Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Climate and ventilation of indoor workplaces [Norway]
Klima og ventilasjon på innendørs arbeidsplasser [in Norwegian]
New edition of this directive providing guidelines for the achievement of good climatic conditions of indoor workplaces. It covers: consequences of bad indoor air conditions (health hazards and discomfort); smoking at the workplace; planning of indoor climate; evaluation of temperature differences; ventilation and air quality; measurement of air quality and documentation; maintenance of heating and ventilation equipment.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 9th ed., Feb. 1990. 29p. Illus.
Tum Suden K.D., Flynn M.R., Goodman R.
Computer simulation in the design of local exhaust hoods for shielded metal arc welding
Computer simulations were used to examine various exhaust hood configurations for shielded metal arc welding. Objectives were to examine: correlation between computer-predicted capture efficiency of the hood exhaust system and the welder's breathing zone concentration of fume; influence of hood aspect ratio, hood flow and hood height above welding zone; effect of welder position. The welder's breathing zone concentration appears to be an inverse linear function of the computer-predicted hood efficiency. While hood aspect ratio, hood flow and welder's position all have a significant effect on the breathing zone concentration, height of the hood above the welding surface shows no such effect. Results suggest that improved hood designs may be possible through relatively simple computer simulations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1990, Vol.51, No.3, p.115-126. Illus. 19 ref.
Books on the working environment
Böcker om arbetsmiljö [in Swedish]
Catalogue of 84 publications classified under the headings: alcohol and tobacco; allergies; responsibilities; construction; research; physical factors; occupational health services; industries and occupations; chemistry; laws and regulations; medicine; psychosocial factors; rehabilitation; stress; ventilation; other.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, Feb. 1990. 8p. Illus.
Directive concerning safety and health at workplaces relating to ventilation [Mexico]
Instructivo No.16 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo, referente a ventilación [in Spanish]
Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It provides for ventilation in workplaces in order to avoid hazards to health caused by insufficient air supply, air contamination, presence of chemical substances above the permitted level, high temperatures, sudden temperature changes or presence of flammable or explosive atmospheres. The required basic characteristics of ventilation systems are described. Directive No.16 of 1983 is repealed.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 4p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 30 May 1989.
Hakimžanov T., Kambakov T., Imangazin M
Use of foam for methane accumulation control
Pena v bor'be so skopleniem metana [in Russian]
A new method for preventing methane accumulation in corners where stopes meet airways is based on the insulating capacities of foams and their ability to fill voids. The method is applicable in coal beds where gas is liberated in volumes of ≥1m3/min. Laboratory tests showed that a foam produced from a 1% aqueous solution of triethanolamine lauryl sulfate (TALS) had the highest insulating capacity of the agents tested. The method was tested in a mine, where TALS foam from a foam generator was fed to the end of a vent drift where methane had accumulated. The foam filled the dead space while moistening the coal and remaining rock. The multiplicity of the foam was 290-310; its stability was 25-30min. The deposited foam does not interfere with ventilation or with coal extraction.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Feb. 1989, No.2, p.43.
Spraying and the design of spray booths
Contents of this report: characteristics of different spray application methods; types of spray booths and their design parameters; booth ventilation design; importance of make-up air in ventilation systems; correct work methods.
Health and Safety Executive, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 19p. Illus. 15 ref.
Evaluation of antistatic P.V.C. ventilation tubes used for long duration
Taidenbōshi biniru fūkan no keinen henka [in Japanese]
The antistatic characteristics of carbon-printed ventilation tubes used for over 4yr in five coal mines were determined. There were some changes in appearance of the tubes tested due to the long duration of use: (1) hardening of the cloth part of the tubes; (2) disappearance of a part of the carbon printed on the inner surface of the tubes, etc. On the other hand, there was no change in the antistatic properties of the tubes used for over 4yr.
Safety and Health Digest, May 1989, Vol.35, No.5, p.3-6. Illus. 5 ref.
Unit: Examination and testing of local exhaust systems
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are five segments: 1 - Objectives and standards (process and nature of contaminant and hazards created; outline of methods of protection; forms of ventilation; specific role of local exhaust; measurement of air contaminants); 2 - Inspection (requirements and responsibilities; information needed; safe implementation of the examination; recirculation of air; fire hazards and precautions; emergency shut-down); 3 - Testing of systems (equipment - dust lamps, smoke tubes and bombs, equipment for quantitative tests of airflow and pressure; examination procedure; filters); 4 - Recording and reporting; 5 - Legislation.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1989. 79p. Illus. 4 ref.
Reliability of air flow measurements in assessing ventilation system performance
When air velocity measurements are taken to assess the performance of a ventilation system, the readings are subject to several possible sources of error and variations. This report identifies errors and indicates how statistical methods may be used to draw inferences from the measurements. Examples are given of room ventilation measurement and spray booth measurements. It is concluded that in order to quantify the reliability of the measurements, a range can be determined within which the mean will be to any required degree of certainty.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 15p.
Wadden R.A., Scheff P.A., Franke J.E.
Emission factors for trichloroethylene vapor degreasers
Two degreasers: an open-top and a conveyor-fed enclosed design were tested. Both were fitted with functioning local exhaust hoods. Emissions were determined from field data by using a Fick's law diffusion approach and the observed variation in time of the trichlorethylene (TCE) concentration gradient within 4m of each device. The average emission factor for the open-top degreaser was 2.6g TCE/min [2.9g TCE/(m2.min)] which corresponds to 9.5% of the total degreaser emissions escaping into the workplace. The average emission factor for the enclosed degreaser was 0.67g TCE/min, a release of 3% of the total emissions into the work area. These values are considered to be representative of the average lower limit of emissions during production from TCE degreasers of like designs with similar local exhaust controls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1989, Vol.50, No.9, p.496-500. Illus. 12 ref.
Guide to ventilation practice - 1: Purifying the workplace air
Guide pratique de ventilation - 1: L'assainissement de l'air des locaux de travail [in French]
This information sheet gives guidance and reference material for the design, operation, inspection and testing of air cleaning and purification systems. It updates the document abstracted under CIS 83-98. Sections covered: design and operation of exhaust ventilation systems (with or without air cleaning devices and heat recovery units); air recycling systems; design; calculation and monitoring of an air recycling installation; heat recovery units; air purifiers; monitoring systems for air recycling units.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.135, Note No.1725-135-89, p.197-215. Illus.
Capture efficiency of a concrete grinder exhaust device
Efficacité de captage d'une ponceuse à béton équipée de son système d'aspiration [in French]
A concrete grinder fitted with an exhaust device was tested on a test bench. The capture efficiency of the integrated suction device was determined for two working configurations: horizontal and on a 10° incline. Particle size distribution and suction rate were also measured. The results obtained in these set and controlled testing conditions cannot be used to predict the efficiency of the machine in real working conditions. However, data such as dust aerosol flow rate and capture efficiency obtained on the test bench can be a useful guide to choosing a machine and/or determining what extra general ventilation measures should be provided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1989, No.134, Note No.1717-134-89, p.39-44. Illus. 2 ref.
Ivany R.E., First M.W., Diberardinis L.J.
A new method for quantitative, in-use testing of laboratory fume hoods
A new method has been developed for testing fume hood performance in a controlled, ventilation laboratory setting or in the field during normal use conditions. It involves a steady release of a tracer material, such as sulfur hexafluoride, inside a hood through a hollow rectangular diffuser that surrounds the work and then measurement of concentrations outside the hood. Hood tests in the ventilation laboratory using an immobile manikin as a fixed reference point showed the effects of changing face velocity, sash height, and percentage of auxiliary air on the fraction of tracer escaping from the work area inside the hood. When used to determine hood leakage under a variety of common laboratory activities (e.g. pipetting, centrifuging), the results helped to identify other causes of hood leakage. Field studies demonstrated the case and usefulness of this method to determine hood performance and the magnitude of personnel exposures under diverse operating conditions. The value of this test method as an educational tool is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1989, Vol.50, No.5, p.275-280. Illus. 16 ref.
Inhalation anaesthetics - exposure and control: a statistical comparison of personal exposures in operating theatres with and without anaesthetic gas scavenging
Results are reported for air sampling surveys undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) from 1980 to 1984 using diffusive samplers in 40 operating theatres and 18 recovery areas at 27 hospitals. For all personnel the geometric mean time-weighted average exposure to nitrous oxide in unscavenged theatres was 94ppm and in scavenged theatres 32ppm; the corresponding means for halothane were 1.7 and 0.7ppm respectively. Anaesthetists showed higher mean exposures than other staff in all conditions. Statistical analysis of the data demonstrates that mean exposures of operating theatre staff were significantly lower in scavenged than in unscavenged theatres. For most staff, exposure was also significantly lower in theatres using active scavenging systems compared with those using passive systems. The literature on the hazards of chronic exposure to inhalation anaesthetics and previous studies of exposure is also briefly reviewed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.159-173. 48 ref. Illus.
Cecala A.B., Covelli A., Thimons E.D.
Reducing workers' dust exposure during bag stacking in enclosed vehicles
This research project was a two-step effort. The first step was a qualitative laboratory evaluation performed in a railcar to compare different types of ventilation systems (blowing, exhaust, and push-pull systems) using a methane (CH4) tracer gas technique. An exhaust system located over the snake conveyor was the most effective system at reducing gas levels in and around the bag stacker's work area. The second step then involved a field evaluation at a silica sand processing plant to determine the system's effectiveness in the actual work environment. Three different versions were evaluated in an attempt to optimise the exhaust ventilation system's effectiveness. The most effective version involved exhausting 54.5m3/min (2000ft3/min) through a fibreglass tube located 1.1m past the end of the slinger at a 2.0m height so as not to inferfere with the bag stacker's job function. A small exhaust tube drawing approximately 8.8m3/min (300ft3/min) at the snake conveyor/slinger transfer point captured the dust generated at this location. Dust reductions in and around the bag stacker ranged between 65% and 95% when loading both 22.7kg (50-lb) and 45.4kg (100-lb) bags of ground silica sand into railcars and trailer trucks with this system.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1989. Vol.50, No.2, p.99-104. Illus.
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Safety code for painting - Ventilation and air clean-up in painting processes [China]
Tuzhuang zuoye anquan quicheng - tuqui gongyi tongfeng jinghua [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Apr. 1987) sets out the requirements for ventilation of the painting workshop and purification of exhaust air so that the concentrations of harmful substances in air do not exceed the levels set in TJ 36-79 (Standard on hygiene in industrial enterprise design). It includes: generalities, localised air exhaust, ventilation in paint spraying and powder spraying rooms, general air exhaust, air supply system, ventilation ducts, machine rooms, carbon adsorption method of air purification, catalytic combustion method, thermal combustion method, liquid absorption method. The appended commentary explains some points in the standard, and lists the other standards included in the "Standard on safety in painting" series: safety in painting processes (GB 6514-86), safety in pre-painting treatment, ventilation and air purification in pre-painting treatment, safety in painting equipment and machine design, and management of occupational safety techniques.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.384-393. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).
Pirumov A.I., Mettus A.A., Leont'ev V.P., Graždanov V.A., Pavlova N.A.
Experience in the removal of plasticiser aerosol from exhaust air
Opyt očistki aspiracionnogo vozduha ot aėrozolej plastifikatorov [in Russian]
This article describes a long-term test of installations, designed for the electrical cleaning of air exhausted from artificial leather manufacturing machines, the agent removed being dioctyl phthalate plasticiser. With a specific air load through the filter inlet section of 3,000-4,000m3/(h x m2) and a phthalate concentration in the exhaust air of up to 25mg/m3, plasticiser aerosol collection efficiency was 80-88%; the installation's aerodynamic drag was 30-50Pa and persisted as such for the duration of the 3-year operation period; the power consumption off mains required for phthalate aerosol removal was 135-235W per 10,000m3/h of purified air; the electrical filters were safe against the risk of a spark-induced ignition of the precipitated flammable liquids. Result of testing a 2-stage glass-fibre filter containing 20 cylinder-form filter elements are given in tabulated form.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Dec. 1988, No.12, p.15-17. Illus. 7 ref.
The hospital kitchen as a source of fire - Hygiene is the best protection against fire
Brandherd Krankenhausküche - Hygiene ist der beste Brandschutz für die Küche [in German]
Exhaust hood filters in hospital kitchens clogged by grease are a source of fire. Fire protection measures include: periodic washing of filters (intervals between cleaning should not be longer than 4 days); proper selection of material for and design of ventilation ducts; automatic fire extinguishers integrated into the exhaust hood.
Krankenhaustechnik, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.12, p.54-56. Illus.
Notes on safety for operating ventilation systems and pneumatic transport
Pamjatka po tehnike bezopasnosti pri obsluživanii ventiljacionnyh i pnevmotransportnyh ustanovok [in Russian]
Contents of this safety training guide intended for employees of the bakery products industry: introduction; general safety rules for operating ventilation systems and pneumatic transport; safety measures for operating air ducts; safety measures for operating dust separators; safety measures for operating fans; safety measures for operating pneumatic transport; safety measures for operating electric equipment in ventilation systems and pneumatic transport; keeping vacuums under control in working zones; noise and vibration control; prevention of dust explosions and fires; safety rules for repair and erection; first aid; appendix (possible malfunctions in aspiration units and methods of trouble-shooting).
Agropromizdat, Sadovaja-Spasskaja ul. 18, 107807 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 80p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: SUR 0.10.
Practical introduction to fixed factory dust extraction systems and their maintenance
Topics covered in this data sheet include principles of local exhaust ventilation; design and maintenance of hoods and enclosures; descriptions of various types of fans and maintenance procedures; design of ducting systems and control of the flow rate and air velocity; methods of air cleaning using cyclones, bag filters and secondary filters; procedures for checking the efficiency of the system; waste collection and handling, including recycling and disposal of dust.
Asbestos International Association (AIA), 68 Gloucester Place, London W1H 3HL, United Kingdom, 17 Mar. 1988. 10p. 13 ref.
A basic guide to industrial ventilation
Topics covered in this guide include: purposes and types of ventilation; applications of general (or dilution) ventilation; details of local exhaust ventilation systems, including hood and duct design, air cleaning devices and fans; procedure for checking the effectiveness of a local exhaust ventilation system.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 19p. Illus. 3 ref.
Hayashi T., Shirakawa M., Mori Y.
Important problems on a booth and the solution
Būsu ni okeru jūyō kadai to sono kaiketsu ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Booth-type hoods have been considered comparatively safe for workers when the control velocity at the booth openings meets specifications, because the sources of contaminants are enclosed inside of the hoods. Moreover, this is not always correct when pull-only types of hoods are applied. Some causes are considered; the most important one is the existence of a negative-pressure section which is generated between a worker and the booth opening, which permits contaminated gases to invade the worker's breathing zone. These facts are discussed theoretically and demonstrated by data on real contaminated air-streams. The problems are almost completely solved by adopting push-pull types of hoods which are designed by the "Flow Ratio Method".
Safety and Health Digest, May 1988, Vol.34, No.5, p.7-11. Illus. 13 ref.
Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2. Particular requirements for range hoods
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analagues - Deuxième partie: Règles particulières pour les hottes de cuisine [in French]
This standard applies to range hoods incorporating electrical equipment such as fans, lamps and controls. The general requirements of Part 1 are incorporated by reference, with appropriate specific modifications for these appliances.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, Genève, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1988. 25p.
Descent into manholes - The air in manholes may be deadly
Einsteigen in Schächte - Die Luft im Schacht kann tödlich sein [in German]
Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide are the most hazardous gases that may occur in manholes. Two examples are used to illustrate that natural ventilation may not suffice to remove all toxic concentrations. Manholes must be supplied with fresh air forced all the way to the bottom. In addition, measurements of the CO2, CH4 and O2 concentrations are necessary prior to entry.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1988, Vol.10, No.8, p.6-9.
Eber A., Rauscher W.
Ventilation during construction of new tunnels for the Federal German Railways
Tunnelbelüftung bei den Vortrieben der Neubaustrecken der Deutschen Bundesbahn [in German]
Dimensions of ventilation sytems to supply fresh air at a rate of 4m3/min per kW power of diesel engines used in tunnel construction progressing at a speed of 6m/d were computed for tunnels up to and more than 1000m in length. For example, work on a 1000m-tunnel using a Diesel engine of 850kW power, ventilator capacity of 360kW and air ducts with a diameter of 2.50m are required. Calculated total ventilation costs: DEM 290,000.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1988, Vol.100, No.7, p.495-498, 501-502, 504-505. Illus. 2 ref.
Hampl V., Johnston O.E., Watkins D.S.
Application of an air curtain-exhaust system at a multiple opening veneering press
An air curtain-exhaust ventilation system was investigated as an effective control for formaldehyde exposures from a wood panel veneering press. The investigated system consisted of two air curtain manifolds located vertically at both press sides and an exhaust located at the press and opposite to the manifolds. This air curtain creates an air barrier between the worker and the press from where the formaldehyde is emitted. The air curtain stream is shifted toward the press wall by the exhaust creating a narrow air zone between the worker and the press wall which minimises air stream interference with the operator. The performance of the air curtain system was evaluated using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas which simulated formaldehyde emission. The data indicate that a greater than 94 percent reduction in exposure levels can be achieved and that the ventilation system studied can be applied effectively to a multiple opening press.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Oct. 1988, Vol.3, No.10, p.291-298. Illus. 7 ref.
Volkwein J.C., Engle M.R., Raether T.D.
Dust control with clean air from an overhead air supply island (OASIS)
The objective of this work was to test the dust control effectiveness of an Overhead Air Supplied Island (OASIS). This device provides an envelope of clean air for dust protection for individual work stations in environments where other engineering controls are not practical or available. A fan powered filtration unit and a unique air distribution system proide 6000 cubic feet per minute of clean air over the operator. RAM-I light scattering dust monitors were used to measure dust concentrations as the unit was turned on and off at a bagging machine operator's work station at two industrial silica plants. Dust concentration reductions at the operator's breathing zone were 98 and 82 percent, and dust concentrations never exceeded 0.06mg/m3 during operation of the OASIS.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Aug. 1988, Vol.3, No.8, p.236-239. Illus. 9 ref.
The air flow characteristics of an annular exhaust hood
This paper presents the face velocity profiles and static pressures for an annular hood used around the opening of a 55-gallon (200L) drum. Nine combinations of slot width and flow were measured using a hot wire anemometer and electronic manometer. In addition, the hood's air flow patterns visualised using smoke were studied. The data for the velocity and static pressure measurements are presented in tables in the paper. Pictures of the smoke tests are also presented. The study shows that even air distribution can be achieved along the hood's slot using a baffle and variable width slot. The study also shows that appreciable velocities can be achieved in the centre portion of the hood face.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Apr. 1988, Vol.3, No.4, p.105-109. Illus. 1 ref.
Air velocity field near two exhaust hoods - Comparison between models and experimental results
Lufthastighetsfält kring två utsugsöppningar - Jämförelse mellan modell och mätresultat [in Swedish]
Report describing the testing of a computer program elaborated at the Swedish National Institute of Occupational Health for the calculation of air velocity fields around circular and rectangular exhausts and slots. Two local exhaust hoods frequently used in industry were used for comparison between measured and calculated velocities. One of the exhausts had a near-elliptical flangeless opening and the other a circular opening with a narrow eccentric flange. In two planes, perpendicular to the inlet surface, a grid of measuring points was established. Air velocities in those points were computed and compared with measured velocities in the same points. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results was good for both exhausts, except in the immediate vicinity of the opening for the exhaust with a flange.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 20p. Illus. 8 ref.
Conditions for joint compliance with occupational hygiene and environmental requirements of industrial ventilation systems
Ipari szellőzőberendezések iránt támasztott munkavédelmi és környezetvédelmi követelmények együttes kielégitésének feltételei [in Hungarian]
Mathematical treatment of the problem of simultaneous compliance with environmental and occupational limitations on atmospheric contaminants. The Hungarian MAC and 24hr TWA values are given for 18 harmful substances and substance groups. Complex formulae are developed, to be used in the evaluation of the appropriateness of specific ventilation systems for given workplaces.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1988, Vol.34, No.4-6, p.118-125. Illus. 6 ref.
Industrial ventilation: A manual of recommended practice
Chapters of this manual cover: general principles; general industrial ventilation; local exhaust hoods; air cleaning devices; exhaust system design procedure; fans; replacement and recirculated air; construction guidelines for local exhaust systems; testing of ventilation systems; specific operations. A list of ACGIH Threshold Limit Values is included in an appendix.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6500 Glenway Ave., Bldg. D-7, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438, USA, 1988. 20th ed. 410p. Illus. Bibl. refs.
A modified ventilation slot hood for chemical drumming booths
Rather than the more commonly used open-face slot, an enclosing slot has been designed for emission control. A more than ten-fold reduction in concentration was observed after installing the new control system as compared to that with the dilution ventilation system originally in place. The volumetric exhaust flow rate through the system was one-half that which would have been required for a commonly used slot design. This reduction in exhaust volume was due to partial enclosure of the slot, which reduced the handling of uncontaminated air. This design reduced the capital investment for the fan and operating costs because of reduced energy consumption. Thus, the potential health hazards associated with this liquid chemical drumming operation were reduced at a nominal cost.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1988, Vol.49, No.7, p.367-369. Illus. 6 ref.
Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
Tobacco smoke removal with room air cleaners
The ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke was studied. Thirty-one air cleaners were tested. Various air-cleaning devices were used, i.e. electrostatic precipitators, electric fibre filters, ionisers, activated carbon, impregnated alumina, ionising lamps, and an electron generator. The airflow rates were in the range of 0-500m3/h. The measurements covered particle sizes of 0.01-7.5µm and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, and hydrogen cyanide. No formal standard procedure exists for testing room air cleansers; therefore the tests were made in the following way. Tobacco smoke was generated and mixed in a closed room. The room air cleaner was started, and the decay rates for the gases and particles were measured. The results were calculated as equivalent airflow rates, i.e. the clean airflow rate causing the same decay rate for contaminant concentrations in a room. The equivalent airflow rates were 0-360 m3/h. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionisers was also measured. One general conclusion was that it is much more difficult to remove gases than particles.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.6, p.390-397. Illus. 23 ref.
Le Bot J.Y.
Control of filter clogging in a ventilation system: The case of vehicle spray paint booths
Contrôle pratique de l'encrassement des filtres d'un système de ventilation: cas des cabines de peinture fermées [in French]
In a ventilated enclosure, it is necessary to remove the airborne solid contaminants. Filters of variable efficiency are installed for this purpose. The user then has to clean or replace these filters at regular intervals. This paper considers at what time these operations should be carried out and proposes a solution. It covers the following points: theoretical approach to fan working, filters replacement, theoretical control methods, methods proposed by manufacturers, theoretical working of a ventilation circuit, suggested solution.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1988, No.132, Note No.1684-132-88, p.409-413. Illus.
Hampl V., Johnston O.E., Murdock D.J.
Application of an air curtain-exhaust system at a milling process
The investigated system consisted of an air curtain and an enclosure added to the existing control of a rubber milling process. The air curtain was located between the contaminant source and the mill operator to create an air barrier between the operator and the emission source. The enclosure covered the space between the exhaust hood and the mill's back side to eliminate contaminant emission at this space and to increase hood face velocity at the operator side. Laboratory and field test data indicate that a significant reduction in emissions was achieved when this system was operating, even when the existing hood exhaust airflow rate was reduced by 33%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1988, Vol.49, No.4, p.167-175. Illus. 9 ref.
Shortening waiting time - Necessary air exchange for removing harmful dusts from sandblasting cabins
Zeiten verkürzen. Notwendiger Luftwechsel zum Beseitigen gefährlichen Staubs in Räumen für Strahlarbeiten [in German]
Measurements of the dust concentrations in sand-blasting cabins after 50 air exchanges at a rate of 1 exchange per minute yielded a dilution of 1.9 x 10-22. For attaining existing maximum allowable workplace concentrations, 5 air exchanges at this rate suffice. If toxic or carcinogenic substances are present, a higher exchange rate is necessary; in normal cases the required 50 air exchanges seem too high.
Maschinenmarkt, 1988, Vol.94, No.9, p.82-86. Illus. 5 ref.
Public safety in kitchens and grills
Verkehrssicherungspflicht in Küchen- oder Grillbetrieb [in German]
In its ruling of 2 Feb. 1988, the supreme court of the Federal Republic of Germany confirmed the responsibility of kitchens and grills that serve the public to regularly clean grease deposits in exhaust hoods, ducts and ventilators to avoid fires. The court based its ruling on the regulations contained in the safety rules for kitchens, effective Aug. 1984.
Monatsschrift für Deutsches Recht, 1988, Vol.42, No.7, p.571.
Garrison R.P., Dong Y.
Pitot traverse with a personal computer
One person is able to manipulate the pitot tube in order to receive the data. The computer records the air velocity, flow rate, pressure and other data. Measurements are rapid and procedures are flexible. Limitations, costs, and further applications are discussed.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.18-22. Illus. 2 ref.
Brief R.S., Bernath T.
Indoor pollution: Guidelines for prevention and control of microbiological respiratory hazards associated with air conditioning and ventilation systems
The incidence and survival circumstances of the causative agents of these microbial allergies and infections are reviewed. Recommendations for equipment design and maintenance, protocols for inspection, chemical treatment, and personal protective equipment to prevent and control the diseases are discussed.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.5-10. 39 ref.
Kalliokoski P.J., Säämänen A.J., Ivalo L.M., Kokotti H.M.
Exposure to styrene can be controlled
Studies carried out by the authors in the reinforced plastics industry indicate that the prevention of eddy currents over the mould is of crucial importance when exposure to styrene is controlled with directed air current. This means that good exposure control can be obtained only by appropriate ventilation design of individual work sites. Exposure to styrene can also be maintained below the level of 50ppm by the use of exhaust ducts having exhaust rates of over 0.1m3/sec/m2.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1988, Vol.49, No.1, p.6-9. Illus. 8 ref.
Régnier R., Braconnier R., Aubertin G.
Efficiency of integral dust-control devices for portable machines
Efficacité des dispositifs de captage intégrés aux machines portatives [in French]
The initial phase of this study involved the measurement of air flow and dust concentrations in industrial environments for ten portable machines (disc sanders or grinders, belt sander, bevelling machine, cut-off wheel, routing machine, vibrating sander). In the following phase, twelve machines available on the French market (2 grinders and 10 sanders) were bench tested under several machining conditions. The main parameters were either calculated or measured: suction rate, mean concentration in booth, exhaust efficiency, mass flow rate (material removed, aerosols), size distribution for various particles. Both sets of measurements showed that integrated exhaust systems induce a good reduction of the dust level. In an industrial environment, under uncontrolled conditions, it reached 70%. On the bench the grinders' results ranged from 75 to 92%, depending on various parameters (mainly the kind of exhaust device and the suction rate). The exhaust device of grinders lead to a nearly 100% reduction of the dust level with low suction rates.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.131, Note No. 1681-131-88, p.339-354. Illus. 15 ref.
Guide for ventilation practice. 10 - Printing of large and/or bulky equipment
Guide pratique de ventilation. 10 - Peinture des matériels de grandes dimensions [in French]
The subjects covered include: an outline of hazards and French regulations; general principles of ventilation; a classification of large objects by category; choice of ventilation technique; technical solutions; side draft, down draft and open booths, spray painting machines; drying; drying installations (drying at room temperature, drying ovens, mixed paiting/drying booths), heat sources; interlocks; supply air processing; injection, filtering and heating; extraction of polluted air; filtering and wet purification; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems and related equipment; ventilated installations for spray guns cleaning and paint mixing; noise control. "Technical files" based on real industrial situations are provided as examples.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.131, Note No.1672-131-88, p.223-239. Illus.
Welding - Ventilation
Soudage - aération [in French]
Technical safety information sheet. Aspects covered: general considerations (toxic fumes and gases); types of local exhaust (freely movable hood, fixed enclosure, down-draft bench, extractor nozzles).
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 2p. Illus.
Göthe C.J., Bjurström R., Ancker K.
A simple method of estimating air recirculation in ventilation systems
The air recirculation is calculated from the concentrations of a tracer at three well-defined points, viz., the background concentration in outside air (C1), the tracer concentration in the recirculated air (C2), and the tracer concentration in the inlet air after the recirculation system (C3). The recirculation quotient is calculated according to the formula: Q2/Q3 = (C3 - C1)/(C2 - C1). Q2 = recirculated airflow; Q3 = total inlet airflow including recirculated airflow. Thus, a quotient between flows is identical with a quotient between tracer concentrations. The method allows the usage of both natural tracers (e.g. contaminants, such as CO2) and artifical tracers (e.g. fluorocarbon 12 or sulfur/hexafluoride). The method has been tested with good results.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1988, Vol.49, No.2, p.66-69. Illus. 7 ref.
Garrison R.P., Park C.
Graphical approximation model for velocity characteristics of local exhaust inlets
The model provides approximate constant velocity contours for plain and flanged exhaust inlets having circular, rectangular and narrow slot end shapes. It is designed for use on a personal computer by individuals having a basic understanding of local exhaust inlet design. The model applies several major approximations to obtain mathematical representations of velocity contours and to utilise and expand the application of existing empirical data for centerline velocity gradients for different shapes of exhaust inlets. The model also provides comparison of the empirical results of different investigators and offers a means for approximating velocities at points in the airflow specified by the user.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1988, Vol.49, No.2, p.49-57. Illus. 18 ref.
Guide for ventilating practice. 11. Screen printing
Guide pratique de ventilation - 11. Sérigraphie [in French]
The subjects covered include: screen printing technique, materials, hazards, general preventive measures (principles of ventilation, noise control, implementation of ventilation measures, selection of ventilation techniques). Examples of practical solutions based on real industrial situations are provided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.130, Note No.1659-130-88, p.1-20. Illus. 12 ref.
Minko V.A., Kulešov M.I., Plotnikova L.V., Šaptala V.G., Borzenkov A.V., Kaljagin M.F., Podgornyj N.N.
Dust control in the foundries of mechanical engineering plants
Obespylivanie v litejnyh cehah mašinostroitel'nyh predprijatij [in Russian]
This book, written for engineers and technicians concerned with ventilation and environmental protection, covers the following issues: main dust sources in foundries; aspiration arrangements for moulding sand processing operations; characteristics of dust aspirated from loose material processing units; methods and equipment for cleaning ventilation exhausts; aerodynamic principles governing the functioning of centralised dry vacuum dust removal systems; design of centralised dust control systems; general dilution ventilation in foundries; dust control system operation.
Izdatel'stvo Mašinostroenie, Stromynskij per. 4, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1987. 224p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: SUR 0.70.
Burge S., Hedge A., Wilson S., Harris Bass J., Robertson A.
Sick building syndrome: A study of 4373 office workers
Symptoms of building sickness were studied among 4373 office workers in 42 different office buildings and 47 different ventilation conditions. The overall response rate was 92%. Work-related symptoms were greater in women than in men and independently greater in clerical or secretarial workers than technical or professional workers, who in turn reported more symptoms than managers. The commonest symptom was lethargy (57%) closely followed by blocked nose (47%) dry throat (46%) and headache (46%). Buildings with ventilation from local or central induction/fan coil units had more work-related symptoms per worker than buildings with "all air" systems, which in turn had more than naturally or mechanically ventilated buildings. This study shows that the symptoms of building sickness are widespread and that design characteristics of the building and its plant are associated with substantial differences in frequencies of symptoms in those working in them.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1987, Vol.41, No.4A, p.493-504. Illus. 5 ref.
Hirsch L., Menyhárt J., Török D.
Heating, ventilation and climatisation of industrial establishments
Ipari üzemek fűtése, szellőzése és klimatizálása [in Hungarian]
Advanced level textbook. Contents: theoretical basis (physics of gases and of air circulation; heat transmission); technology of ventilation and climatisation; technology of heating; installation and operation; measurement of microclimate parameters.
Népszava Lap- és Könyvkiadó, Budapest, Hungary, 2nd rev. ed., 1987. 407p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: HUF 397.00.
Ministère chargé du travail
Order of 8 Oct. 1987 concerning the periodical inspection of ventilation and sanitation equipment at the workplace [France]
Arrêté du 8 oct. 1987 relatif au contrôle périodique des installations d'aération et d'assainissement des locaux de travail [France] [in French]
This order describes the documents relating to ventilation and sanitation equipment to be kept up-to-date by management (the plant file), and it provides details on the kind of information to be maintained and the update intervals to be respected in premises with non-specific or specific pollution. Duplicate of CIS 88-1430.
Journal officiel de la République française, 22 Oct. 1987, p.12341-12342.
Ministère chargé du travail
Order of 9 Oct. 1987 concerning the inspection of ventilation and sanitation equipment at the workplace that can be prescribed by the labour inspector [France]
Arrêté du 9 oct. 1987 relatif au contrôle de l'aération et de l'assainissement des locaux de travail pouvant être prescrit par l'inspecteur du travail [France] [in French]
This order describes the measurements and verifications that the labour inspector is entitled to prescribe (methods, type of results), approval procedures and conditions for individuals and organisations.
Journal officiel de la République française, 22 Oct. 1987, p.12338-12341.
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