier to understand. It is aimed at employers, joint safety and health committee members, exposed workers, safety services, occupational physicians, as well as those involved in industrial noise evaluation and control, prevention work and labour inspection. As a training tool, the document can be used both by those who do the measuring as those who are its subjects, and it may be useful during the initial steps of a noise reduction programme.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Oct. 1994. 53p. Illus. 36 ref.
Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National Standards) Regulations [Australia]
Regulations issued under the 1991 Act (see CIS 91-1751) concerning employment regulated by Australian Commonwealth authorities. They were originally notified in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette on 13 Dec. 1994, and commenced on 31 Mar. 1995. Part 2 of the Regulations (competency requirements and certification standards) apply to workers operating certain kinds of industrial equipment, as defined in the National Occupational Health and Safety Certification Standard for Users and Operators of Industrial Equipment (CIS 95-2267). Part 3 deals with occupational noise on the basis of the National Occupational Noise Standard (CIS 94-690), limiting noise exposure to 85dB(A) (8h equivalent sound pressure level) and to a peak sound pressure level of 140dB(lin). Relevant duties of manufacturers, employers, employees and contractors are given. Parts 4-9 (plant, manual handling, hazardous substances, confined spaces, storage and handling of dangerous goods, major hazard facilities) contain as yet no provisions.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1994. iv, 26p.
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_reg/ohasesr1994809/ [in English]
Research results for practical use - Noise reduction: Sound levels
Forschungsergebnisse für die Praxis - Lärmminderung: Geräuschemissionswerte - Teil 1; Teil 2; Teil 3; Teil 4 [in German]
Series of four information notes on noise reduction. Part 1 (Basic information on sound levels) covers: units used in measuring sound levels; measurement standards; recommendations concerning quality control. Part 2 concerns the establishment of reference points for sound levels. Part 3 deals with the establishment of reference values for machines of which the sound emission levels can be measured individually. Part 4 concerns the establishment of reference values for machines the sound emission levels of which must be evaluated on the basis of type measurements.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Postfach 17 02 02, 44061 Dortmund, Germany, 1994. 17+10+8+8p. Illus. 37 ref.
Kjellberg A., Landström U.
Noise in the office: Part I - Guidelines for the practitioner; Part II - The scientific (knowledge base) for the guide
The aim of the guideline is to identify the principal noise sources in offices and to point to possible measures to deal with them. It is intended primarily for the various groups that are involved in the planning and hygienic assessment of office environments. In addition, the guideline suggests highest acceptable levels of noise from different sources. The aim of the second part of the paper is to review research relevant for the understanding of noise problems in offices. The main types of noise are identified and characterized. A review is presented of the different types of effects, mainly subjective and performance effects. Suggestions are made concerning the need for workplace studies on the effects of noise levels that do not constitute a risk for hearing damage.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.14, No.1-2, p.87-118. 161 ref.
Gómez-Cano Hernández M.
Ergonomic aspects of noise
Aspectos ergonómicos del ruido [in Spanish]
This article analyzes the consequences of noise exposure from an ergonomic point of view, with emphasis on its extra-auditory effects. In addition to hearing loss, the consequences described are the following: disorders of the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, and central and autonomous nervous systems, and of the visual and vestibular functions; annoyance and distraction due to noise and distractions; speech interference; behavioural effects; psychosocial effects. Acceptable noise levels, including speech interference levels, as well as relevant directives of the European Union and ISO and UNE standards are surveyed. Tables are included.
Salud y trabajo, 1994, No.102, p.33-41. 9 ref.
Hearing Conservation and Noise Control Regulation [Canada - Manitoba]
Règlement sur la protection de l'ouïe et la lutte contre le bruit [Canada - Manitoba] [in French]
This Regulation was issued under the Workplace Safety and Health Act (CIS 87-1130), and it replaces Regulation 103/88. Contents: definitions and interpretation; assessment of workers' exposure to noise and action levels required of employers (with specific measures for exposure <80dB(A), 80-85dB(A), 85-90dB(A) and >90dB(A)); hearing surveillance programmes; disclosure of information; preservation of records on workers' health and on workplace sound records; licensing of industrial audiometric technicians.
Manitoba Gazette - Gazette du Manitoba, 17 Dec. 1994, Vol.123, No.50, Part II, p.1503-1527.
Acoustics of industrial premises. Information for designers, architects and engineers
Industrielle Raumakustik. Information für Planer, Architekten und Ingenieure [in German]
Acoustique des locaux industriels. Informations pour projeteurs, architectes et ingénieurs [in French]
The new edition of this brochure takes into account new developments in the methods available for noise evaluation as well as in legislation and regulations in Switzerland. Main contents: introduction; principles governing acoustics of premises; requirements; practical solutions; assessment of acoustics of premises; mobile walls; practical examples; conclusion.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 4th ed., Sep. 1994. 35p. Illus. 6 ref.
McBride D., Calvert I.
Audiometry in industry
Pure tone audiometry is the most common method of screening for hearing loss. The last official publication dealing with audiometry was a Health and Safety Executive discussion document 'Audiometry in Industry' published in 1978; no current recommendations are available. This article is a critical review of the advice given in that document, which aims to clarify the role that audiometry may play in the conservation of hearing. Audiometry may perform poorly in strict cost-benefit terms when used serially to detect a deterioration in hearing of an individual, but as the only form of biological monitoring it should be available to all employees who are advised to wear hearing protection at work. The analysis of the hearing of a group may be useful in assessing risk to hearing. Graphical methods of analysis are shown, and more formal methods of statistical analysis discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1994, Vol.38, No.2, p.219-230. Illus. 23 ref.
Költzsch P., Neise W., Preuss U., Franke D., Walden F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Low noise design XVI: Integrated noise reducing techniques for fans
Lärmarm konstruieren XVI: Integrierte Lärmminderungsmassnahmen an Ventilatoren [in German]
Study of the principles of the design of fans and of the pipes in the vicinity of the fans providing low noise emission and good performance. A number of parameters that determine the noise emission from fans were investigated by measurements in a test setup. Among the parameters to be investigated were type of fan, dimensions, geometric properties, absorption properties of the surfaces, materials etc. Comprehensive data sheets were prepared on the basis of the test results to document the design and acoustic and aerodynamic performances of the noise protection elements.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. ix, 223p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Genuit K., Blauert J., Hudde H., Richter U., Fedtke T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Objective determination of the soundproofing properties of ear protectors using an artificial head measuring system
Objektiver Gehörschützer-Messplatz zur Bestimmung der Schalldämmung von Gehörschützern mit einem Kunstkopf-Messsystem [in German]
An objective measurement procedure for determining soundproofing properties of hearing protectors was developed using noise measurements in an artificial head. The method gave satisfactory results for cup-type protectors. Corrections are needed for the use of the method on plug-type protectors, and in the case of transmission through bone tissue. The method is an alternative to the subjective evaluation of the soundproofing properties of hearing protectors described in ISO Standard 4869 (CIS 82-378).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. vi, 100p. Illus. 24 ref.
Yokoi M., Nakai M.
Study of portable electric drill noise
A study was conducted to determine the relative contributions of various noise sources to the sound produced by an unloaded portable electric drill. The principal noise sources were the cooling fan, contacts between the two carbon brushes and the grooves on the commutator and meshing of the teeth on the two helical gears used to increase the speed of the drill chuck relative to the rotational speed of the drill motor. Noise sources were identified from measurements of sound intensity vectors.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.42, No.4, p.129-136. Illus. 2 ref.
Gower D.W., Casali J.G.
Speech intelligibility and protective effectiveness of selected active noise reduction and conventional communications headsets
Speech intelligibility and noise attenuation were investigated in a conventional passive headset and in an electronic Active Noise Reduction (ANR) headset operated with and without its ANR feature. The ANR unit required a significantly higher speech-to-noise ratio than the two passive headsets to maintain equal intelligibility; the conventional headset afforded comparable intelligibility to the ANR device. On a speech intelligibility basis alone, the results do not justify the additional cost of the ANR headset; however, for severe noise exposure, a properly functioning ANR unit may afford more protection than a similar passive headset.
Human Factors, June 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.350-367. 28 ref.
Test for determining the individual risk of noise-induced hearing loss
Test zum individuellen Gehörschadenrisiko bei Schalleinwirkungen [in German]
Epidemiological studies as well as human and animal experiments have shown that susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss varies among individuals. For this reason, it is recommended to examine noise-exposed employees. A method is proposed for this purpose according to which the temporary threshold shift 2min after noise exposure and the recovery time are determined. Summary in English and French.
Acustica, Mar.-Apr. 1994, Vol.80, No.2, p.156-165. Illus. 37 ref.
Rau G., Rossner K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Assessment and reduction of the noise exposure on workplaces in production facilities where CRT monitors are used
Bestandsaufnahme und Minderung der Geräuschbelastung an Arbeitsplätzen mit Bildschirmgeräten in der Produktion [in German]
Computers with CRT monitors are increasingly used for control of production facilities. An inventory of the frequency of such workplaces in Germany in 1991 and 1994 revealed that they are most common in the machinery, electrical, chemical and automobile industries. In 1994, there was a total of 383,869 workplaces with CRT monitors. Measurement of the noise exposure in 80 such workplaces yielded an average sound pressure level of 77dB(A). In 15% of the workplaces the noise exposure was found to be below the permissible levels, ranging from 55 to 85dB(A). In the remaining workplaces the permissible levels were exceeded by an average of 10dB(A). In half of the workplaces the machines were equipped with full or partial acoustic enclosures, or separations were installed to shield off the noise sources.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. ii, 193p. Illus. 22 ref.
Flame cutting under water reduces pollutant emission
Autogenes Brennschneiden unter Wasser reduziert Schadstoffemissionen [in German]
Gas cutting units were modified for use under water. The cutting speed, quality, noise and pollutant emissions of underwater gas cutting were compared with conventional gas cutting units. Several types of sheet metal and metal plate (10-130mm in thickness) were used in the investigations. While the high quality of conventional gas cutting was maintained, the noise emission was reduced by 27% to 64dB(A). The dust emissions were reduced by factors ranging from 150 to 850. The emissions of ozone and nitrogen oxides were lowered to levels below the maximum allowable exposure limits of 0.1 and 5ppm.
Maschinenmarkt, Oct. 1994, No.0, special number "Aufbruch 95", p.64-66, 69. Illus. 5 ref.
McCombe A.W., Binnington J., Nash D.
Two solutions to the problem of noise exposure for motorcyclists
Comparative study of the use of earplugs and of modified safety helmets to reduce the noise exposure of motorcyclists (professionals - policemen, dispatch drivers etc.). Both solutions proved to be equally successful in reducing exposure.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.5, p.239-242. Illus. 12 ref. ###
Workplace Exposure Standards [New Zealand] - Effective from 1994
Recommended guidelines for New Zealand, the role of which is further defined in the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (CIS 93-701). Part 1: Workplace Exposure Standards (WESs): These exposure standards (approx. 600 substances, with CAS no., TWA and - sometimes - STEL values given) generally (but not always) follow those set by the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), themselves derived for the most part from ACGIH TLVs in the US. Special commentary on: notice of intended changes and additions; definitions of WESs; sampling for assessment against WESs; units of measurement; mixed exposure; aerosols; carcinogens; skin absorption; work load; sensitizers; simple asphyxiants. List of approx. 70 intended changes in WESs. Appendices: inspirable and respirable dust (criteria, sampling); TWA calculation guide; calculations of mixed exposure; rubber fume and rubber process dust; lead biological exposure indices; standards proposed by other organizations (NIOSH, OSHA, MAK, NOHSC, Sweden) when different from New Zealand WESs. Part 2: Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) for 27 substances (with assay, sample and sample time provided in addition to the BEI); sample collection; result reporting and interpretation. Part 3: Workplace Exposure Standards for noise and hot environments.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1994. 92p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Noise-induced hearing loss and the 4kHz dip
Difficulties in the assessment of noise-induced hearing loss are briefly discussed. Traditionally, occupational noise has been described as causing a hearing loss which is worse at 4kHz - the 4kHz dip. More complete audiometry has indicated that this dip can occur at other frequencies and is dependent on noise characteristics, duration of exposure and individual variation. High-frequency dips in the audiogramme may also be caused by other factors; a hearing loss of 40dB or greater at 500kHz is likely to be due to a cause other than noise.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.44, No.4, p.222-223. 14 ref.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social
Official Standard concerning safety and health conditions in workplaces where noise is generated [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana relativa a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se genere ruido [México] [in Spanish]
Standard with legal force replacing Directive No.11 of 1985 (modified 1989, see CIS 94-1114). It covers: responsibilities of employers (hazard evaluation) and of workers (wearing of protective equipment); role of joint health and safety committees and of the government; basic requirements for hazard identification, evaluation and control; exposure reduction when the equivalent continuous sound level in the workplace is between 90-105dB(A); prohibition of exposure > 105dB(A); attenuation levels in function of the exposure. In annex: obligatory components of medical examinations and of audiometric tests; mathematical methods for the calculation of the equivalent continuous sound level; maximum exposure time permitted in function of noise levels; methods for the calculation of attenuation factors for PPE.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 6 July 1994, Vol.CDXC, No.4, p.78-89. Illus. 2 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France - Meeting of 22-23 October 1992
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séance des 22 et 23 octobre 1992 [in French]
Main subjects treated at the meetings of 22 and 23 Oct. 1992 of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: economic outlook for road transport in France - repercussions on working conditions; selection criteria for tramway drivers; study of simple auditive and visual reaction time in bus drivers in Abidjan (Ivory Coast); adequate techniques for the monitoring of chrome plating workers: air sampling or determination in urine; assessment of exposure to noise during random events - two methods, two sets of results; early osteonecrosis and determination of the aptitude to work - study of one case; vaccination against hepatitis in the workplace; multidisciplinary approach to the design of workplaces; ergonomic approach applied to two teams of operators using the same machinery for post-driving and lifting; a pragmatic approach to workplace acoustics; drinking and driving: an experiment; sleep apnoeas: repercussions in the transport sector; cardiac rhythm disorders in a truck driver - medico-legal comments on one case.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.53-70.
Hearing protectors. Performance, selection, use
Les protecteurs individuels contre le bruit (PICB). Performances, choix, utilisation [in French]
This paper presents the different types of hearing protectors, their fields of application, their acoustical performance characteristics, and other factors such as comfort. It also describes the regulations and standards governing these devices, and explains the meaning of the different noise attenuation indices, the role of standards and regulations, the guarantees provided by label and conformity marks, etc., and describes the potential of existing protector types and how to choose a suitable and comfortable hearing protector. It concludes by discussing problems that have not been resolved and their proposed solutions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1959-155-94, p.169-179. Illus. 33 ref.
Sułkowski W.J., Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska M.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to noise from the hearing conservation point of view
The classification of noise according to parameters considered to be responsible for potential hearing damage is described. Polish and international standards for noise assessment at work and for permissible levels of audible noise, infrasound and ultrasound in the workplace are discussed. Basic instruments for noise measurement are described and methods used for the reduction of exposure to noise and for hearing protection are outlined.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.7, No.2, p.167-175. 20 ref.
Cuschieri J.M., Glegg S.A.L., Yeager D.M.
NOISE-CON 94: Progress in noise control for industry
Proceedings of the 13th National Conference on Noise Control Engineering - progress in noise control for industry held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 1-4 May 1994. The 165 papers are grouped under the headings: emission - noise sources; physical phenomena; noise control elements; vibration and shock; immission - physical aspects of environmental noise; analysis; legislative requirements.
Noise Control Foundation, P.O. Box 2469 Arlington Branch, Poughkeepsie NY 12603, USA, 1994. xxvii, 1060p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 95.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of compliance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
This report presents the findings of a survey of employers and others undertaken in 1991/92 to assess the level of understanding of, and compliance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21). The study shows that while much has been done by industry to understand the requirements of the Regulations, there appears to be a noticeable gap between knowledge and action, particularly in smaller firms. The report indicates what action HSE intends to take in the light of the findings.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 46p. Price: GBP 10.00.
Floru R., Cnockaert J.C.
Non-traumatic effects of noise on the health, safety and efficiency of people at work. A critical review of the literature
Effets non traumatiques du bruit sur la santé, la sécurité et l'efficacité de l'homme au travail. Etude bibliographique [in French]
This critical review of experimental and field studies on the non-traumatic effects of noise comprises 5 sections. The first deals with the impact of noise on health through its cardiovascular and hormonal effects and its effects on sleep. The second examines the effects of noise on behaviour (noise and accidents, communication in noisy environments, subjective response to noise). The third and fourth sections are concerned with the effects of noise on performance in perceptual and cognitive tasks, and with the mechanisms through which noise affects performance (distraction, activation, selective attention, data overload, masking). The last section covers the combined effects of noise and other environmental stressors on psychophysiological responses.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1954-154-94, p.69-91. 238 ref.
Measurement of the sound attenuation of air-fed protective helmets
Mesure de l'affaiblissement acoustique des cagoules de protection respiratoire [in French]
Air-fed protective helmets are used to protect workers from metal dust or particle projections, particularly during sand and shot blasting operations that are also associated with high noise levels. It was therefore interesting to determine whether these devices also protect the wearers from noise. At present, however, there are no regulations governing the noise attenuation properties of this equipment, and no standardized method for measuring the sound attenuation provided. This paper presents the implementation of the MIRE (Microphone In the Real Ear) measuring technique, which seems to be suitable for measuring the sound attenuation afforded by air-fed protective helmets. Minor sound attenuation is achieved by these protective devices, indicating the need for users of these devices to wear ear protectors when exposed to sound pressure levels higher than the legal limit.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1953-154-94, p.61-68. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise in construction: Further guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
This leaflet outlines duties of employers in the construction industry in relation to: assessing and reducing noise levels; providing ear protection; informing workers about personal exposure levels; and marking ear protection zones. Employees' responsibilities include: use and maintenance of ear protection and other protective equipment, and reporting suspected hearing damage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1993. 6p. Illus. 5 ref.
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