Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Ministère chargé du travail
Order of 9 Oct. 1987 concerning the inspection of ventilation and sanitation equipment at the workplace that can be prescribed by the labour inspector [France]
Arrêté du 9 oct. 1987 relatif au contrôle de l'aération et de l'assainissement des locaux de travail pouvant être prescrit par l'inspecteur du travail [France] [in French]
This order describes the measurements and verifications that the labour inspector is entitled to prescribe (methods, type of results), approval procedures and conditions for individuals and organisations.
Journal officiel de la République française, 22 Oct. 1987, p.12338-12341.
Studies on axial-flow minicyclones
Badania minicyklonów osiowych przelotowych [in Polish]
Experiments using the method of regression analysis resulted in the design of a minicyclone with an efficiency of dust collection exceeding 87% and flow resistance 270Pa (Pascals) at an airflow of 15m3/h. Minicyclones of this design may be used in groups as a multicyclone, the first stage in multistage filtering installations.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.133, p.81-91. 8 ref.
Stasiewicz E., Mróz K., Nowicki J.
Filtering and ventilating installation for cleaning air of oil mist
Filtracyjno-wentylacyjne urządzenie do usuwania i oczyszczania powietrza z mgły olejowej [in Polish]
The installation is intended to clean air of liquid, solid and gaseous contaminants emitted during machining. The mobile filtering module may be used for one or more machine tools equipped with complete or partial housings and hoods. Results of tests of filtering and sportive materials, and laboratory and field tests of the installation are presented.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.133, p.71-80. 6 ref.
Problems with the inspection of local exhaust systems and countermeasures
Kyokusho haiki sōchi no kensa kara mita mondai to sono taisaku [in Japanese]
Local exhaust systems often have no direct connection to production, so their service and maintenance tend to be neglected. In this paper, the problems of maintenance of local exhaust systems are presented and the search for appropriate counter measures is described.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, 1987, No.26, p.8-10. Illus. 9 ref.
Garrison R.P., Wang Y.
Finite element application for velocity characteristics of local exhaust inlets
A Finite Element Method (FEM) was developed for representing velocity characteristics for the inlets. A computer program aided the design. Values of the velocity potential were determined at nodal points, which divided a domain surrounding the exhaust inlet into many finite elements. FEM was used to obtain approximate solutions to the governing equation for airflow
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1987, Vol.48, No.12, p.983-988. Illus. 11 ref.
Order of 8 Oct. 1987 regarding periodic inspection of facilities for the ventilation and cleaning of workplaces [France]
Arrêté du 8 oct. 1987 relatif au contrôle périodique des installations d'aération et d'assainissement des locaux de travail [France] [in French]
This order obliges the heads of enterprises to ensure the regular inspection of ventilation installations, in application of Article R.232-5-9 of the Labour Code. The order requires that a log be kept. Where no specific pollutants are present, this log should include dates of inspection, information on air flow, characteristics and states of filters and other equipment, and ventilation methods used. When specific pollutants are present, the efficiency of the pollution-control systems and the concentrations of pollutants must also be noted.
Journal officiel de la République française, 22 Oct. 1987, No.245, p.12341-12342.
Health and Safety Executive
An introduction to local exhaust ventilation
This guidance note describes the important features of good local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems in order to assess their effectiveness and performance. It is stressed that all means of controlling contamination should be considered before a local exhaust system is designed, so that the most effective degree of control can be achieved. Contents: the generation of airborne contamination; assessment of the hazard; inlets to LEV systems; partial enclosures; hoods; ductwork; airflow distribution and balancing; air cleaners; fans and air movers; discharge to the atmosphere; commissioning and maintenance; examination and testing of LEV systems.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 25p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.
Sorokin V.V., Vejlert V.V., Lazareva N.V.
Local dust-control device for concrete mixers
Ustrojstvo mestnogo obezpylivanija dlja betonomešalok [in Russian]
Brief description of a hinged collar that seals the joint between a concrete mixer and the charging hopper when the mixer is being loaded with dry materials. The collar is connected to an exhaust fan. The fan is controlled by a contact switch on the collar, so that air is exhausted only when the collar has been closed around the hopper-mixer joint. This reduces the airflow required for dust control from 15,000 to 3,000m3/h.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1987, No.6, p.37. Illus.
Automatic fire ventilation systems
This data sheet covers the principles and objectives of heat and smoke venting; design factors; equipment choice; controlling the system; inspection, maintenance and commissioning; mandatory requirements.
Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, Apr. 1987. 6p. Illus.
Cornu J.C., Irani J., Servais M., Aubertin G., Brunet R.
Workplace air purification and heating processes. Provisional cost evaluation using Assener software
Procédés d'assainissement et de chauffage de l'air des ateliers - Evaluation prévisionnelle du coût par le logiciel Assener [in French]
"Assener" software running on HP 86 and IBM-PC microcomputers provides assistance in choosing a ventilation system (air rejection with or without heat recovery, air recirculation). It enables the user to make a comparative study of the provisional costs of various sanitation systems for a given workshop. The principles behind the calculations used by this software are described and illustrated by means of an example. A method for modelling the cost of air sanitation equipment is also presented.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1987, No.129, Note No.1646-129-87, p.507-515. Illus. 5 ref.
Mogilevskij L.M., Guz' B.A., Bugaenko S.N.
Improving working conditions of OKĖ 4,0-800-75A mine wagon tippler operators
Ulučšenie uslovij truda operatora oprokidyvatelja OKĖ 4,0-800-75A [in Russian]
Working conditions of rotary wagon tippler operators were studied with the aim of introducing necessary improvements. To control noise and airborne dust and normalise microclimate conditions, a sound-insulated and air-ventilated control cab was developed, supplied from a compressed-air line. Ventilation arrangements are described and illustrated and in-cab temperature and relative humidity diagrams relating these parameters to the functioning of ventilation are presented. The cab brings the inside noise and dust levels down to the existing health standards and normalises in-cab relative humidity and air gas composition parameters.
Gornyj žurnal, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.53-55. Illus. 3 ref.
Spray booth ventilation in autobody shops
This review covers health hazards, design considerations, airflow rate and safe working procedures.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1987. 3p.
Akbar-Khanzadeh, Ramsey J.D.
The prediction of temperatures and heat stress limits in the workplace with natural ventilation
A simple procedure is presented for using the climatic factors reported by weather bureaus to predict levels of heat stress and conditions of risk in the workplace. For an aluminium reduction plant with natural ventilation, the air temperature inside followed the same pattern of annual changes as the normal maximum ambient temperature outside the building. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) was correlated significantly with air temperature. With limited measurements, WBGT was predicted for the entire year at different locations in the shop.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.396-399. Illus. 10 ref.
A demonstration of NIOSH push-pull ventilation criteria
A chrome plating tank was used in order to validate criteria for push-pull ventilation systems developed at NIOSH. Validation of the criteria was made by taking area industrial hygiene samples for hexavalent and total chrome at 10 locations around the plating tank. The sampling was performed during actual production runs or while the tank was operating with a dummy load. The push-pull system, operating according to Huebener's criteria, could keep emission levels within current standards and guidelines. Conclusions and recommendations are included.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1987, Vol.48, No.3, p.238-246. Illus. 5 ref.
Muller J.P., Aubertin G.
Capture efficiency and interfering air currents
Efficacité de captage et courants d'air perturbateurs [in French]
Results of a study on measuring the capture efficiency of an exhaust device using the helium tracer gas technique. They emphasise the significant influence on efficiency of parameters such as capture velocity, the velocity, intensity and direction of interfering air currents and the presence of an operator. These results were obtained for specific configurations, but with parameters of the same magnitude as those in the industrial environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the tracer gas technique.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1987, No.128, Note No.1636-128-87, p.357-367. Illus. 7 ref.
Bengtsson G., Bäck J.
Process ventilation - 70 examples
Processventilation - 70 exempel [in Swedish]
Illustrated booklet describing, by the use of examples, various approaches to the implementation and operation of industrial ventilation systems.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. 88p. Illus. Bibl.
Piney M., Alesbury R.J., Fletcher B., Folwell J., Gill F.S., Lee G.L., Sherwood R.J., Tickner J.A.
British Occupational Hygiene Society
Controlling airborne contaminants in the workplace
This technical guide, written for hygienists and others responsible for air contaminant control in the workplace, concentrates on the control of toxic substances, excluding control of flammable or explosive hazards. Chapters cover: management of air contaminant control; examining processes and understanding exposure; designing to control exposure; non-ventilation methods of control (elimination of substitution of toxic substances, substitution or alteration of processes, changing materials or processes, segregation of high-release processes); costs of ventilation; enclosures and other receiving hoods; captor hoods; general ventilation and air jets; ventilation hardware and system design; common problems, commissioning and maintenance. Appendices include some case studies and a list of smoke generator suppliers in the United Kingdom.
Science Reviews Ltd., P.O. Box MT 27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1987. 173p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £19.25 (post-paid) (UK), US$38.00 (post-paid) (USA).
Ager B.P., Tickner J.A.
The control of microorganisms responsible for Legionnaires' disease and humidifier fever
Lutte contre les micro-organismes à l'origine de la maladie des légionnaires et de la fièvre des humidificateurs [in French]
Translation of an article published by Science Reviews Ltd., Northern Office, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom (see CIS 85-1627). Conditions favourable to the growth of microbial contaminants are sometimes found in air conditioning systems. These organisms can cause respiratory impairments of an allergenic type (humidifier fever) or of the infectious type (Legionnaires' disease). This paper reviews the incidence of these illnesses and describes the circumstances in which the causal organisms can develop. Information on air conditioning systems is given and possible means of airborne transmission of microorganisms are considered. Preventive measures include attention to regular and efficient maintenance procedures and, in the case of cooling towers, biocidal water treatment to minimise growth of microorganisms.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1630-127-87, p.257-268. Illus. 41 ref.
Working conditions in the shoe industry. Study in 4 factories
Conditions de travail dans l'industrie de la chaussure - Etude dans quatre entreprises [in French]
In order to improve working conditions in a particular sector, a sound knowledge of the hazards and stresses which characterise that sector is required. Therefore, several research teams carried out a survey of working conditions in 4 shoe factories. The survey comprised observation, workplace environment measurements and questionnaires, concentrating mainly on solvent exposure and ventilation, physical environmental stressors (noise and heat), stresses related to time and work organisation and workplace layout.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1626-127-87, p.199-215. Illus. 44 ref.
Practical guide to ventilation - 8: Ventilation of confined spaces
Guide pratique de ventilation - 8: Ventilation des espaces confinés [in French]
Document drawn up by a working group of specialists and in collaboration with the relevant trade associations. Contents: definitions, nature of hazards (asphyxia and/or intoxication, fires and explosions); preventive measures (locking out, sampling of the confined atmosphere, decontamination of the confined atmosphere prior to entry of the worker, entry without prior decontamination, entry permit); decontamination principles and techniques, practical examples. An appendix provides examples of accidents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1623-127-87, p.161-169. Illus. 7 ref.
Whorton M.D., Larson S.R., Gordon N.J., Morgan R.W.
Investigation and work-up of tight building syndrome
In recent years, incidents involving health-related complaints due to poor indoor air quality have increased dramatically. These problems have generally occurred in new or remodelled buildings. Following relocation to a new building, some employees began to have health complaints, including upper respiratory tract irritation, headaches, fatigue, and eye irritation. A questionnaire was designed which elicited information about specific work locations, symptom experience, and timing of such symptoms. Although no causative agent(s) could be isolated, the data collected indicate that over the 5-week time period of investigation the rate and persistence of new symptoms decreased. The health complaints experienced appeared to be neither persistent nor pervasive enough to indicate an ongoing health and safety hazard at the facility. Reasons are proposed as to why some new and/or remodelled buildings have this type of problem while others do not.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.29, No.2, p.142-147. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Local exhaust ventilation systems
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1986. Videotape. Length: 12min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Shumate J.L., Proffitt C.M.
Contents of this training manual: mine gases and contaminants; recognition, evaluation and control of hazards; general mine ventilation (principal aim: to deliver an adequate supply of oxygen to mining areas and to dilute or carry away flammable, explosive, noxious or harmful gases, dust, smoke and fumes); mine fans; ventilation controls; relevant regulations in the US; ventilation in metal and non-metal mines; ventilation of workplaces; special applications; heating and air conditioning; air measurement. Glossary.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1986. 43p. Illus. 8 ref.
Cook J.D., Hughes D.
Fume cupboards revisited
Contents of this handbook: physical design of fume cupboards and patterns of airflow; chemical resistance and ease of decontamination of construction materials; thermal aspects; precautions against the possibility of a violent chemical reaction; measuring fume cupboard effectiveness; noise from the ventilation system; air supply; fume dispersal; design for ease of maintenance; procedures for the removal of fume cupboards.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., A-V Division, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1986. iii, 79p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: GBP 8.00.
Work with paints [Netherlands]
Verfverwerking [in Dutch]
This directive (a revision of CIS 77-50) contains instructions for the promotion of safety in paint manufacturing, storage, processing and use, particularly from the point of view of fire and explosion prevention. The prevention of poisoning due to exposure to toxic paints is also dealt with.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 2nd ed., 1986. 23p. Illus. 23 ref.
Regulation concerning the obligation to notify the presence of asbestos in ventilation equipment; Regulation prohibiting the use of asbestos in friction linings in vehicles [Sweden]
Förordning om anmälningsskyldighet beträffande asbest i ventilationsanläggningar; Förordning om förbud mot asbesthaltiga friktionsbelägg i fordon [in Swedish]
Regulation SFS 1985:997 concerns the obligatory notification of asbestos in ventilation equipment. Regulation SFS 1986:683 prohibits the use of asbestos in friction linings (of clutch and brake equipment) in vehicles.
In: Kemiska produkter - Lag och förordningar, Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 3rd ed., 1989, p.83-85.
Ėl'terman E.M., Ėl'terman L.E.
Operation of ventilation systems in chemical plants
Ėkspluatacija ventiljacionnyh sistem himičeskih proizvodstv [in Russian]
Training manual for workers, safety and health specialists, inspectors, and students in technical institutes. Contents: basic principles of ventilation (air quality requiements), sources of atmospheric pollution, means of normalisation of the state and composition of the air, methods of heat and moisture control; ventilaton equipment (ventilators, heaters, air ducts, local exhaust and enclosures, filters and dust collectors, air conditioning installations); ventilation service organisation, operation and repair of ventilation systems, testing, tuning and adjustment, increasing the effectiveness and economy of ventilation systems; main safety measures.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Nevskij pr. 28, 198052 Leningrad, USSR, 1986. 112p. Illus. 29 ref. Appendices. Price: SUR 0.25.
Quintanilla Almagro T.
Gluing hoods: Systems of local ventilation for the control of the hygienic risks at gluing workplaces in the shoe industry
Cabinas de dar cola: Sistemas de ventilación localizadas para el control del riesgo higiénico en los puestos de dar cola en la industria del calzado/Cabinas de dar cola: Sistemas de ventilación localizadas para el control del riesgo higiénico en los puestos de dar cola en la industria del calzado [in Spanish]
Vapours of organic solvents from the glues used in the manufacture of shoes constitute an important health hazard. This article describes a study of the hygienic conditions in 318 gluing workplaces belonging to 166 companies in the province of Alicante, Spain. A large number of workers were exposed to high concentrations of, in particular, n-hexane, hexane and toluene. In many cases the concentrations exceeded the exposure limits. The gluing desks provided with a hood and an exhaust device showed to be very effective in reducing exposure when used properly, while desks without hoods and with the exhaust tube placed underneath were not acceptable. Recommendations for safe working conditions are included in the article as well as brief chemical safety data sheets on n-hexane, toluene, benzene, butanone, ethyl acetate and acetone.
Salud y trabajo, Mar.-Apr. 1986, No.54, p.55-63. Illus. 10 ref.
Characterization of the performance of industrial ventilation systems by the tracer gas technique
The purpose of this thesis was to develop measurement techniques based on the tracer gas method for characterising airflow patterns in large industrial premises and evaluating industrial exhaust hood efficiency. Contents: theoretical background and tracer methodology; experimental procedure; results (air-flow patterns in large work rooms, the sampling strategy for the capture efficiency evaluation); discussion (applicability of the experimental procedure, reliability of the tracer gas method, characterisation of air-flow patterns); conclusions. The thesis is based on 5 studies, which are appended.
Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1986. 49p. Illus. 66 ref.
Analysis of variance in hygienic studies
K ispol'zovaniju dispersionnogo analiza v gigieničeskih issledovanijh [in Russian]
Analysis of variance was used to estimate the efficacy of the following means of dust suppression: in drilling spraying of bottom hole and ventilation, in coal bulk loading - coal bulk spraying and ventilation. The advantage of this method is pointed out: it makes it possible to evaluate factors making not only quantitative but also qualitative differences. Spraying and ventilation were found to reduce the dust level by 74% during coal bulk loading with the use of the PPN-3 loader while 26% was due to other factors. The use of analysis of variance showed the advantage of spraying in comparison to ventilation, two factor analysis, including means of dust suppression (spraying and ventilation) and drilling angle, revealed that the total influence of these 2 factors is 46.4%. The dust level could be reduced by diminishing the driling angle and as a result increasing dust entrapment by the water.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1986, No.2, p.25-29. 4 ref.
Unit: Harmful dusts, gases and vapours - Module: Local exhaust ventilation
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. It contains two main segments: 1. Hoods (function, form and general applications of LEV hoods; total enclosures, booths, receptor hoods, captor hoods; typical applications; estimation of ventilation requirements; LEV problems in real situations; proving new or improved LEV systems). 2. Dusts, collectors and fans (ducts; dust collectors; typical wet collectors; disposal and recirculation; fans; LEV systems where there is a danger of fires or explosions; inspection and maintenance of LEV systems).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Room 1-15, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE, Hamps., United Kingdom, 1986. 85p. Illus.
Combined general and local ventilation systems and heating of welding shops
System skojarzonej wentylacji ogólnej i miejscowej oraz ogrzewanie hal spawalniczych [in Polish]
The combination of general and local ventilation may afford effective ventilation of welding shops. General ventilation of welding shops, especially those with several bays, should make use of an air piston which will work with individual mobile suction nozzles to provide effective fume extraction. Joint action of floor heating and the combined general and local ventilation system is recommended for winter.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1986, Vol.36, No.128, p.55-64. 3 ref.
Occupational hygiene problems in office environments: the influence of building services
Aspects covered in this survey article: temperature and ventilation control (problem areas; general features of air-conditioning systems); case studies (under-designed systems; poorly installed, operated and maintained systems; equipment control; fresh air control); overcoming problems (general concepts and system details of design; testing, commissioning, operation, maintenance and servicing).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.30, No.3, p.275-287. Illus. 33 ref.
Balev A.I., Kul'pa L.S., Jančuk V.F.
Development of a two-zone exhaust system for removing gases from low-capacity arc furnaces
Razrabotka processa dvuhzonnogo gazootbora dugovyh pečej maloj vmestimosti [in Russian]
When one metric ton of steel is refined in an electric arc furnace, 80-90kg of carbon monoxide, approx. 10kg fine dust, as well as sulfur monoxide, nitrogen and other substances are set free. The effectiveness of exhaust hoods rarely exceeds 70%. Description of a two-zone system which enables an effectiveness of 93-95% to be attained by exhausting 16,000-18,000m3/h (t=80°C): In the first zone, the gases are drawn from the charging door, and in the second, through the openings in the roof round the electrodes, from where the gases pass into a telescopic and articulated duct allowing the furnace to be tilted. While the gases are exhausted, air penetrates into the furnace and helps to burn part of the carbon monoxide.
Litejnoe proizvodstvo, July 1986, No.7, p.24.
Practical guide on ventilation - O: General principles of ventilation
Guide pratique de ventilation - O: Principes généraux de ventilation [in French]
This document considers the different problems involved in setting up or designing a ventilation system and sets out a procedure for approaching and solving these problems. The subjects covered include: work stations, capture and removal of pollutants, fan units, discharge, air replacement, general ventilation, plant installation, testing and maintenance. The appendix compares 2 extraction networks.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1986, No.125, Note No.1601-125-86, p.425-455. Illus. 16 ref.
Air velocity fields in the vicinity of local exhaust ventilation devices
Champs de vitesse au voisinage de l'entrée des dispositifs d'aspiration localisée [in French]
This data sheet examines data in the literature on the calculation of air velocities induced in the vicinity of local exhaust openings. It studies the influence on air velocity fields of exhaust hood characteristics (shape, width to depth ratio, flanging, transition angle) and environmental factors (free field or obstructed field of suction).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1986, No.124, Note No.1586-124-86, p.265-289. Illus. 47 ref.
A tracer pulse method for the assessment of airflow patterns in a particleboard mill
A tracer pulse method was used to investigate the spread of airborne formaldehyde from its source into the surrounding air and the distribution of the air supply in a particleboard mill. The contaminant flow was labelled with sulfur hexafluoride, and the supply of outdoor air with nitrous oxide. The pulse responses of the injected tracer gases were interpreted in terms of the age concept. The result of improvements in the ventilation system was studied through measurements of the formaldehyde concentration and with tracer gas tests. It was found that the approach used in this paper is applicable to charting airflow patterns in a complex industrial environment.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1986, Vol.12, No.5, p.504-511. Illus. 15 ref.
Blázquez Martínez M.
Occupational health hazards in foundries - Efficient removal of air contaminants
El riesgo higiénico en las fundiciones - Captación eficaz de sustancias tóxicas contenidas en el aire [in Spanish]
Contents: stages in the ironmaking process; elimination of mechanical and health risks; local exhaust ventilation equipment to be used during various stages of operation; general recommendations.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1986, No.95, p.8-16. Illus. 8 ref.
Checking performance of local exhaust systems
This data sheet describes the procedures for proper testing and evaluation of the performance of local exhaust systems. Aspects covered: definition of terms; air samples; system checking; inspection by maintenance engineers; design for maintenance; testing points.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 6p. Illus. Bibl.
Hughes R.T., O'Brien D.M.
Evaluation of building ventilation systems
Study based on NIOSH response over several years to requests for health hazard evaluations from office workers who complained of headache, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, dizziness and lethargy. Most often, inadequate ventilation was blamed for these complaints. Of paramount importance in the evaluation and correction of these problems is an effective evaluation of the building's ventilation system. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning conditions that can cause worker stress include: migration of odours or chemical hazards between building areas; reentrainment of exhaust; buildup of microorganisms in air-conditioning systems; poor odour or environmental control due to insufficient fresh air or system heating or cooling malfunction. An overview of building ventilation systems is provided, the ventilation problems associated with poor design or operation are identified, and the methodology for evaluating system performance is described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1986, Vol.47, No.4, p.207-213. Illus. 14 ref.
Lamb B.K., Cronn D.R.
Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building
Descriptive of corrective action taken in a case where rooftop air intakes were in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the chemistry building of a university in the USA. Following a tracer gas study, the air intakes were moved below roof level to prevent re-entry of exhausted vapours.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1986, Vol.47, No.2, p.115-123. Illus. 10 ref.
Hampl V., Hughes R.T.
Improved local exhaust control by directed push-pull ventilation system
Experiments using the directed push-pull ventilation technique were conducted on a general type of local exhaust ventilation installation. The exhaust (pull) system consisted of a square hood, while the push system consisted of one or two slot or round jets located behind and besides a mannequin simulating the worker's position. The one slot jet was located between the smoke source and the mannequin. The experiments showed that the directed push-pull technique is effective in reducing contaminant emission in the workroom, if the jets are located so that eddy currents induced by the worker or other obstructions are minimised or eliminated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1986, Vol.47, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 5 ref.
Abrams D.S., Reist P.C., Dement J.M.
An evaluation of the effectiveness of a recirculating laboratory hood
The face velocity, flow profile, ability to retain vapours, sorptive capacity of the filter media and overall worker protection were evaluated. In every aspect of the study, the bench top hood did not meet generally accepted criteria concerning fume hood performance and design both on its own and in combination with placement needs. The use of this type of hood can be recommended only for work with compounds with low toxicity and good warning properties in ideal laboratory conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1986, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-26. Illus. 10 ref.
Air pollution/ventilation in the woodworking and furniture industries
Luftforurening/ventilation i træ- og møbelindustrien [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on ventilation: prerequisites for ventilation systems, hazardous substances in the woodworking and furniture industries (wood dust and gases), ventilation design, air intake and exhaust turbulence, design of local exhausts and ducts, dust explosions, maintenance and repair. A list of relevant Danish directives is appended.
Branchesikkerhedsråd nr.5, Almen industri, DA/gr., Nørre Voldgade 34, 1358 København K, Denmark, 1985. 24p. Illus. 7 ref.
Heating, ventilation and sanitary installation
Heizungs-, Lüftungs- und Sanitärinstallation [in German]
Well-illustrated training guide to various aspects of safety and health on construction sites during work on heating, ventilation and sanitary facilities. Coverage: organisation of safety and health at work; first aid; workplace dimensions; workplaces and passageways; fire prevention and protection; personal protective equipment; hazardous substances; prevention of falls; electrical safety; machine safety; other equipment and tools; welding and soldering; acetylene and oxygen cylinders; work in confined spaces; lifting of loads; work with asbestos; liquefied gases; heating equipment.
Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, An der Festeburg 27-29, 6000 Frankfurt 60, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 79p. Illus.
Ventilation and fire fighting in mines
Rudničnaja ventiljacija i bor'ba s podzemnymi požarami [in Russian]
This textbook is intended for students of mining institutes. Contents: the mining atmosphere (atmospheric and mine air, control of mine air composition, mining dust, complex of dust control measures in mines, climatic conditions in mines), mine ventilation technology (air movement in mine workings, natural ventilation, fans and their operation in the mine ventilation network, regulation of air consumption in mines, ventilation equipment and systems, aeration of workings, dust control and ventilation services and monitoring of mining ventilation function); fire fighting in mines (phases of endogenous fires and signs for their recognition, preventing and putting out fires in mines); rescue organisation in mines.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, Valovaja 28, 113 054 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 3rd ed. 248p. Illus. 37 ref. Appendices. Price: SUR 0.75.
Recommendations for the design of dust-removal equipment for exhaust ventilation systems
Rekomendacii po proektirovaniju očistki vozduha ot pyliv sistemah vytjažnoj ventiljacii [in Russian]
Recommendations on the removal of dust and other aerosols including oil aerosols and oily liquids, acids and alkalis, from the air removed by exhaust ventilation systems, for rejection to the atmosphere or recirculation to the ventilated space. Contents: basic policy (aerosol classification, characteristics of aerosols to take into account in design, dust control regulations and standards), choice and sizing of dust control equipment, design of dust control installations and systems, economics of air purification systems.
Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 36p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.10.
Air contamination with dust during welding in machine-shops on farms
Zanieczyszczenie powietrza pyłem podczas spawania w warsztatach mechanicznych gospodarstw rolnych [in Polish]
Air dustiness during welding with variable-diameter ER-146 electrodes in machine shops equipped with general and local ventilation was examined. The amount of free silica in the dust was 5.6-14.3%. Results of measurements showed that local ventilation was more effective than general ventilation.
Medycyna Wiejska, 1985, Vol.20, No.1, p.46-50. 6 ref
Ventilation and the working environment - Proposed areas of work and list of R & D projects
This booklet is a summary of a report of a Swedish working group. Proposed areas of work are briefly discussed: action at the source and limitation of emission; spread of pollutants; ventilation of temporary workplaces; recirculated air; administrative problems of ventilation plants; operation and maintenance; measures to alleviate discomfort associated with ventilation systems; and training and information. A list of about 170 projects (1972-1984) is appended.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, The Swedish Work Environment Fund, Box 1122, S-111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1985. 32p.
Vasiljanskij N.P., Skljarov L.A., Kočerga V.N.
Protecting buildings against the entry of methane
Zaščita zdanij ot proniknovenija v nih metana [in Russian]
Measurements conducted during the construction of an industrial building on the site of a former peat bog showed that dangerous amounts of methane were being liberated by the ground. Protective measures proposed for preventing methane build-up in and around the building include: laying a gas-impermeable floor over a layer of gravel; putting openings in the floor that communicate with an exhaust system that discharges above the roof; ensuring that the ventilation system renews the air in the building at least once every hour; surround the building with gravel beds or ventilation channels and collecting pipes; monitor the methane and carbon monoxide levels in the collectors around the building before permitting people to enter and begin work.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1985, No.10, p.50-51.
Farant J.P., McKinnon D., Rowlands N.
Development of tracer gas methodologies for the evaluation of the performance of ventilation systems in various workplaces
Mise au point de méthodes utilisant un gaz traceur pour déterminer le rendement de systèmes de ventilation dans divers milieux de travail [in French]
Tracer gas methods developed to date allow an assessment of the total performance of ventilation systems in workplaces which is, in many ways, superior to that afforded by conventional tools such as the Pitot tube and anemometer. These methods have been used to determine the efficacy of contaminant removal, the recirculation of contaminated air, the migration of pollutants in the work environment and their migration to adjoining work areas, air leakage in office towers, and local air exchange rates. Although it is anticipated that tracer gas methods will be available to most industrial hygienists and technologists in the near future, certain impediments exist to their universal acceptance. The methods and their ancillary techniques require optimization and normalization. This article presents a summary of the state of the art for this methodology and of progress achieved in making these methods more acceptable. Air sampling and sample analysis are identified as two essential elements of tracer gas methodology which require further work.
Travail et santé, Winter 1985, Vol.1, No.3, p.31-36. Illus. 18 ref.
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