Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Coldiron V.R., Janssen H.E.
Safe decontamination of hospital autopsy rooms and ventilation system by formaldehyde generation
Description of a procedure for the safe decontamination of autopsy facilities in a hospital, using formaldehyde gas and including all the ventilation system and 3 associated air incinerators.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.136-137. 9 ref.
Kulmala I., Tapola M., Christiansen V.
(Technical Research Centre of Finland)
Ventilation of screen printing plants
Seripainon ilmanvaihto [in Finnish]
The heavy use of organic solvents in screen printing establishments can result in concentrations of these solvents in the air of the workplace exceeding the TLV, even in the presence of general ventilation. This report evaluates the effect of 4 local exhaust systems suitable for such workplaces. The concentration of solvents in the air was reduced by 80-90% after correct application of these local exhaust systems. The effect of a canopy hood used in one screen printing unit was also evaluated. Directions are given for the design of ventilation systems in these workplaces.
Government Printing Centre, P.O. Box 516, 00101 Helsinki 10, Finland, 1984. 121p. Illus. 25 ref.
Injection moulding - How to install exhaust hoods at the machines and how to provide exhaust ventilation of the gases
Formsprutning - Hur man effektivt kapslar in maskiner och suger ut gaser [in Swedish]
During injection moulding, thermoplastics release more or less toxic pyrolysis products during heating. This well-illustrated booklet provides several practical solutions to the problem of installing exhaust hoods, thus providing exhaust ventilation of the toxic gases. Contents: attachment of the hood to the outside of the machine; lessons drawn from earlier tests; configuration of exhaust hoods and ducts for machines of different injection rates; alternative solutions for machines of unusual dimensions; evaluation of exhaust efficiency using a tracer gas; adaptation of purifying filters to the rate of exhaust gas flow.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 15p. Illus.
Practical guide to ventilation - 7: Arc welding operations
Guide pratique de ventilation - 7: Opérations de soudage à l'arc [in French]
Information sheet designed to serve as a guide and a reference source for the design and operation of ventilation equipment. It concerns various manual or semi-automatic arc welding operations. Summary: choice of ventilation technique as a function of hazard level; practical equipment for the capture and dilution of welding fumes (construction, advantages and disadvantages, calculation examples); subsidiary equipment (introduction of replacement air, treatment of polluted air); operation and maintenance of installations. Appended are: summary of ventilation principles and calculation of general ventilation flowrates.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.115, note No.1473-115-84, p.143-158. Illus. 20 réf.
La ventilation. 2. [in French]
2nd special issue on ventilation, continuing that of Jan.-Feb. 1983 (CIS 83-688), and concentrating on specific applications in industry. Design criteria for the capture of various hazardous pollutants are described. In particular: 4. Ventilation in: paint spraying; surface treatment vats and baths; grinding, polishing and sandpapering; arc welding; built-in exhaust ventilation for portable tools; knocking-out in foundries; stratified polyester workshops; work with dust-producing substances; tunnelling with explosives. 5. Preliminary study, design and installation of ventilation systems in the workplace. 6. and 7. The activities of French OSH organisations in the ventilation field. 8. Useful information. 9. Relevant legislation.
Travail et sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 1984, No.1-2, p.1-107. Illus. 60 ref.
A practical guide to ventilation - 3: Manual manufacture of laminated polyester products
Guide pratique de ventilation - 3: Mise en ¿uvre manuelle des polyesters stratifiés [in French]
This note was prepared to be a guide and reference source for the design, installation, testing, operation and monitoring of the ventilation systems in a laminated-polyester workshop. Styrene concentration in air was considered as the risk indicator, and the effectiveness of the ventilation system was tested by seeing if it could lower styrene concentration to 50ppm. Topics covered: manufacturing techniques and raw materials used; design of the ventilation system (choice of configuration, dimensions); study methodology; aspects of implementation and monitoring (air flow rate calculation, choice of parts, heating). Technical documentation is presented for actual installations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1984, No.114, Note No.1463-114-84, p.3-23. Illus. 11 ref.
Ventilation of the working zone of industrial halls by stabilised air currents
Větrání pracovní oblasti průmyslových hal stabilizovaným prouděním vzduchu [in Czech]
Description of available industrial ventilation systems and their shortcomings. For good distribution of air temperature and reduced airborne contaminant concentrations, the mode of air supply is of importance. It is proposed to supply air by large vertical cylindrical inlets situated in the working zone. If the supplied air is ~2K lower in temperature than the air in the zone, a stabilised air flow is produced which ventilates the work zone with clean supplied air and ejects emissions into upper levels of the zone, whence it is exhausted. A good air speed at the inlet is 0.5m/s.
Bezpečná práca, 1983, Vol.14, No.6, p.253-256. 7 ref.
Bell S.J., Khati B.
Indoor air quality in office buildings
The environmental factors affecting indoor quality and ventilation standards are discussed (ventilation, indoor and outdoor pollution, energy conservation measures, floor plan modifications, atmospheric conditions). CO2 is considered to be a more sensitive indicator than oxygen deficiency for the quantity of fresh air required. The major problem seems to be one of comfort rather than exposure to harmful air contaminants.
Occupational Health in Ontario, July 1983, Vol.4, No.3, p.103-118. Illus. 29 ref.
Exhaust systems for loading tunnels
Sistemy aspiracii pogruzočnyh tonnelej [in Russian]
A significant part of the hazardous particulate emissions in and around ore sintering plants arises during the loading of the agglomerated material into railway cars; loading tunnels with exhaust ventilation are an important means of dust control. Equations are given which permit calculation of the volume of air which must be exhausted from a loading tunnel per hour. This volume is a function of the dimensions of the tunnel, cars and conveying equipment, of the volume of air expelled by the agglomerate and of the convection space above the cars. Although the latter 2 volumes are hard to measure, their ratio is almost constant, so the calculations with the proposed equations involve only easily measured variables.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, 1983, No.11, p.11-12. 7 ref.
Teresinski M.F., Cheremisinoff P.N.
Industrial respiratory protection
This book provides an overview of respiratory protection in the industrial sector in terms of inter-disciplinary elements including human physiology, anatomy, toxicology, biomechanical engineering and plant engineering. Contents: anatomy and physiology of human respiration; toxicology; sampling and analysis for hazard evaluation; industrial ventilation; respirator filters and chemical cartridges; supplied air respirators; self-contained breathing apparatus; fit testing; respirator choice; asbestos; special interest areas (fire fighting, confined spaces, protective garment ensemble).
The Butterworth Group, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent, TN15 8PH, United Kingdom, June 1983. 349p. Illus. 120 ref. Price: £30.00.
Artemenko A.A., Paršin Ja.D., Zajcev S.I.
Emergency protection of underground workers from combustion products of explosives
Avarijnoe ukrytie podzemnyh rabočih ot produktov gorenija VV [in Russian]
Accidental burning of detonation of explosives, and sometimes even the collection in one place of a large volume of explosive, can raise the concentration of harmful substances in mine air above levels that can be handled by the normal ventilation system of the mine. It is proposed to deal with such cases with a portable bulkhead to seal off the source of the fumes. The bulkhead has a door covered by rubberised fabric strips, and an air inlet tube with a diffuser at the end. Air is supplied to the tube from the compressed air system of the mine. Equations for determining the dimensions and air requirements of the equipment are given, together with sample calculations.
Gornyj žurnal, June 1983, No.6, p.57-59. Illus. 4 ref.
Centralised exhaust system for cleaning extracted air (gas) with high concentrations of dust
Centralizovannaja vytjažnaja sistema dlja obespylivanija aspiracionnogo vozduha (gaza) s vysokimi koncentracijami pyli [in Russian]
Description and drawing of a centralised dust-collecting system for an ore-crushing plant. 5-6 local exhaust hoods are connected in sequence to a plenum chamber, a tube coagulator and a cyclone/scrubber unit; 3 cyclones are connected to a single central fan, which exhausts through a stack. Such a system can move 165,000m3 air/h while reducing the dust concentration from 5-6g/m3 to 0.08-0.1g/m3. Whereas current systems with this level of performance consume electricity at a rate of 1.0-1.1kWh/1000m3, the centralised system consumes only 0.7-0.8kWh/1000m3.
Gornyj žurnal, May 1983, No.5, p.51-53. Illus. 7 ref.
Grimitlin M.I., Smirnova G.A., Filatov V.I., Ėl'terman E.M., Ėl'terman L.E., Brailovskij L.M.
Ventilation and heating of plastics processing plants
Ventiljacija i otoplenie cehov pererabotki plastmass [in Russian]
Contents: industrial hygiene of plastics processing; basic calculations in ventilation; ventilation and heating of areas where raw materials and finished products are handled, of compression-moulding, injection-moulding and extruding lines, and of areas where glass-fibre-reinforced articles are made; general engineering solutions to ventilation and heating problems.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Nevskij pr. 28, 191186 Leningrad D-186, USSR, 1983. 134p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: Rbl.0.50.
Atmospheric conditions in the workplace
This illustrated booklet for workers and employers covers: legislation; comfort; factors affecting atmospheric conditions; equivalent temperature and comfort zones; simple troubleshooting; heating and ventilation problems; measuring atmospheric conditions.
Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand, 1983. 18p. Illus.
Ventilation for a better working environment
Ventilation för en bättre arbetsmiljö [in Swedish]
Sections of this round-up on the state of the art of industrial ventilation and on research and development needs in this field cover: action on indoor climate; elimination of airborne pollutants; administrative aspects; research and development priorities, project proposals; list of completed research projects and ongoing research.
Arbetarskyddssfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Mar. 1983. 75p. Illus.
Kvaša V.B., Hodorov E.I., Kareeva V.M.
Analysis of new absorption designs and equipment for clean-up of ventilator exhaust in synthetic fibre plants
Analiz novyh absorbcionnyh shem i apparatov dlja očistki ventiljacionnyh vybrosov v proizvodstvah sintetičeskih volokon [in Russian]
The performance of fluidised-bed, injection and falling-film absorbers is analysed with reference to the needs of the synthetic fibre industry, where exhaust streams must be cleansed of potentially harmful vapours (such as dimethyl formamide) and dusts (such as caprolactam). Equations describing the behaviour of each type of scrubber are presented. The fluidised-bed type is the most effective, but some applications can be quite adequately served by the simpler and cheaper falling-film type.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1983, No.3, p.46-50. Illus. 6 ref.
Survival for the underground worker
This illustrated guide is intended for underground miners and provides information on: underground gases (oxygen deficiency, effects of CO2, carbon monoxide and various other gases, flammability, toxicity); self-rescue breathing apparatus and its use; mine ventilation; mine fires.
Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, Mines Inspection Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1983. 68p. Illus.
Constance J.D., Faulkner L.L., Menkes S.B.
Controlling in-plant airborne contaminants: Systems design and calculations
This textbook is designed to assist the practicing engineer in the evaluation and design of systems for the control of the industrial in-plant environment. Chapters cover: theory in practice (basic chemistry and physics, behaviour of gases and vapours, mixtures of gases and vapours, fuels and combustion products); identifying sources of air contaminants; plant layout and classification of hazardous areas; natural, mechanical and exhaust ventilation; makeup air systems; dust control; pressure ventilation; clearing the air in laboratories; moisture control in process buildings; noise control; industrial heat and its control.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1983. Vol.21. 341p. Illus. 48 ref. Bibl. Index.
Measurement of air turnover rates - A comparison of different instruments and gases
Luftomsättningsmätning - En jämförelse mellan olika instrument och gaser [in Swedish]
A comparison between instruments used for measurements of air change rates with the tracer gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Air change rates were 2.5-20 per hour and the concentrations of the tracer gases were 700ppm-3ppm for N2O and 2200ppb-2ppb for SF6. Both gases can be used for measurements in workrooms with the given air change rates. Continuous measurements of either gas can be done with infrared spectrometers in the intervals 10ppm-1000ppm and 10ppb-1000ppb, respectively. Lower concentrations of SF6 can be measured using a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector, but continuous measurements are not possible. Leak detectors, which in principle are simplified gas chromatographs, are not usable for quantitative measurements.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 38p. Illus. 34 ref.
Pavlina R., Lamb B.
Infiltration of roof exhaust gases into aluminium potrooms
Atmospheric tracer techniques were used in 21 tests to determine infiltration rates of roof exhaust gases in downwind potrooms at an aluminium reduction plant during 2 summer months. Tracer concentrations were measured along the ventilation doors of downwind rooms. Maximum infiltration rates were <5% of the tracer release rate. Maximum infiltration occurred along the upwind side of the first downwind room in two-thirds of the cases and along the downwind edge of the same room where tracer was released in one-third of the tests. For rooms further downwind the infiltration rate was <1%.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Oct. 1983, Vol.33, No.10, p.974-979. Illus. 5 ref.
Clark R.P., Hughes D.
The performance, installation, testing and limitations of microbiological safety cabinets
This guide covers the performance and testing of microbiological safety cabinets particularly in regard to establishing a firm and quantifiable basis for containment tests on open-fronted cabinets. Aspects of installation, instrumentation and the design and performance of complete containment facilities are also discussed. Contents: history and standards; cabinet types; airflows and performance; containment testing; filter tests; performance of open-fronted cabinets; installation; choice of cabinet; sterilisation; special facilities; rooms housing containment facilities.
Science Reviews Ltd., C/o 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1983, No.9, 106p. Illus. 74 ref.
Velocity calculation for local exhaust inlets - empirical design equations, graphical design concepts
In the 1st part, updated equations are proposed for calculating centerline velocities of local exhaust inlets, and the effects of inlet factors including flanging, width-to-length ratio and face velocity are discussed. The 2nd part describes graphical design concepts useful for approximating airflow characteristics of local exhaust inlets. They include free-hand sketching, vector addition, imaginary inlets, conformal mapping, area/velocity change and the use of computer graphics.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1983, Vol.44, No.12, p.937-947. Illus. 17 ref.
Guffey S.E., Hickey J.L.S.
Equations for redesign of existing ventilation systems
Equations for redesign calculations were derived to predict necessary replacement duct sizes to achieve a target duct velocity, airflow or static pressure. Other equations provided predict the effects of changing duct size on duct velocity, airflow and static pressure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1983, Vol.44, No.11, p.819-827. 2 ref.
Cleaning the air for robotic spraying and finishing
Safety and maintenance procedures, air flow and make-up considerations and the positioning and location of robots in spray-painting booths are discussed in connection with the use of robots in spraying and finishing operations.
National Safety News, Aug. 1983, Vol.128, No.2, p.54-55. Bibl.
Ellenbecker M.J., Gempel R.F., Burgess W.A.
Capture efficiency of local exhaust ventilation systems
Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of contaminants given by a process that is captured by the exhaust system serving the process. The evaluation method involves the generation of a test aerosol to simulate the evolution of a contaminant to be controlled and the determination of the capture efficiency of that test aerosol (mineral oil). The concept of capture efficiency is seen as a better tool for ventilation design than the traditional capture velocity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1983, Vol.44, No.10, p.752-755. 9 ref.
Stoklov M., Stieglitz P., Lamalle Y., Vincent F., Perdrix A., Mallion J.M., Faure J.
Evaluation of the pollution of operating rooms by anaesthetic gases at the Grenoble Regional Hospital, and preventive measures taken
L'évaluation de la pollution des blocs opératoires par les gaz anesthésiques au centre hospitalier régional de Grenoble et les mesures de prévention mises en ¿uvre [in French]
Atmospheric concentrations of anaesthetic gases were measured before and after introduction of improved methods of administration and improved ventilation; 2 methods of determination gave similar results. In poorly ventilated operating rooms, nitrous oxide reached levels of 1500-2000ppm, and halothane reached 35ppm. In properly ventilated rooms, average nitrous oxide concentrations during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia were 16-831ppm. Blood levels of nitrous oxide and halothane in operating-room personnel increased steadily during operations. The given combination of improvements reduced ambient concentrations to about 25ppm for nitrous oxide and 2ppm for halothane.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.499-502.
Zimmerlé J., Muhlmann-Weill M., Karli A.
The toxicity of anaesthetic gases and vapours and the problem of eliminating them - A safety and health problem in the hospital
Toxicité et problèmes d'évacuation des gaz et vapeurs anesthésiques - Un problème de prévention en milieu hospitalier [in French]
Review of the hazards (carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, hepatic and renal toxicity, reproductive and behavioural disturbances) associated with prolonged and repeated exposure to low levels of anaesthetics; the hazards are due to the properties of the compounds themselves and to the equipment used by anaesthesiologists. Evaluation of methods for removing anaesthetics from the air of an operating room requires methods for the determination of trace levels of the compounds in air and blood. An effective antipollution programme requires removal of the gases by local ventilation, good general ventilation, proper techniques of administration and regular maintenance of equipment.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.463-470. Illus. 17 ref.
An easier calculation system for ventilation design
A modified velocity pressure calculation sheet and a simplified table for determining friction loss in straight ducts are presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1983, Vol.44, No.9, p.627-630. 2 ref.
Ager B.P., Tickner J.A.
The control of microbiological hazards associated with air-conditioning and ventilation systems
A review article dealing with humidifier fever and legionnaires' disease. Occurrences and possible aetiology of the diseases are described. Their control in the workplace is discussed under the headings: building services systems, including ventilation systems, humidifiers; cooling towers and evaporative condensers (including large refrigeration plants and air-conditioning systems); building aerodynamics; preventive measures (control of microbiological contamination at the design stage, preventive maintenance, chemical treatment of cooling water).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.4, p.341-358. Illus. 40 ref.
Barnett J.L., Richard M.L., Rose V.E.
A tracer method for quantifying contamination of building supply air: reentrainment of laboratory hood exhaust
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) used as a "tracer" gas is released in each laboratory fume hood, then detected and measured in the building general fresh-air supply ventilation system. SF6 is quantified with a Miran-1A infrared analyser. Detection limit is in the 13ppb range. Calculations for quantifying reentrainment are presented and discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.580-582. 4 ref.
Wasiluk W., Jaskólski M.
Studies on a ductless ventilation system
Prace badawcze nad bezprzewodowym systemem wentylacji [in Polish]
The airflow regimes in ductless ventilation systems were analysed in model studies with chambers 9m long, 1.8m wide and 1-2m high. Data were obtained with 3 models: a positive-pressure system with regularly spaced inlet vents, a negative-pressure system in which an array of small fans at the top of the chamber swept air toward an exhaust at one end, and a similar negative-pressure system with perforated baffles in the chamber. Data from the negative-pressure models were used to design full-sized systems for a 2-bay assembly room (48x18x5m) in a gas-meter plant and for a 4-bay arc welding shop (10x24x5m). Equations developed in the model studies and refined in the field trials enabled the size and placement of the fans in the welding shop to be calculated from the known rate of generation of welding fumes and the MAC for welding fumes (which determines the necessary rate of turnover of the workplace air).
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1983, Vol.33, No.117, p.81-99. Illus. 4 ref.
Sorbents for harmful gases generated during arc welding
Sorbenty do pochłaniania szkodliwych dla zdrowia gazów powstających przy spawaniu łukowym [in Polish]
The ability of molecular sieves 13X and 5A to adsorb nitrogen oxides was determined. Adsorption isotherms and the empirical constants of the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller equation were determined. Absorber operation under industrial conditions was analysed on the basis of the adsorption isotherms. Resistance to flow was measured, and resistance coefficients were calculated and compared with theoretical values. Molecular sieve 13X appears to be preferable for cleaning the air stream of extractive ventilation systems used during welding with coated electrodes.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1983, Vol.33, No.116, p.17-28. Illus. 12 ref.
Formaldehyde in office and commercial environments
Investigation of potential causes of discomfort and illness in workers in various non-industrial situations. Formaldehyde was detected in 4 office and commercial establishments which had poor ventilation. Concentrations measured ranged from 0.01 to 1.01ppm. Sources of formaldehyde were urea-formaldehyde foam, particle board, plywood subflooring and furniture. Sealing of these sources and increased fresh air supply achieved substantial reduction in discomfort.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.205-208. 9 ref.
Bernstein R.S., Sorenson W.G., Garabrant D., Reaux C., Treitman R.D.
Exposures to respirable, airborne Penicillium from a contaminated ventilation system: clinical, environmental and epidemiological aspects
Symptoms compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in 2 of 14 employees in a clerical office prompted an investigation. Improperly maintained forced-air heater-cooler units were found to be grossly contaminated with predominantly Penicillium moulds. Air sampling and analysis confirmed the presence of high concentrations of the same moulds in the office air. Despite a documented reduction of airborne fungi to background exposure levels after clean-up of the forced air units, a worker with persistent alveolitis has had occasional recurrences of symptoms consistent with HP. A multidisciplinary approach to research in establishing guidelines for control of occupational and non-occupational exposures to respirable fungal organisms which may contaminate cooling, heating and humidifying systems is described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.161-169 Illus. 36 ref.
Cornu J.C., Leleu J.
Study of a closed painting booth - Anemometric measurements and air pollution
Etude d'une cabine de peinture fermée - Mesures anémométriques et pollution de l'air [in French]
Air flow and pollution rates were measured in an experimental automobile spray-painting booth (manned and unmanned) with various blower and extractor configurations and air-flow regimes; glyptal paint was used. Similar measurements were obtained in the field for a polyurethane paint system. Regardless of the type of paint used, there are several basic considerations in assuring healthy working conditions in the booth: the overall air flow through a booth is not an adequate measure of its performance - only air velocity measurements at several different points will provide sufficient information; air velocities that are too low prevent the establishment of a stable air-flow regime; 0.3m/s is proposed as a threshold value; effects of higher velocities are discussed; blower and extractor configuration have a strong effect on air distribution within the booth.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, Note No.1450-113-83, p.505-516. Illus.
Guide for ventilation practice - 9: Ventilation of painting areas and booths
Guide pratique de ventilation - 9. Ventilation des cabines et postes de peinture [in French]
A document produced by collaboration of ventilation and chemical safety specialists with trade union representatives. It is a guide and reference document for the design and operation of ventilation systems for spray-painting areas and booths. Contents: review of some regulations, of the hazards involved and of general safety principles; painting equipment (configuration, dimensions, air purification systems with their air flow characteristics); drying equipment (configurations, heat sources, ventilation); air filtration devices; conditioning of incoming air; noise reduction; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems. Characteristics of common solvents, calculations for drying ovens and catalytic heaters are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, Note.1449-113-83, p.485-504. Illus. 13 ref.
Guide for ventilation practice - 4: Ventilation at foundry knock-out workplaces
Guide pratique de ventilation - 4. Ventilation des postes de décochage en fonderie [in French]
A document produced by the collaboration of ventilation and chemical safety specialists with trade unions. It is a guide and reference document for the design and operation of installations for the trapping or dilution of pollutants. Contents: review of the process of knocking out castings and of the principles of ventilation in general; design of collecting devices (choice of configuration, dimensions, calculation of capacity); qualitative and quantitative monitoring of a ventilation system (methodology, equipment and timing of monitoring). Examples of calculations from real studies are given. An appendix includes a list of the main pollutants associated with different processes, air flow rates for tumbling barrels, and systems for distributing air flow at openings.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, Note No.1448-113-83, p.463-484. Illus. 19 ref.
Jacques J., Sueur J., Cafaxe M., Robinet D.
Noise reduction in vacuum wood-chip collectors - Outline of a method for noise reduction at source
Réduction du bruit des aspirateurs de copeaux - Ebauche d'une méthodologie pour la réduction du bruit à la source [in French]
Sound-control features provided by the manufacturers of 3 vacuum wood-chip collectors were inadequate. Detailed analysis of the sources and propagation pathways of noise in one such device showed that the fan was the major source of noise; noise travelled primarily through the air channels of the device and radiated from the walls of the channels. Vibration of the frame and sheet-metal work of the device, air-flow turbulence and the fan motor were other sources of noise. Noise reductions of 6.5-9.5dBw(A) were obtained by such simple means as enclosing the filter bags of the device. Description of the sound analysis methods used.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, Note No.1435-112-83, p.345-351. Illus.
Ventilation on electroplating baths - exhaust rims
Wentylacja przy wannach galwanicznych - ssawki szczelinowe [in Polish]
Description of exhaust ventilation rims designed for electroplating tanks and of the aerodynamic considerations which led to the choice of a tapered shape for the rim box. This shape ensures that the exhaust draft is equal over the entire length of the slot. The calculations and diagrams are reproduced.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Apr. 1983, No.4, p.17-20.
La ventilation [in French]
Special issue devoted to ventilation and air purification at the workplace. Detection and development of hazards associated with polluted atmospheres, explosive atmospheres and hot workplaces; pollution control (collection, dilution, and exhaust of pollutants, purification of polluted air, reduction of thermal stress and physiological strain due to heat and cold, prevention and elimination of explosive atmospheres, monitoring and maintenance of ventilation systems, double-flow pollution control); air conditioning and energy saving (design of industrial buildings and thermal comfort, heating methods at the workplace, economy and recycling of energy). A later issue will be devoted to examples of practical application of these principles.
Travail et sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 1983, No.1-2, p.1-112. Illus. 86 ref.
Girard J.P., Zawodnik S.
La maladie des humidificateurs [in French]
Analysis of the aetiology of 8 cases of febrile respiratory syndrome due to exposure to humidication and air-conditioning installations: identification of pathogenic agents by microbiological analysis of the liquids in the humidifiers, skin tests, respiratory provocation testing and paraclinical and immunological techniques. Bacterial endotoxins are responsible for the pathological condition found in the 8 workers. The syndrome is due to acute sensitivity to the endotoxins and should henceforth be clearly distinct from allergic alveolitis.
Revue française d'allergologie et d'immunologie clinique, 1982, Vol.22, No.4-5, p.185-190. 24 ref.
National Materials Advisory Board
Pneumatic dust control in grain elevators - Guidelines for design, operation and maintenance
This guide book has been compiled as a guide for designers, installers and owners of pneumatic dust control systems. Contents: dust control techniques and equipment (minimising dust generation, housekeeping); hoods, transitions and ductwork (capture velocity, design, materials of construction); dust filters and disposal of collected dust; selection and installation of exhaust fans; dust control in problem areas; requirements for design, installation and acceptance of pneumatic dust control systems; instrumentation, operation and maintenance. Glossary of definitions.
National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington D.C. 20418, USA, 1982. xiv, 118p. Illus.
Fume collection in pressure die casting
Captage des fumées en fonderie sous pression [in French]
Contents: evaluation of pollution due to the refractory dressings sprayed on the moulds in pressure die casting; study of fume-collecting systems placed as close as possible to the emission source: different kinds of exhaust ventilation and combined forced-exhaust ventilation; fume removal from airstreams is also discussed.
Fonderie, Nov. 1982, No.19, p.17-22. Illus. 4 ref.
(Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet)
Air pollution in arc welding
Luftforurensning ved buesveising [in Norwegian]
Contents of this directive (effective: 1 July 1983): welding operations (use of appropriate electrodes, informing welders of health risks, limitation of these risks); classification and identification of coated electrodes; ventilation; ventilation and exhaust equipment; air quality monitoring; respiratory protection; maintenance of equipment. Detailed commentaries on the harmful substances emitted during the arc welding of various metals by various techniques, on the applicable standards, on the biological effects of the emissions, on exposure monitoring and on exhaust systems (welding tables with exhaust vents, portable exhaust hoods, suction tubes attached to a central system). In an annex: Norwegian standards on the calculation of the necessary air turnover during welding with coated electrodes and on the identification of these electrodes.
Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, 11 Nov. 1982. 31p. Illus.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Control of dust from portable fettling tools - ventilated fettling benches
This data sheet provides information on various models of ventilated fettling benches.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1982. 3p. Illus. 5 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Control of dust from portable fettling tools - the Freshold system
This data sheet describes the Freshold dust exhaust system designed by BCIRA. This system can be attached to any portable fettling or grinding tool to extract and collect dust at the source.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1982. 2p. Illus.
Safe handling of harmful substances - Promising, as yet unused inventions
Gefahrloses Handhaben von Schadstoffen - Ermittlung aussichtsreicher und noch ungenutzter Erfindungen [in German]
26 inventions, either patented or for which a patent had been applied for, were investigated and compared with existing systems. The 5 which showed promise were: procedure to improve the collection efficiency of wet dust collectors; exhaust ventilation of stone dust on self-advancing face supports; dust exhaust system on a workbench for fine engineering (specifically manufacture of dental prostheses); exhaust of spray mists; precipitation of dust and mist particles in tunnel driving. A further 16 processes or procedures not considered worthy of further development are presented. 4 inventions were not classified.
VDI-Verlag, Postfach 1139, 4000 Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 97p. Bibl.
Alden J.L., Kane J.M.
Design of industrial ventilation systems
This book describes how to design and build, or buy, industrial ventilation systems that will perform adequately and economically in the removal, from the workplace, of potentially harmful air pollutants. Topics covered: local and general exhaust ventilation; hood and piping design; make-up air supply; energy conservation; isolation; low-pressure pneumatic conveying; selection of collectors and exhaust fans.
Industrial Press Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10157, USA, 1982. 281p. Illus.
Afanas'ev I.I., Marinčenko V.M., Faermark A.A.
Dust-control equipment for points where dusty materials are transferred
Ustanovka dlja obespylivanija peregruzočnyh uzlov pyljaščih materialov [in Russian]
A dust-collecting hood is described which is to be fitted over points where dusty material is dropped onto a belt conveyor. The hood is divided into 2 enclosures, one around the transfer point itself and another farther along the receiving belt. The 2nd enclosure is connected (1) to an exhaust ventilation system and (2) to the 1st enclosure via a channel containing water-spray nozzles. Tests in an ore-enrichment plant showed that the performance of the device varied with the particle size and water content of the material being moved, with the rate of movement of the conveyor, and with the rate of air flow through the hood. For a given material, conveyor speeds and air flows can be found which reduce dust levels in the vicinity of the transfer point to concentrations below the TLV.
Gornyj žurnal, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.57-59. Illus. 4 ref.
Artificial ionisation of pure room air
Iskusstvennaja ionizacija čistogo vozduha pomeščenij [in Russian]
Removal of undesirable materials from air also removes air ions, which apparently adversely affects the well-being of workers in places supplied with purified air. Measurements showed that placement of a separate air ioniser in a room does not provide a dependable or uniform distribution of air ions throughout the room. Placement of a 2-electrode system in the air supply duct of the experimental room gave better distribution of the ions. The use of 2 electrodes facilitates maintenance of the proper concentration of ions: pointed corona-discharge electrodes are mounted upstream in the air duct and connected with the negative pole of a direct-current source (-5000V), and a mesh electrode is mounted downstream and connected with the positive pole of a variable direct-current source (0-2700V); the potential on the positive electrode is varied as necessary to obtain proper ion levels in the room air, as measured with an appropriate ion counter.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, 1982, No.6, p.19-21. Illus. 9 ref.
Fletcher B., Johnson A.E.
Velocity profiles around hoods and slots and the effects of an adjacent plane
Results of measurements around local exhaust ventilation hoods and slots up to an aspect ratio of 16:1, taken with the hoods freely suspended and when resting on a plane surface, are given. A nomogram, previously designed to predict centreline velocities in front of freely suspended hoods, can also be used for hoods resting on a plane surface. Flanged hoods are more effective, and much higher velocities can be produced in front of a hood resting on a plane than with a freely suspended hood.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.4, p.365-372. Illus. 3 ref.
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