Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Farant J.P., McKinnon D., Rowlands N.
Development of tracer gas methodologies for the evaluation of the performance of ventilation systems in various workplaces
Mise au point de méthodes utilisant un gaz traceur pour déterminer le rendement de systèmes de ventilation dans divers milieux de travail [in French]
Tracer gas methods developed to date allow an assessment of the total performance of ventilation systems in workplaces which is, in many ways, superior to that afforded by conventional tools such as the Pitot tube and anemometer. These methods have been used to determine the efficacy of contaminant removal, the recirculation of contaminated air, the migration of pollutants in the work environment and their migration to adjoining work areas, air leakage in office towers, and local air exchange rates. Although it is anticipated that tracer gas methods will be available to most industrial hygienists and technologists in the near future, certain impediments exist to their universal acceptance. The methods and their ancillary techniques require optimization and normalization. This article presents a summary of the state of the art for this methodology and of progress achieved in making these methods more acceptable. Air sampling and sample analysis are identified as two essential elements of tracer gas methodology which require further work.
Travail et santé, Winter 1985, Vol.1, No.3, p.31-36. Illus. 18 ref.
Kuz'mina L.V., Kruglikova A.M., Gus'kov A.S., Dmitrieva L.S.
Method for designing linear ductless ventilation with air supply through a slot distributor under the ceiling
Metod rasčeta prjamotočnoj beskanal'noj ventiljacii pri podače vozduha čerez ščelevidnyj vozduhoraspredelitel' pod pokrytiem [in Russian]
The method enables determination of the applicability of ductless ventilation, calculation of the necessary airflow in the circulation zone under the inlet duct and in the linear-flow zone, and determination of the inlet air speeds that will not produce unacceptably high air speeds at work stations. The calculation formulae are given.
Published in: Aktual'nye voprosy ohrany truda, Profizdat, ul. Kirova 13, 10100 Moskva, USSR, 1985. p.24-29. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.60 (whole volume).
Sorokin Ju.G., Sibilev M.S.
Labour protection in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry. Rules and standards
Ohrana truda v neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti - Pravila i normy [in Russian]
This manual for engineering staff and occupational health services of manufacturing, research and design organisations includes major extracts from safety regulations and requirements in the title industry. It covers: quotations from safety regulations of gas and petroleum refining enterprises, synthetic rubber, synthetic ethyl alcohol, organometallic compound, schist reprocessing and asbestos plants; safety requirements for design of ventilation; operation of pressure vessels; operation, inspection and repair of safety valves; design of steel piping; fire protection requirements for design of petroleum refineries and petrochemical enterprises.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985, 380p. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.90.
Labour protection in shipbuilding
Ohrana truda v sudostroenii [in Russian]
This manual intended for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in the shipbuilding industry: fundamentals of labour legislation, assessment of occupational safety, safety engineering and occupational hygiene (working conditions, harmful and hazardous factors, workplace air, ventilation, lighting, electrical safety), fire protection (flammability of substances, prevention of fires, fire-fighting work), social and economic aspects of labour protection (economic consequences of unfavourable working conditions, economic efficiency of labour protection).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, ul.Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985, 223p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
Sánchez Corbalán J., Palao Martínez J.
A local exhaust ventilation system - A computer-assisted calculation method
Sistema de ventilación por extracción localizada - Método de cálculo asistido por ordenador [in Spanish]
This article describes the microcomputer program CALRED, developed in order to calculate the parameters of a local exhaust ventilation system. The complete listing of the program in the BASIC computer language for the microcomputer models APPLE II and COMMODORE is given.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1985, No.92. p.8-13. Illus.
Laboratory fume hoods
Aspects covered in this data sheet: description of fume hoods suitable for laboratory work; face velocity requirements (100 linear feet/min minimum); location of fume hoods with regard to air movements in the work area; maintenance and testing; use considerations; glove boxes.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 5p. Illus. Bibl.
Dmitriev M.T., Spiridonov Ju. L., Murakov A.P., Zaharčenko M.P.
Hygienic assessment of deozonised air
Gigieničeskaja ocenka deozonirovanija vozduha [in Russian]
Some physiological parameters were measured in volunteers aged 18-32 who were exposed to deozonised, ozonised and normal air during a period of rest, a period of exercise on bicycle ergometers and a recovery period. Subjects breathing deozonised air showed reduced capacities for physical work in comparison with controls breathing normal air; raising the ozone concentration above normal improved performance. Because windowless or air-conditioned premises may be deficient in ozone, the artificial supplementation of workplace air with ozone (to give a concentration of 55µg/m3) is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1985, No.2, p.12-14. 3 ref.
Local thermal discomfort
To provide an acceptable thermal environment for human beings, it is essential for the design and evaluation of a workplace to establish quantitative standards for thermal environments. One requirement to be met is that a person be in thermal neutrality as predicted by the comfort equation found in such standards as ISO 7730. Thermal neutrality depends on personal activity level, degree of insulation by clothing, air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and air humidity. A further requirement is that no local thermal discomfort exist. Local discomfort may be caused by asymmetric thermal radiation, local convective cooling (draughts), vertical air temperature gradients or contact with warm or cold floors. Quantitative treatments of each of these factors and recommended limits for avoiding discomfort are presented.
Brüel & Kjær Technical Review, 1985, No.1, p.3-42. Illus. 55 ref.
Poščupkin N.P., Birjukov V.A., Zabavskij A.N.
Experience with the introduction of torches for semiautomatic welding with fume aspiration in assembly plants
Opyt vnedrenija gorelok dlja poluavtomatičeskoj svarki s otsosom aėrozolja na zavodah metallokonstrukcij [in Russian]
Description of a new electric welding torch. It has a lighter supply cable than previous models, which permits the torch and its air and electric lines to be made long enough to enable continuous welding of large vats, trusses and columns. Compressed air is supplied to cool the handle. A compressed-air ejector provides suction for an aspirator channel in the torch. Exhaust air passes through a specially designed filter where welding fume is collected. Depending on conditions in the factories where the new torch has been introduced, efficiencies of fume collection range from 70 to 100%, and fume levels in the welders' breathing zones have been reduced 15-20-fold. Substantial amounts of money have been saved by the elimination of the construction costs and heat losses associated with local ventilation systems.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Mar. 1985, No.3, p.43-44. Illus.
Olejničenko K.A., Rojanov V.A., Semenov V.P.
Specific emission of aerosol components in electric-arc metal spraying
Udel'nye vydelenija komponentov aėrozolja pri dugovoj metallizacii [in Russian]
Under identical conditions, 3 different wires differed markedly in the amount of dust that they generated: averages ranged from 2.8 to 8.0g/min, or 14-40g dust/kg wire. The aerosol from low-alloy wire was largely iron oxide, with about 3% manganese oxide, whereas wire containing 23.6% chromium and 13.47% nickel gave aerosols containing similar proportions of chromium (mainly trivalent) and nickel oxides. Keeping amounts of airborne metals down to permissible levels requires exhaust ventilation at a rate of 7000m3 of air per kilogram of wire consumed, in the case of low-alloy wire, and 22,000m3/kg in the case of high-alloy wire.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Mar. 1985, No.3, p.42-43. 5 ref.
Lukašev V.A., Izraevskij A.V., Lukaševa L.L., Viničenko L.I., Kondrašev S.Ju.
Local exhaust ventilation in the welding of large assemblies
Mestnaja vytjažnaja ventiljacija pri svarke krupnogabaritnyh konstrukcij [in Russian]
A review of systems used in the USSR to control welding fumes produced during the assembly of agricultural equipment. The systems fall into 3 categories: those that are independent of the tool or workpiece; those that are incorporated into accessory equipment; and those that are incorporated into welding tools themselves. The categories are illustrated respectively by a hood with a circular slot that can pass 2000-3000m3 of air per hour; a tilting cradle that has internal air passages and slot hoods at intervals along its length; and an electric welding tool with 2 concentric tubes around the electrode. The cradle can handle objects up to 6m in length, and can exhaust 7000m3/h. The welding tool is connected to a source of carbon dioxide and to a vacuum line; the carbon dioxide flows out of the inner of the 2 concentric tubes to form a curtain around the welding arc, and is sucked up through the outer tube along with entrained welding fume.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.40-42. Illus. 7 ref.
Ujudin E.A., Terehin A.S.
Protection against noise of mine fans
Bor'ba s šumom šahtnyh ventiljatornyh ustanovok [in Russian]
This guide covers: physical aspects of noise of mine fans (sound field, permissible noise levels, noise sources, etc.), methods of acoustic design of fans (emission of noise in ducts of ventilating systems, design of sound isolation of fans, calculation of noise emission in production areas, etc.), noise dampers (basic diagrammes of dampers, sound insulating materials and devices for dampers, noise dampers for mine fans of underground railways, fans for local and general ventilation, air conditioners, dust collectors, etc.); noise and vibration isolation, vibration damping; examples of acoustic calculations; measurement of fan noise. The guide can be used in the design of fans for above-ground structures and in the control of noise from other equipment in which air or gases flow.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tretjakovskij pr.1/19, 103633 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 191p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: Rbl.0.60.
Identifying the problem: the use of portable measuring instruments - Ventilation
A la recherche du problème: utilisation des instruments de mesure portatifs - Ventilation [in French]
This illustrated guide provides all the necessary information on 2 air flow measuring instruments: the KURTZ 441M thermoanemometer and the TSI 1650 velometer, used commonly by industrial hygienists to check ventilation systems. Aspects covered: general description; characteristics, design principles and use; measurement and calibration methods; maintenance and repairs.
Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec, 1199, rue de Bleury, Box 1056, Station A, Montréal, Qué., Canada H3C 4E1, 4th quarter 1985. 24p. Illus.
Effect of water temperature on the effectiveness of dust suppression by spraying
Vlijanie temperatury vody na ėffektivnost' pylepodavlenija orošeniem [in Russian]
The effectiveness of wet dust control is enhanced by encouraging condensation of water on the surface of dust particles. This can be achieved by spraying water at a temperature below the dew point. In an experimental wet dust collector (illustrated), an air stream containing 1540-1850mg dust/m3 was passed through a spray of temperature-controlled water. A 40°C spray reduced the dust level to 190mg/m3, but a 7.5°C spray reduced it to only 64mg/m3. Besides improving dust collection, the use of cooled water in mine ventilation systems would remove excess heat generated by electrical equipment.
Ugol', Feb. 1985, No.2, p.57-58. Illus. 1 ref.
(Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle)
Aération, assainissement [in French]
Decree No.84-1093, which appeared in the Journal officiel of France of 8 Dec. 1984, defines legal requirements with regard to ventilation in different types of workplace. Decree No.84-1094, which appeared in the same issue, lays down regulations to be respected by contractors with respect to ventilation and sanitation in the workplace. A circular comments on each section of the 2 decrees. Duplicate of CIS 85-985.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1985, No.121, Note No.1559-121-85, p.553-564.
Advanced design of ventilation systems for contaminant control
This technical reference book cofers all aspects of state-of-the art design of ventilation systems for a wide variety of manufacturing and process industries. The material contains all the information needed to develop cost-effective solutions for any type of contaminant in the workplace environment. For each type of ventilation system, the fundamental design equations are developed from theoretical principles, and numerous examples are given of the practical application of these equations to solving industrial ventilation problems. The logical progression in the presentation of the material, from fundamentals to practical applications, make it an ideal textbook for graduate level university courses.
Elsevier Science Publishers, P.O. Box 330, 1000 AH Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1985, 745p. Illus. Bibl.
Laboratory fume hoods
This data sheet explains the functions and the various safety features of fume hoods, and it provides sufficient information to enable the laboratory worker to evaluate the protection afforded by a particular fume hood.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 5p. Illus. Bibl.
Hampl V., Johnston O.E.
Control of wood dust from horizontal belt sanding
Description of an auxiliary ventilation system consisting of 2 devices: a hood and a jet stripper. The hood is a narrow, low-volume, high velocity slot hood located between a belt surface and a worktable; the push device is a jet stripper located inside a driven pulley hood opposite the operator side. Advantages of the system: it reduces wood dust emission, does not interfere with the operator's work, requires minimal maintenance and is economical.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1985, Vol.46, No.10, p.567-577. Illus. 3 ref.
Air purification methods in industry. Cost comparison methods and a case study
Procédés d'assainissement de l'air des ateliers. Méthodes de comparaison des coûts et étude de cas [in French]
Plans are described for the installation of 5 different air-purifying systems in an actual factory; air exhaust with heat recovery and heating by natural gas or oil; air exhaust without heat recovery and heating by natural gas or oil; air recycling after treatment and natural gas heating. For each possibility, the calculation includes: investment costs, annual operating costs, total costs based on the previous 2 costs, on the method of financing of the installation and on price projections. The influence of weather on these evaluations is discussed. The least expensive choice for this factory would be the installation of the system with air exhaust with energy recovery and heating by natural gas. A more general method for such calculations is being looked for; such a method would permit, at the planning stage, the comparison of prices of several solutions without the need for long and expensive studies.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, Note No.1539-120-85, p.331-340. Illus. 3 ref.
Practical guide to ventilation - 6. Oil mist extraction and processing
Guide pratique de ventilation - 6. Captage et traitement des brouillards d'huile [in French]
This document was written by specialists in collaboration with labour unions. It applies to the cutting and shaping of metals and metal alloys during which operations cutting fluids are used. Contents: types and evaluation of risks; general principles of ventilation; design of ventilation systems (local exhaust and general ventilation, air replacement, ductwork, air purification techniques and equipment). Demonstrative examples are given from industry. Methods used for measuring oil mist concentration in air are described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1985, No.119, Note No.1526-119-85, p.159-182. Illus. 20 ref.
Ager B.P., Tickner J.A.
The control of microorganisms responsible for Legionnaires' disease and humidifier fever
The incidence of these illnesses is reviewed and the circumstances in which the causal organisms can develop are described. Basic information on building services systems (humidifiers, cooling towers and evaporative condensers) is given and possible means of airborne transmission of microorganisms are considered. Preventive measures include regular maintenance (cleaning of water reservoirs and inspection of filters, biocidal water treatment).
Science Reviews Ltd., Northern Office, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1985. 36p. Illus. 41 ref.
Huebener D.J., Hughes R.T.
Development of push-pull ventilation
This technique of blowing air across a contaminant generation area toward an exhaust hood can have distinct advantages over exhaust ventilation alone. It reduces the volume of conditioned air exhausted, thus providing energy savings. Systems and flow rates are described for open surface tank operations such as plating. About 98% of the contaminants generated can be captured by a push-pull system using proper flow rates.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1985, Vol.46, No.5, p.262-267. Illus. 8 ref.
Elimination of polluting substances: the "sniffing" sink
Captage des polluants: l'évier "renifleur" [in French]
Description and advantages of a sink designed to eliminate respirable pollutants from laboratories. Its design is based on the principles of ergonomics and geometry.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.7-9. Illus.
You can eliminate fumes
Ohne Rauch geht's auch [in German]
Description of a hand-held double-walled screen for welders (with filter glass). The wall facing the workpiece has exhaust slots connected to a ventilation system in the hollow handle. Because of direct fume elimination, there is relatively little air to evacuate.
Betriebssicherheit, 1985, No.1, p.10. Illus.
Proper treatment of fumes produced by die-casting machines
Dämpfe an Druckgussmaschinen richtig behandeln [in German]
Air contaminated by fumes, which are produced when die-castings are ejected and dies are lubricated, is eliminated by exhaust hoods placed above the die-casting machines and is then cleaned by filters of various kinds. The problems of condensation and of filter cleaning or changing are emphasised. A supplementary air cleaning system, based on a water curtain that retains harmful substances, is described. This system eliminates the need for long periods of maintenance and reduces fire risks. Experience with the installation and its operation is discussed.
Technische Rundschau, 1985, Vol.77, No.9, p.22-23. Illus.
Occupational hazards and diseases in commerce and offices
Les risques professionnels et les maladies professionnelles dans le commerce et les bureaux [in French]
This report was prepared to serve as a basis for discussion at the 9th session of the Advisory Committee on salaried employees and professional workers, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 17-25 April 1985 and convened by the Governing Body of the ILO. Aspects covered: general outline of occupational hazards in commerce and offices and the impact of new technologies; postural strain of office workers and supermarket cashiers; mental and physical stress; fatigue; work with video display terminals.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. 54p. Bibl. Price: SF.12.50.
Ventilation Regulation [Canada - Alberta]
Coming into force on 1 Jan. 1985, this regulation applies to all work sites where airborne contaminants or oxygen deficiency might reasonably affect workers' health. The adequacy, design, development or modification of a ventilation system shall be determined on the basis of a thorough assessment of the hazards present. The maintenance of the ventilation system is the responsibility of the employer, who shall also ensure that workers are trained in its use.
Canadian OSH Legislation CD-ROM, CCOHS, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1984. 3p.
Seminar on coal mining safety
Presentations from the Seminar on Coal Mining Safety held 20-23 Nov. 1984 in Beijing, People's Republic of China, under the sponsorship of the Ministry of the Coal Industry, the Ministry of Labour and Personnel and the ILO. Each paper is printed in English and in Chinese. Topics: prevention of and protection against outbursts of coal and gas; monitoring of the underground environment; air cooling; safety training; fire prevention and extinction.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, no date. 103 + 292p. Illus.
Process ventilation for welding - Design, acquisition, installation
Punktventilation vid svetsning - Projektering, anskaffning, införande [in Swedish]
Report intended to serve as a guide for buyers of process ventilation systems for welding. It states that the system should be well adapted to the production and personnel of the workplace. Most existing systems assume that the welder frequently moves the local exhaust and that he will position it accurately. In many cases the exhaust is therefore not used at all. Consequently, it is important that the equipment be as easy to use as possible and that the welder concerned take part in the process of selecting the ventilation system. The different types of local exhausts available for welding are described and evaluated. When installing a new local exhaust system it is important to determine how the ventilation systems already existing in the building are affected. How the maintenance of the new system is to be carried out should be planned in advance.
Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1984. 41p. Illus. Price: SEK 15.00.
Welding fume buoyant plumes
Svetsröksplymer [in Swedish]
Baum and Mulholland have published a theory on particle coagulation in buoyant plumes and applied it to plumes from smokestacks and small smoldering sources. In the present report the Baum-Mulholland theory was applied to welding fume buoyant plumes. Since the welding process is very complex and not yet fully understood, it is not possible to measure or calculate all initial parameters necessary to apply the theory rigorously. However, it was possible to use iterative calculations, literature data and measured plume heights in determing the initial plume heat flow. The Baum-Mulholland theory and measured particle concentrations were then employed to calculate the particle number flow rate, the particle number concentration and the mass flow rate, the particle number concentration and the mass flow as functions of plume height. The results make it possible e.g. to specify a recommended vertical temperature gradient in a welding room and to make specifications for local exhaust systems.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 41p. Illus. 24 ref.
Laborda Grima R., Ruiz de la Fuente Tirado S., Cativiela J.L.A.
Prevention of health hazards in automobile paint shops, from the design stage on
Prevención del riesgo higiénico en las cabinas de pintura de automóviles, desde el proyecto inicial [in Spanish]
Health hazards in automobile paint shops were evaluated by measuring the TWA concentration of lead, chromium salts, total dust, n-butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, ethylbenzene and xylene in the air of 4 paint shops (priming; using non-metallic paint; using metallic paint; body repair). Relatively high exposure rates were found in the shop using metallic paint for lead and total dust. To resolve this problem, an exhaust hood was designed, and its dimensions and other parameters are given.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1984, No.90, p.8-14. Illus. 3 ref.
Ventilation of enterprises in the nuclear industry
Ventiljacija predprijatij atomnoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
This guide emphasises ventilation of workshops connected with the production and use of radioactive substances. Contents: characteristics of the air in production areas; emission of gases, aerosols, heat and humidity into the workplace air; physical properties and behaviour of air streams; aerodynamic resistance of ventilation systems; general features of ventilation systems; calculation of the airflow required for ventilation of production areas; distribution of air in production areas; local forced ventilation; local exhaust ventilation; main principles of ventilation of areas where radioactive and highly toxic substances are processed; protection of the environment; monitoring the performance of ventilation systems.
Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 152p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: Rbl.1.70.
General ventilation of workshops where heat is released
Obščeobmennaja ventiljacija cehov s teplovydelenijami [in Russian]
This guide includes technical information on the design of general ventilation systems for multi-bay hot workshops, with emphasis on the combination of natural and mechanical ventilation. Contents: main factors which determine the microclimate of workshops where large amounts of heat are released; characteristics of the temperature distribution in such workshops; natural ventilation (design of and regulation of vents, verifying design calculations for joint action of pressure differences due to heat and wind, natural ventilation during cold weather, etc.), mixed general ventilation (influence of mechanical ventilation on natural ventilation and ambient temperature, influence of air distributor height and air velocity on the workplace temperature, examples).
Izdatel'stvo Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 23, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 143p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: Rbl.0.45.
Design of local ventilation for heat- and dust-producing equipment
Rasčet mestnyh otsosov ot teplo- i gazovydeljajuščego oborudovanija [in Russian]
This manual for engineers shows how to calculate the capacity of local ventilation systems for the elimination of heat and gases emitted by various industrial sources. The basic types of exhaust ventilators used in machine-building are discussed, and ways of limiting the amount of air exhausted are presented. Contents: general characteristics of, and requirements to be met by local exhaust systems; air-flow around intakes; calculating the capacity of exhaust systems that are coaxial with sources of contaminant emissions; determining the capacity of non-coaxial systems; determining the capacity of full enclosures and push-pull systems; methods and examples of calculations for the design of capturing hoods.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per.4, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 160p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: Rbl.0.55.
Industrial ventilation: A manual of recommended practice
Aspects covered in the 18th edition of this reference manual: general principles, dilution ventilation, ventilation for heat control, hood design, specific operations, design procedures, replacement and recirculated air, construction specifications, testing of ventilation systems, fans, air cleaning devices, list of ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs).
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6500 Glenway, Bldg. D-5, Cincinnati, OH 45211, USA, 1984. 18th edition. 314p. Illus.
Evaluating office environmental problems
Proceedings of a symposium held by the ACGIH on 5-7 March 1984 in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Aspects covered: overview; design and assessment of office building ventilation; special ventilation problems.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6500 Glenway Ave., Building D-5, Cincinnati, OH 45211, USA, 1984. 136p. Illus. 240 ref.
van der Veen F.
An ergonomic welding table
Een ergonomische lastafel [in Dutch]
An analysis of working conditions during arc welding (physical, chemical and psychological factors, physical workload) and of the protective measures used (ear and eye protection, equipment reducing the workload, screens, exhaust ventilation) led to the construction of a welding table whose features include: adjustable height of the working surface between 35-110cm, user-friendly shape, rear and side walls forming an open shell, designed as one with the table and exhaust hood.
De veiligheid, Dec. 1984, Vol.60, No.12, p.615-617. Illus.
Grinberg A.A., Topol'skaja I.M.
Increasing the effectiveness of exhaust hoods
Povyšenie ėffektivnosti vytjažnyh zontov [in Russian]
The effectiveness of hoods for local exhaust around large and/or hot pieces of industrial equipment can be increased by placing conical or pyramidal inserts in the hoods. Contaminated air is thus exhausted through ring-shaped slots, and air speeds in the vicinity of the modified hoods are increased. Installation of modified hoods over carburettor-casting machines reduced workplace air pollution by 4-6 fold.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.46-48. Illus. 4 ref.
Niemelä R., Toppila E., Tossavainen A.
The measurement of ventilation parameters by means of tracer gas techniques and a microcomputer
A tracer method was developed for the evaluation of workplace ventilation. Nitrous oxide or freon 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) were used as tracers. The concentration of the tracer gas was measured using an infrared analyser. A microcomputer was used for data calculation, display and storage. 3 applications are described: determination of the capture efficiency of a local exhaust hood; evaluation of air leakage of a room; measurement of local ventilation rates in a large industrial plant.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1984, Vol.28, No.2, p.203-210. Illus. 15 ref.
Afanas'ev I.I., Marinčenko V.M., Kuz'menok N.I.
Dust suppression in the operation of belt conveyors
Predotvraščenie pylevydelenija pri rabote lentočnyh konvejerov [in Russian]
Description of dust suppression equipment mounted at the tail end of a belt conveyor in an iron ore enrichment plant. The belt is surrounded by an enclosure with exhaust ventilation, and the material on the belt is sprayed with water containing a small amount of surfactant. The system reduced the dust concentration in the vicinity of the belt from 8 to 2mg/m3.
Gornyj žurnal, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.56-57. Illus. 3 ref.
Decrees No.84-1093 and 84-1094 of 7 Dec. 1984 revising and completing the Labour Code (Part 2) as it applies to the airing and ventilation of work premises
Décrets n°84-1093 et 84-1094 du 7 déc. 1984 modifiant et complétant le Code du travail (2ème partie) en ce qui concerne l'aération et la ventilation des locaux de travail [in French]
These decrees revise and complete the French Labour Code. Decree 84-1093 (effective: 1 Dec. 1986) defines the obligations of the employer in the airing and ventilating of work premises depending on local conditions. Decree 84-1094 (effective: 1 Dec. 1985) specifies the rules applying to the ventilation and air cleaning of premises and those that must be followed by designers and builders of industrial, commercial or agricultural buildings.
Journal officiel de la République française, 8 Dec. 1984, Vol.116, No.287. p.3775-3778.
Todd W.F., Shulman S.A.
Control of styrene vapour in a large fiberglass boat manufacturing operation
Ventilation of each of the 5 tiltable boat hull mould stations was modified to improve its efficiency. Levels of styrene in air were measured before and after the modifications. Analysis of variance performed on the results indicated that a significant lowering of the styrene levels had been obtained by the implementation of the described control measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.817-825. Illus. 5 ref.
(Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet)
Marking of the air volume required for occupational health reasons
YL-merking [in Norwegian]
This revised directive (effective 1 Mar. 1983) lays down the method of calculation of the fresh-air volume required when products containing organic solvents are used, and specifies the warnings to be included in the labels on the products packing containers. Detailed commentary. Appended are a definition of the corrected air volume required for occupational health reasons, the procedure to be followed for choosing the correct warning sentence (with examples), an example for calculation the air volume required for a two-component product, a list of >100 substances with their evaporation rates, and an excerpt from the Norwegian regulations on the marking of substances harmful to health.
Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Mar. 1984. 17p.
Heitbrink W.A., Crouse W.E.
Application of industrial hygiene air sampling data to the evaluation of controls for air contaminants
Air contaminant concentration measurements can be an important tool in the evaluation of the effectiveness of ventilation systems. Comparisons of concentrations before and after implementation of control measures can be stated as a null hypothesis; statistical tests (Student t-test, analysis of variance, or Duncan's multiple range test) can then be used to verify the validity of the null hypothesis and thus quantify statistically the effectiveness of the control measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1984, Vol.45, No.11, p.773-777.
A ventilation design program for hand-held programmable computers
This programme, written in BASIC, can be run on any hand-held programmable calculator (TRS-80 Pocket computer). It allows the sizing and balancing of local exhaust ventilation branches and mains using the velocity pressure method. A complete listing of the programme and a worked-out example are given.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1984, Vol.45, No.11, p.749-751. 3 ref.
Graumann K., Gastberg I.
Ventilation of the working face during mechanised part-face driving
Bewetterung des Ortsbereichs in Teilschnittmaschinen-Vortrieben [in German]
Results of and conclusions from tests of ventilation conditions in 129 mechanised driving sites: face ventilation during cutting, free-jet face ventilation from a main ventilation line or from an auxiliary line, ventilation of the working area during cutting, ventilation of the overlap area between the auxiliary ventilation and the dust collectors. Empirical relations allow the calculation of distances and the speed at the air outlet in such a way that air speed at the working face does not drop below a certain level. New devices (such as a diaphragm to regulate the opening of the air outlet) that enable higher air speeds and more favourable climatic conditions to be obtained without interfering with dust collection.
Glückauf, 1984, Vol.120, No.15, p.967-976. Illus. 13 ref.
Influence of air volume on the climate of mineworkings
Einfluss der Wettermenge auf das Grubenklima im Abbau [in German]
The temperature of mineworkings is calculated with the help of a computer programme. Factors considered include air circulation and thermal characteristics. Particularly important is the influence of air circulation at the working face on the effective temperature. Heat absorption by ventilation and cooling capacity are also considered.
Glückauf, 1984, Vol.120, No.20, p.1318-1323. Illus. 5 ref.
Evaluation of industrial local exhaust hood efficiency by a tracer gas technique
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released at a known rate into an industrial process area, and exhaust hood efficiency was measured by comparing this quantity to that captured by the exhaust ventilation system as measured in the exhaust duct. The advantages and limits of the method are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1984, Vol.45, No.7, p.485-490. Illus. 8 ref.
Sutter S.L., Halverson M.A.
Aerosols generated by accidents: pressurized liquid release experiments
Experiments were performed in static air with a view to measuring the mass airborne as a function of source size and containment pressure. Pressurized releases with the containment breach above the liquid level were also investigated. The main conclusions are that chamber pressure is not a significant variable in aerosol generation produced by release of a pressured liquid. Source volume is not a significant variable when the rupture occurs above the liquid level. The relations and calculations obtained from this work can be used in the preparation of safety assessments and environmental impact statements for facilities and processes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.227-230. Illus. 6 ref.
Practical guide to ventilation - 5: Ventilation of gluing shops for small objects (shoes)
Guide pratique de ventilation - 5: Ventilation des ateliers d'encollage de petits objets (chaussures) [in French]
Guidance note serving as a reference document for the design and operation of ventilation equipment in these workshops. Contents: summary of hazards (glues and adhesives used) and of pollution sources; requirements to be met; design (configuration, dimensions, work tables with built-in exhaust ventilation); technical solutions relating to the design of the workshop and of workflow, choice of equipment depending on the workplace and on the exhaust speed required. Examples of industrial implementation are shown. Toxicity information and ergonomic recommendations are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1488-116-84, p.287-312. Illus. 7 ref.
Coldiron V.R., Janssen H.E.
Safe decontamination of hospital autopsy rooms and ventilation system by formaldehyde generation
Description of a procedure for the safe decontamination of autopsy facilities in a hospital, using formaldehyde gas and including all the ventilation system and 3 associated air incinerators.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.136-137. 9 ref.
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