Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Climate and air quality in the workplace
Klima og luftkvalitet p@a6 arbeidsplassen [in Norwegian]
This new, retitled, edition of the directive describes the physical factors that determine indoor air climate and air quality. Main subjects covered: impact of microclimate on health; well-being and work ability; air quality; appropriate selection of construction materials; ventilation, energy-saving measures and ambient temperature. Guidelines on how to design indoor air climate in the construction process are given. A brief survey of relevant Norwegian legislation is provided. The previous edition of this directive was Climate and ventilation of indoor workplaces (CIS 90-1429).
Direktoratet for Arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 1991. 46p. Illus. 22 ref. Index.
Laboratory ventilation workbook
Contents of this self-study workbook: the behaviour of air; management of laboratory ventilation systems; chemical laboratory fume hoods; glove box hoods; perchloric acid fume hoods; biosafety cabinets; hazardous chemical materials labs; testing of lab ventilation systems; usefulness of the hood static pressure; standards and code; air supply and HVAC systems; reading plans and specifications; placement of stacks, exhaust and inlets; general exhaust and dilution air equations; design of lab fume hood duct systems; fans and air movers; troubleshooting and O&M; non-standard air conditions. Each chapter contains a number of exercises and examples. Appendices include a glossary and charts, forms and checklists.
IVE, Inc., 2974 South 900 East, Bountiful, Utah 84010, USA, 1991. iv, 351p. Illus. 44 ref. Index. Price: USD 45.00.
Industrial ventilation work book
This revised work book (see CIS 90-1850 for original edition) stresses the practical applications of industrial ventilation. Topics covered include: emission source behaviour and its relation to worker and air behaviour; dilution and local exhaust ventilation; design and selection of hoods, ducts and fans; non-standard conditions; HVAC and make-up air systems; recirculation; obtaining US air permits; purposes of stacks and dilution of stack emissions; system testing and monitoring; plans and specifications; measurement of hood static pressure and daily inspection and maintenance. Practical examples and exercises with answers are included. Appendix: glossary, charts, forms, checklists, index, order form.
IVE Inc., 178 North Alta Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84103, USA, Rev. 2nd ed., 1991. viii, 339p. Illus. Index. Price: USD 39.00.
Matlock D., Buchan R.M., Tillery M.
A local exhaust ventilation system to reduce airborne ribavirin concentrations
A local exhaust hood was designed to capture and contain aerosol emissions of ribavirin during drug administration. It consisted of a compound hood incorporating two concentric hoods, the exterior of which was exhausted. The compound hood and ventilation system were evaluated for leak rate and inside hood aerosol concentration as a function of exhaust flow rates. The leak rate was reduced from an average of 98% with the traditional head hood to an average of less than 1% with the compound hood with exhaust port. The system's performance may lead to an 18% to 25% decrease in inside hood concentration of aerosol entering the hood. An exhaust flow rate in the range from 1.0Lpm below to 1.0Lpm above inlet flow rate from the small particle aerosol generator reduced the leak rate to an average of less than 1%. The compound hood was found to reduce the aerosol concentration in the room by 126x as compared to the single hood currently being used.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1991, Vol.52, No.10, p.428-432. Illus. 11 ref.
Kim T., Flynn M.R.
Airflow pattern around a worker in a uniform freestream
The effect of boundary layer separation on worker exposure is an important factor in the design of local exhaust ventilation. Three-dimensional airflow around a mannequin is examined by using flow visualisation techniques and hot-film anemometry. Above the chest, a downwash effect is noted; from the chest to the elbows, a combination of downwash and vortex shedding is observed; and from the waist to the hip, vortex shedding appears to be dominant. A coherent vertical flow structure is observed close to the body. Vortex shedding frequency is determined by using hot-film anemometry. The dimensions of the reverse flow region and the area of the vortices are estimated from flow visualisation videos.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1991, Vol.52, No.7, p.287-296. 30 ref.
Crook B., Robertson J.F., Glass S.A.T., Botheroyd E.M., Lacey J., Topping M.D.
Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms, and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers
The study investigated the environmental conditions on pig farms and the respiratory health of pig farmers and their immunological response to airborne contaminants. Airborne concentrations of dust and ammonia were measured in 20 pig houses. Twenty-nine farm workers completed a questionnaire and underwent lung function tests; 24 provided blood samples for the measurement of specific IhE and IgG antibody to extracts of pig squames and urine, feed components, and bacterial isolates. Work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by 23 workers. The presence of specific IgE in some workers with wheeze suggested the possibility of them having an allergic response. This highlights the need to limit exposure to airborne dusts associated with pig farming, and this in some cases may be achieved by changing work practices such as the methods of feed delivery or ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1991, Vol.52, No.7, p.271-279. Illus. 30 ref.
Crutchfield C.D., Murphy R.W., Van Ert M.D.
A comparison of controlled negative pressure and aerosol quantitative respirator fit test systems by using fixed leaks
An automated version of a new method for quantitative respirator fit testing by controlled negative pressure was compared with a computerised aerosol fit test system. The controlled negative pressure technique eliminates many of the problems associated with aerosol and pressure decay fit test methods. A series of fixed leaks was used to compare the leak measurement capabilities of the controlled negative pressure system against a standard computerised aerosol fit test system. Negative pressure and aerosol fit factors determined for a series of fixed leaks through hypodermic needles were highly correlated with each other (r=0.998) and with the cross-sectional areas of the leak needles (r>0.995).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1991, Vol.52, No.6, p.249-251. Illus. 3 ref.
Arechiga H., Greco A.
The hidden hazard - Respiratory protection: Welding fumes
"El riesgo oculto" - Protección respiratoria: humos de soldadura [in Spanish]
Various welding types are examined (arc, oxyacetylene and resistance welding). Attention is paid to the production of welding fumes as an occupational risk. Health hazards of welding fumes are reviewed and presented in tables. These include: pulmonary fibrosis and oedema, bronchitis, metal-fume fever, eye and respiratory tract irritation. Ventilation and respirators are presented as protective measures. Importance is given to training on the use and maintenance of respirators.
Protección y seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 1991, No.5, p.10-14. Illus.
Testing methods for air filters - Present and future European standards
Prüfverfahren für Luftfilter - Derzeitige und zukünftige europäische Normen [in German]
The methods of determining the collection efficiency of filters in air-conditioning systems described in German Standards DIN 24185 and DIN 24184 are outlined. These standards comply with international standards. They concern filters used for the removal of dust and aerosols from the air and those used for the removal of suspended particulate matter, viruses and other microorganisms from the air of clean rooms. The testing method in DIN 24184 for clean-room filters is based on photometry. It cannot evaluate collection efficiencies > 99.999%. A new testing method is outlined capable of evaluating filters with collection efficiencies up to 99.99999%. It is based on determining the diameter of the most penetrating particles.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Aug. 1991, Vol.42, No.8, p.459-462. Illus.
Christensson B., Krantz S.
Particulate air contaminants in "sick buildings" - A pilot study
Partikulära luftföroreningar i "sjuka hus" - En pilotstudie [in Swedish]
Eye and upper respiratory tract irritation is a characteristic symptom of 'sick building syndrome'. Concentrations and size distributions of aerosols were determined in two buildings whose occupants had reported such symptoms, and in two buildings where no symptoms had been reported. The 'sick buildings' had higher total dust levels and higher proportions of larger (10-40µm) particles. Differences in respirable dust levels were not so pronounced. The dust was generated by activities within the rooms of the buildings and was not injected by the ventilation systems. The filters in the ventilation systems did not trap very fine particles; these were distributed throughout the buildings when air was recirculated.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 13p. Illus. 3 ref.
Indoor air quality from commissioning through building operations
The building commissioning process includes procedures and methods for verifying and documenting the performance of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) to ensure proper operation according to design intent and performance goals. The paper examines the relationship of this process to maintaining acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation requirements for reconfigured space are presented. The probable causes of Sick Building Syndrome are discussed, along with preventative measures and control techniques. Air sampling techniques and measurements necessary to investigate IAQ problems are outlined.
ASHRAE Journal, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.42-44, 46-48. 4 ref.
Specifying the correct biological safety cabinet
Laboratories must now be designed to handle both chemical fume hoods and biological safety cabinets (BSCs). These devices provide different types of containment, therefore they cannot be substituted for each other. The article discusses the mechanical requirements of various categories of BSCs. Design issues include: physical dimensions; power requirements; location of the BSC in the laboratory; adjacency of peripheral equipment. Strategies for biohazard protection and chemical and radioisotopic hazard protection are outlined.
ASHRAE Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.33, No.8, p.31-34. Illus. 3 ref.
Proper ventilation of offices and conference rooms
For maintaining indoor air quality, it is imperative that the correct quantity of outdoor air be properly distributed to interior spaces. A challenge occurs when a single air handling unit serves spaces with widely varying outdoor air requirements, such as conference rooms and offices. The article describes a method of compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 ventilation rate procedure to maintain minimum acceptable indoor air quality in all zones served by one air handler. Five alternative cases are formulated for an assumed area of 929m2: 883m2 office space and 46m2 conference room (critical zone). The analysis shows how the outdoor air requirements in a common air handler system can vary just by changing the quantity of total supply air to the conference room.
ASHRAE Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.10, 12-14. Illus. 2 ref.
Grot R.A., Hodgson A.T., Daisey J.M., Persily A.
Indoor air quality evaluation of a new office building
An evaluation of the thermal and environmental performance of a new U.S. government office building was performed as part of a research effort to develop methods for evaluating buildings using advanced technology during the pre-occupancy and early occupancy stages. A diagnostic centre was installed capable of monitoring several parameters, including air filtration and ventilation rates and the levels of indoor contaminants. The contaminants were measured as frequently as every 10 minutes at several locations; they include: carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; respirable particulates; formaldehyde; radon; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are at least 37 VOCs in the interior air. Although the levels of these compounds are below established limits, they are also compounds for which no extensive research has been done to establish irritant levels.
ASHRAE Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.16-18, 20, 23-25. Illus. 9 ref.
Goldfield J., Sheehy J.W., Gunter B.J., Daniels W.J.
Cost-effective radiator repair ventilation control
High airborne lead levels in radiator repair shops and high blood lead levels among those workers are not uncommon. The article describes a cost-effective ventilation enclosure over the water bath that is used to leak test radiators. An opening in front of the enclosure allows the mechanic to repair the radiator inside. A propeller fan mounted in the rear of the enclosure exhausts the air. The effectiveness of the enclosure was evaluated by collecting short-term and time-weighted average personal breathing zone samples for lead at a controlled work station. Lead exposures during radiator repair at the controlled work station averaged 9.9µg/m3, 20% of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Level (PEL). Samples taken at an uncontrolled work station averaged 435µg/m3, 45 times higher than those at the controlled station.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 1991, Vol.6, No.11, p.959-965. Illus. 16 ref.
Cornu J.C., Muller J.P.
MIG-MAG welding torches with fume exhaust devices - Exhaust efficiency measurement method - Study of relevant parameters
Torches aspirantes de soudage MIG/MAG - Méthode de mesure de l'efficacité de captage - Etude de paramètres d'influence [in French]
A method was developed for measuring the efficiency of fume exhaust devices on MIG-MAG welding torches. Applicable in the laboratory and on site, it is based on the use of a tracer gas (helium) which may be a component of the welding gas or be mixed with it. The effects of certain operating parameters of torches equipped with fume exhaust devices are described: exhaust rate and protector gas flow rate, position of torch in relation to the line of welding, welding position. The position of the exhaust vents in relation to the fumes released is a very important factor in the exhaust efficiency of welding lamps.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1991, No.145, Note No.1852-145-91, p.663-669. Illus. 9 ref.
Practical ventilation guide - 12. Woodworking
Guide pratique de ventilation - 12. Deuxième transformation du bois [in French]
This document is designed to provide practical answers to all those people who are involved in the design, reception, operation and control of ventilation equipment and in woodworking industries. It covers only essential questions relating to ventilation systems and the different particles generated in wood processing workshops: shavings, sawdust and dusts produced by certain operations. Other nuisances, such as vapours emitted during varnishing, and the problems of pollutant rejection into the environment, are not addressed. Annex: relevant legislation in France. Glossary.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1991, No.145, Note No.1849-145-91, p.573-611. Illus. 21 ref.
Brunk M.F., Pfeiffer W.
Ventilation of welding shops
Lüftung in Schweisshallen [in German]
The efficiency of various ventilation systems in carrying off welding fumes was determined by calculating the fresh air supply required in each case. Top, bottom and lateral air supply systems were considered. Systems with fresh air supply from the bottom or from the side wall close to the bottom of the room were found to require the lowest volume of fresh air.
Argus Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1991. No.3, p.30-33. Illus. 7 ref.
Nardell E.A., Keegan J., Cheney S.A., Etkind S.C.
Airborne infection - Theoretical limits of protection achievable by building ventilation
Office workers complained about air quality more than 2 years before the occurrence of a coworker tuberculosis exposure (estimated 4 weeks), prompting investigations of building air quality before and after the tuberculosis exposure. The available data permitted the application of a mathematical model of airborne infection to assess the relationship between infection rate, building ventilation, exposure duration, and infectivity of the source case. Predictions were sought as to how many exposed workers would have been infected had the ventilation been optimal for comfort purposes. The theoretical limits of protection achievable by further increases in ventilation, and the relationship of protection to the intensity of exposure were examined. It is concluded that inadequate ventilation may contribute to airborne infection but that the protection afforded to occupants by ventilation above comfort levels may be inherently limited, especially when the level of exposure to infection is high.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Aug. 1991, Vol.144, No.2, p.302-306. Illus. 35 ref.
Jones R.L., Stuart D.G., Eagleson D., Eagleson J.M.
Effects of ceiling height on determining calculated intake air velocities for biological safety cabinets
A potential problem exists with the certification of Class II, Type A, biological safety cabinets using the standard method for deriving cabinet intake velocity. It has been found that the cabinet air flow balance is affected by low ceiling height over the cabinet exhaust opening. Comparisons of 2 different Class II, Type A, cabinets and 2 air flow measuring methods showed that a ceiling height as low as 5.2cm above the exhaust plenum had no effect on actual cabinet air flow. Also, 2 measuring methods yielded different results throughout a range of ceiling heights up to 35.6cm. Both measuring methods demonstrated a strong negative correlation (-0.9) for derived cabinet intake air velocity as a function of increased ceiling height. The precisely determined, yet inaccurate, operational setpoint (low ceiling in place) versus the actual operational setpoint (ceiling removed) increased along the performance envelope's y-axis, demonstrating that containment was increasingly favoured over product protection as ceiling height decreased.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1991, Vol.6, No.8, p.683-688. Illus. 8 ref.
Stair pressurization systems for smoke control
The results of preliminary studies conducted during the first phase of the ASHRAE Research Project 559RP are presented. The studies examined the critical air velocities needed to prevent smoke backflow at an open stairdoor.
ASHRAE Journal, July 1991, Vol.33, No.7, p.14, 16-18. 16 ref.
Farant J.P., Greaves D., Robb R.
Measurement and impact of outdoor air supplied to individual office building occupants on indoor air quality
A new procedure has been developed to measure, under field conditions, the portion of outdoor air that is supplied to individual building occupants. The method is based on the constant release of tracer gas into the outdoor air introduced into a ventilation system and its measurement, at steady state, at individual work stations. The values obtained are called outdoor air supply indexes (OASIs). The results indicate that the type of diffuser, office, partition, and return air inlet and their position relative to each other can have a dramatic effect on the amount of outdoor air supplied to work stations. OASI values obtained also correspond well with a wide array of environmental parameters measured and the complaints made by building occupants. The test takes 30 minutes to complete and requires little preparation and skill. It is anticipated that use of the method will assist in resolving indoor air quality problems in many modern office buildings.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.52, No.9, p.387-392. Illus. 10 ref.
Braconnier R., Régnier R., Bonthoux F.
Efficiency of an exhaust vent on a surface treatment tank - Laboratory measurements and two-dimensional numerical simulation
Efficacité d'une fente d'aspiration sur une cuve de traitement de surface - Mesures en laboratoire et simulation numérique bidimensionnelle [in French]
A study on the capture of pollutants emitted by a surface treatment tank with an exhaust slot on one side, in the presence of cross-draft was carried out under laboratory conditions by 2 different methods: measurements on a scale model using helium tracer and hot wire anemometry techniques, and two-dimensional simulation on a computer. The effects of various factors (suction rate, cross-draft velocity, level of liquid in tank) on capture efficiency were studied for different configurations. Capture efficiency values and charts of air speeds and concentrations in the vicinity of the tank are presented. Good agreement was achieved between the flow characteristics measured and those predicted by numerical simulation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1991, No.144, Note No.1841-144-91, p.463-478. Illus. 30 ref.
Crutchfield C.D., Eroh M.P., Van Ert M.D.
A feasibility study of quantitative respirator fit testing by controlled negative pressure
The feasibility of using a direct measure of respirator leakage flow rate as a quantitative index of respirator face seal fit is explored through a new controlled negative pressure method. The method is based on exhausting air from a temporarily sealed respirator facepiece at a rate sufficient to generate and sustain a constant negative pressure inside the facepiece while the wearer holds his breath. The feasibility of using the new method to quantify respirator fit was assessed by comparing its performance with a quantitative fit test method based on use of dichlorodifluoromethane as a challenge agent. There was a high degree of correlation (r > 0.99) and no significant difference between the two methods over a range of controlled mask leakage rates. However, the new method does not require a destructive sampling probe. Other benefits include (1) ease of test administration, (2) simplicity of test components, (3) lack of a potentially toxic challenge agent, (4) a straightforward calibration procedure, (5) multiple test capability, (6) immediacy of test results, and (7) field portability of the test system.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr.1991, Vol.52, No.4, p.172-176. Illus. 25 ref.
Airflow distribution in exhaust ventilation systems
One of the primary concerns of ventilation design is selecting the component characteristics that will force airflow to divide among competing pathways in a desired distribution. It is desirable that pressure calculation procedures correctly model the distribution of airflows among the paths. The distribution of airflows converging at a junction can be estimated from the predicted pressures just upstream of the junction fitting. However, the total pressure approach to calculation requires iterative solutions at each junction, and the current implementation of the static pressure approach provides a poor fit to published empirical data. A model to predict pressures upstream of junctions is proposed and validated using experimental data.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1991, Vol.52, No.3, p.93-106. Illus. 17 ref.
Guide to ventilation practice - 13: Lead-acid battery manufacturing
Guide pratique de ventilation - 13. Fabrication des accumulateurs au plomb [in French]
This practical guide is aimed at the prevention of lead poisoning during the manufacturing of lead-acid batteries. Exhaust criteria are based on data currently available and are subject to revision due to new data or legislation. In annex: occupational diseases caused by lead and its compounds; calculation method for the determination of hydrogen released during the charging of lead-acid batteries.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.143, Note No.1823-143-91, p.163-186. Illus. 16 ref. Appendices.
Fagá I., Trivelato G.C.
Measurement of the capture efficiency of exhaust hoods in gold-purchasing operations by determination of mercury in air
Avaliação da eficácia de capelas para casas compradoras de ouro, por determinação de mercúrio no ar [in Portuguese]
Description of a method for the evaluation of the capture efficiency of exhaust hoods in gold-purchasing operations, where large amounts of mercury are released into the atmosphere.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.72, p.12-16. 14 ref.
Second International Conference Roomvent '90 - Engineering Aero- and Thermodynamics of Ventilated Rooms, Oslo, 13-15 June 1990
Deuxième conférence internationale Roomvent '90 - Engineering Aero- and Thermodynamics of Ventilated Rooms, Oslo, 13-15 juin 1990 [in French]
The purpose of this conference was to discuss the latest techniques used for the design of ventilation systems for industrial and service workplaces. Subjects covered by the ca.70 papers include air flow, heat transfer and mass transfer. Three types of techniques were considered: numeric simulation of air flow, modern measurement techniques and the design of new ventilation systems. Some new trends are described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, p.143-145. Illus.
Office building ventilation
Course material for a 1-day seminar offered in Seattle (WA, USA) on 7 Feb. 1991. Subjects covered: investigation needed for "tight building syndrome" (also known as "sick building syndrome") complaints; the setting up of a state task force on indoor air quality in the state of Washington; understanding and trouble-shooting the HVAC system of indoor heating, ventilation and air-conditioning; psychological aspects of office building problems; checklists for evaluating indoor air quality; case study of indoor environment investigation from the University of Washington.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, SC-34, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, 1991. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Stimpfel T.M., Gershey E.L.
Design modifications of a class II biological safety cabinet and user guidelines for enhancing safety
Design modifications to permit internal waste collection and to optimise the available work area are described. Improvements, including an internal recessed well for the waste receptacle, relocation of petcocks and electrical duplex, and installation of a new vacuum trap, make operation of the cabinet more efficient and potentially safer. To correct poor work practices, which can compromise the protective features of any biological safety cabinet, it is advised that precise guidelines and training programmes should be followed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1991, Vol. 52, No.1, p.1-5. Illus. 17 ref.
Crouch K.G., Peng T., Murdock D.J.
Ventilation control of lead in indoor firing ranges: Inlet configuration and booth and fluctuating flow contributions
Ineffective ventilation systems in indoor firing ranges have been shown to produce an airflow pattern with large scale eddies and recirculation of gun emissions to occupied parts of the range. Smoke relase studies in two firing ranges confirmed the relative importance of the air inlet to the success of the ventilation system. A subsequent laboratory study involved the use of a full-scale model for the evaluation of various inlets and obstacles to flow. For steady airflows, use of a double perforated panel at the inlet was found to be effective in many cases. The introduction of a fluctuating flow at the inlet significantly reduced exposure caused by eddies.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.81-91. Illus. 13 ref.
Revision of Ventilation Technique Guidelines for Tunnel Construction Work
Zuidō kōjitō ni okeru kanki gijutsu shishin no kaitei ni tsuite [in Japanese]
In 1969, the Japan Construction Safety and Health Association set the "Ventilation Technique Guidelines for Tunnel Construction Work (Design and Maintenance Control)" as a self-imposed standard within the construction industry. Since then, however, tunnel construction technology has undergone rapid change. After 3yrs of review starting in 1987, a committee of experts produced the "Revised Ventilation Technique Guidelines for Tunnel Construction Work (Design and Maintenance Control)" in Oct. 1990. Major revisions involve 3 points. (1) Ventilation rate is determined on the basis of the amount of NO, rather than of CO as in the old version, in the exhaust gas emitted by diesel engines. New specific ventilation rates have been set for spaces where power shovels and diesel-powered vehicles operate; (2) The operation rate for diesel engines has been set at 20-30% (for shovels), 40-50% (for dump trucks), and 15-20% (for other machines); (3) If there is more than one kind of contaminant, the required ventilation is determined for each contaminant; the largest value among these is added to the ventilation rate per worker (3m3/min) multiplied by the number of workers at the site to give the overall ventilation rate required.
Construction safety, 1 Sep. 1990, No.9/265, p.6-9. Illus.
Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle
Technical note completing Government Order of 9 October 1987 on ventilation and clean air at the workplace [France]
Note technique complétant l'arrêté du 9 octobre 1987 sur l'aération, l'assainissement des ambiances de travail [France] [in French]
This technical note is an extension of the order of 9 Oct. 1987 (see CIS 89-384) relating to the measurements and controls a labour inspector may prescribe in workplaces. It describes possible courses of action open to the labour inspector in the event of non-compliance with reference values. In particular, it covers the problem of plant design, acceptance and follow-up (specifications, regular inspection). It also provides additional information on pollutant exhaust, air recirculation and the procedure for issuing formal notices as provided for in the Order.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.143, Note No.1832-143-91, p.287-289.
Contents of this data sheet: general and local exhaust systems and their components; hazards of poor or no ventilation; control (inspection, testing, training); maintenance of the hood system, duct work, collecting devices, motors and fans; legislation. A sample checklist is appended.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1990. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.
Local exhaust ventilation and aerosol behaviour in industrial workplace air
Thesis synthesising 6 previously published papers. Topics covered: aerosol behaviour in workplace air; local exhaust ventilation (capture of contaminants, modelling); aerosols and local exhaust ventilation (particle transport, modelling).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 32p. Illus. 37 ref.
Guide for ventilation practice - 7: Arc welding operations
Guide pratique de ventilation - 7. Opérations de soudage à l'arc [in French]
This document is a guide to the design, operation and monitoring of ventilation systems in workplaces where arc welding processes are used. Contents: survey of the risks encountered in arc welding and of the relevant regulations; selection of ventilation techniques; practical devices for fume exhaust and dilution; additional equipment: make-up air, welding fume transfer, treatment of polluted air, monitoring and maintenance of exhaust devices. Appendix: evaluation of the output of exhaust ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1799-141-90, p.761-774. Illus. 17 ref.
Decree No. 90-53 of 12 January 1990...defining health and safety conditions and ventilation rates applicable to spraying and drying booths...using liquid paints, varnishes, powders or dry fibres [France]
Décret n°90-53 du 12 janv. 1990 ... définissant les conditions d'hygiène et de sécurité et la vitesse de ventilation dans les cabines de projection, cabines et enceintes de séchage ... destinées à l'emploi de peintures liquides, de vernis, de poudres ou de fibres sèches [France] [in French]
Text of Decree No. 90-53 of 12 January 1990 (published in the Journal Officiel of 14 Jan. 1990), amending the provisions of Book II, Title III, Chapter III of the French Labour Code (Part two: Decrees in the Council of State) and defining health and safety conditions and minimal ventilation rates applicable to spraying booths, drying booths and combined spraying and drying booths using liquid paints, varnishes, powders or dry fibres.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1796-140-90, p.633-637.
Mahien J.C., Oury B., Boulet A.
Characteristics of the aerosol emissions of nickel plating baths
Caractéristiques de l'émission d'aérosols des bains de nickelage [in French]
Atmospheric samples were taken near nickel plating tanks in order to determine pollution levels and ventilation efficiency. Contents: summary on nickel plating techniques; results of the measurements; characteristics of nickel salt aerosol emissions to be taken into account when installing exhaust devices on nickel plating tanks.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1774-139-90, p.313-322. Illus. 8 ref.
Héry M., Hubert G., Limasset J.C., Elcabache J.M.
Electroplating industry. Assessment of exposure to chromium and nickel
Industrie de la galvanisation - Evaluation de l'exposition atmosphérique au chrome et au nickel [in French]
The purpose of this study, conducted in 9 electroplating plants, was to examine trends in exposure to harmful substances in light of the increasing presence of ventilation equipment and automation near the plating tanks. Air samples taken in the plants (particularly personal samples) generally indicate exposure levels well within the permitted levels. The actual reduction in air contamination due to the installation of a ventilation system in a hard chrome-plating plant is described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1773-139-90, p.303-311. 25 réf.
Blocking off polluted air by ventilation systems
Schadluftabsperrung durch Raumlufttechnische Systeme [in German]
The arrangement of rooms and hallways and the design of an air conditioning system for chemical laboratories are described. The laboratory rooms are ventilated according to the purpose they fulfil, such as storage of chemicals or performance of chemical analyses and experiments. Through the creation of zones of overpressure, underpressure and of equal pressure, exposure of personnel to air pollutants is reduced.
Gesundheits-Ingenieur - Haustechnik - Bauphysik - Umwelttechnik, 1990, Vol.111, No.2, p.63-68. Illus. 6 ref.
Calculation of the rate of air extraction by an exhaust system by measuring the velocity field at the opening
Calcul des débits d'air extraits par un dispositif d'aspiration à partir de l'exploration du champ des vitesses dans son ouverture [in French]
This study carried out by INRS was designed, on one hand, to determine the influence of several parameters (distance between the opening and the anemometer, velocity field measurement and layout, type of anemometer, air velocity...) on the determination of air flow rate extracted by an exhaust system by velocity field measurement at the opening, and on the other hand, to provide industrial hygienists with valuable information to help them take measurements under better conditions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No.1765-138-90, p.53-64. Illus. 5 ref.
Lefèvre A., Muller J.P., Aubertin G., Cunin J.C.
Pilot operation - Ventilation problems specific to the woodworking industry
Opération pilote bois - Problèmes de ventilation spécifiques à l'industrie de la deuxième transformation du bois [in French]
The woodworking industry was the setting for a pilot operation designed to help solve the ventilation problems specific to this sector and improve the air purification process in workplaces. This study shows first the combined influence of both air cleaner efficiency and capture efficiency of local exhaust devices, and also the vulnerability of this solution in the event of a dust collector malfunction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No.1764-138-90, p.41-52. Illus. 19 ref.
Unit: Harmful dusts, gases, vapours and mists - Module: Local exhaust ventilation
This training module is designed for home study and includes many practical exercises with answers. It is the 4th version of a publication originally issued in 1986 and contains 2 segments: 1 - Hoods (function, form and general application of hoods; total enclosures, booths, receptor hoods, captor hoods; typical applications; estimation of ventilation requirements; LEV problems in real situations; proving new or improved LEV systems); 2 - Ducts, collectors and fans (ducts; dust collectors; typical wet and dry collectors; disposal and recirculation; fans; LEV systems where there is a risk of fires or explosions; inspection testing and maintenance of LEV systems).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1990. 64p. Illus.
Andersson B., Andersson K., Sundgren M., Sundell J., Mattsson K.O., Zingmark P.A.
Reentrainment of air pollutants in rotary heat exchangers
Återföring av luftföroreningar i roterande värmeväxlare [in Swedish]
Six exchangers, installed in office buildings in the northern part of Sweden, were included in this study. Formaldehyde in the indoor air was used as a monitor pollutant and was sampled at 4 positions around the rotor, before and after passage of the rotor, in both the exhaust and supply air streams. Sampling of homogeneous air in the ducts was performed simultaneously with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated glass fibre filters. The analysis of formaldehyde was made by high performance liquid chromatography. The reentrainment of formaldehyde was 1-9%.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 19p. Illus. 11 ref.
Functions of ventilation in workplaces where harmful substances occur
Raumluftfunktionen bei Gefahrstoffen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
The air exchange rates for exhaust ventilation of a large open laboratory in which harmful substances are handled are compared with those of the same laboratory divided into individually ventilated cells. The layout of cells within the laboratory, the layout of equipment and the design of exhaust ventilation in each cell tailored to the tasks to be performed and to the need for complete withdrawal of harmful substances. After division of laboratory into a number of small cells, far lower air exchange rates are needed and thus considerable energy savings are achieved. Planning, design and layout of task-oriented ventilation systems are discussed and illustrated by examples.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, 1990, Vol.41, No.4, p.351-352, 355-357. Illus. 10 ref.
Burgess W.A., Ellenbecker M.J., Treitman R.D.
Ventilation for control of the work environment
Textbook for plant engineers, industrial hygienists and students of industrial ventilation. It is intended to be used with the 20th edition of the Industrial Ventilation Manual of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and with the study guide to that manual. Contents: ventilation for control; principles of airflow; airflow measurement techniques; general exhaust ventilation; hood design; hood designs for specific applications; chemical laboratory ventilation; design of single-hood systems; design of multiple-hood systems; fans and blowers; air-cleaning devices; replacement-air systems; quantification of hood performance; evaluation and control of the thermal environment; air conditioning for comfort and health; reentry.
John Wiley & Sons Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA; John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 1UD, United Kingdom, 1989. xvii + 476p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 39.80.
Wegner R., Rincker B., Poschadel B., Szadkowski D.
Halothane exposure of personnel in operating rooms as a function of ventilatory conditions
Zur Halothanbelastung von Operationspersonal in Abhängigkeit von raumlufttechnischen Bedingungen [in German]
The halothane concentrations in the air and in the breathing zones of 31 medical doctors and nurses were measured during operations. The operations were performed in 1 naturally ventilated and 2 air-conditioned operating rooms with different air exchange rates. Very low halothane concentrations were measured in all 3 operating rooms. Air exchange rates were correlated with halothane exposure. Trifluoroacetic acid levels in blood reached less than 10% of the permissible level (BAT). Excretion of this metabolite in the urine rose over the study period.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.6, p.264-270. Illus. Bibl.
Indoor air quality
Papers presented at the International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, 4-6 Nov. 1987, in Tokyo, Japan. Keynote lectures on passive smoking are followed by presentations grouped under the headings "environmental tobacco smoke measurement", "biological effects associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke", "epidemiology of passive smoking" and "general indoor air pollution".
Springer-Verlag, 17 Tiergartenstrasse, W-6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany, 1990. 529p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DEM 198.00.
The maintenance, examination and testing of local exhaust ventilation
Topics covered in this guide: legal requirements; selection, training and protection of inspection personnel; planning the maintenance programme; initial appraisal of the local exhaust ventilation (LEV) plant; content of the maintenance programme and requirements for regular inspection and checking; periodic audits of the LEV system and its performance; instruments and techniques for use in direct measurement of emissions (air monitoring or sampling), visualisation techniques and measurement of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) plant performance; maintenance and calibration of instruments; recording of results of inspection.
HMSO Books, P.O.Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.00.
Industrial ventilation work book
This work book stresses the practical applications of industrial ventilation. Topics covered include: emission source behaviour and its relation to worker and air behaviour; dilution and local exhaust ventilation; design and selection of hoods, ducts and fans; non-standard conditions; indoor air quality, HVAC and make-up air systems; recirculation and heat exchangers; obtaining US air permits; purposes of stacks and dilution of stack emissions; system testing and monitoring; plans and specifications; measurement of hood static pressure and daily inspection and maintenance. Practical examples and exercises with answers are included.
IVE Inc., 178 North Alta Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84103, USA, 1990. 289p. Illus. Price: USD 30.00.
Climate and ventilation of indoor workplaces [Norway]
Klima og ventilasjon på innendørs arbeidsplasser [in Norwegian]
New edition of this directive providing guidelines for the achievement of good climatic conditions of indoor workplaces. It covers: consequences of bad indoor air conditions (health hazards and discomfort); smoking at the workplace; planning of indoor climate; evaluation of temperature differences; ventilation and air quality; measurement of air quality and documentation; maintenance of heating and ventilation equipment.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 9th ed., Feb. 1990. 29p. Illus.
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