Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Methner M.M., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications. Part I: Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training; Part II: Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage
Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in commercial greenhouses with the ventilation system either on or off. Both video-imaging analysis and patch sampling indicated that when spray painting occurred with ventilation on rather than off, dermal exposure was reduced for experienced applicators, but increased for inexperienced applicators. No difference was observed between the two groups with ventilation off. Protective clothing performance was evaluated with particular reference to the hazard of contact with wet or treated foliage. Breakthrough times for four commercially available garments are reported. It was concluded that none of the garments can be considered chemical resistant under the use conditions observed. Contact with treated foliage represents a special hazard during greenhouse applications, and many chemical protective clothing products in current use are inadequate for worker protection. These products should be redesigned and field-tested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.560-574. Illus. 49 ref.
Juozaitis A., Huang Y.L., Willeke K., Donnelly J., Kalatoor S., Leeson A., Wyza R.
Dispersion of respirable aerosols in a fermenter and their removal in an exhaust system
To study the potential release of aerosols from a fermenter, a measurement system was developed to explore respirable aerosol formation characteristics and controllability. The data indicated that the majority of effluent aerosol particles released were in the submicrometer range. This includes bacteria and growth products. Particle concentration counts in the exhaust system increased by a factor of 100 during the fermentation process. This dramatic increase was shown to correlate with bacterial growth, foaming, and subsequent breaking of the uppermost foam layer into small droplets by the mechanical foam breaker. The ceramic filter in the exhaust system of the fermenter removed over 98% of the aerosol particles by count larger than 0.7µm diameter, but up to 50% by count of the 0.1 to 0.3µm particles were released into the ambient air. Thus, while the exhaust removes most of the particle mass, extremely small bacteria may escape to the environment.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.552-559. Illus. 28 ref.
Nagin D., Pavelchak N., London M., DePersis R.P., Melius J.
Control of tuberculosis in the workplace: Engineering controls
In this review of engineering controls that can be used to check the spread of tuberculosis in health care settings, types of ventilation and supplements to ventilation such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation are addressed. Engineering controls for use during medical procedures that pose an increased risk for transmission of TB are specifically covered.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.609-630. 32 ref.
An exhaust system for waste gases from surgery
Absaugsysteme für die Chirurgie-Rauchgase [in German]
Description of a local exhaust system for waste gases from operating theatres where laser or high-frequency surgical equipment is used.
Krankenhaustechnik, Mar. 1994, vol.20, No.3, p.80-81. Illus. 4 ref. ###
Lavoie J., Lazure L.
Guide to the prevention of microbial proliferation in ventilation systems
Guide de prévention contre la prolifération microbienne dans les systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this safety guide aimed at designers of ventilation systems and at all those potentially affected by the biological contamination of such systems: microorganisms in general (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, antigens); air treatment systems (air conditioning system components and processes); biological contaminants of system components; inspection procedures (visual methods and biological sampling); maintenance and cleaning; preventive measures and legislation applicable to various components of ventilation systems. In annex: diagrammatic presentation of biological contamination of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; sample estimate form for the cleaning of ventilation ducts; sample check-list for the inspection of ventilation systems.
IRSST - Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail au Québec, Direction des communications, 505, Blvd. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 1994. 1 loose-leaf binder. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 25.00.
A technique to use data loggers to measure effective ventilation and air exchange rates by carbon dioxide tracer
An electronic timed sampling valve was used to collect air alternatively from the room exhaust and the breathing zones of occupants. The timed valve provided a data logger with a data set for each location. The data were fitted to an exponential one-compartment clearance model. The fitted data were used to calculate air exchange, mean air life, half-life of room air, ventilation effectiveness and correlation of fit. The technique used ambient carbon dioxide gas concentrations as a natural tracer, or compressed carbon dioxide as a pulse-inject tracer as a pulse-inject tracer gas.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1994, Vol.55, No.9, p.833-835. Illus. 7 ref.
Reynolds S.J., Kreiger R.A., Bohn J.A., Fish D., Marxhausen T., McJilton C.
Factors affecting airborne concentrations of asbestos in a commercial building
The effect of renovation and return air-distribution systems on the exposure of occupants in a commercial building to asbestos under worst-case conditions was evaluated. General area samples were collected in four test and five control locations over five days. The presence or absence of construction or of a suspended ceiling acting as a return air plenum were tested for effect on airborne concentrations of asbestos. To maximize the likelihood of detecting measurable effects, all sampling was performed in areas with damaged asbestos containing surface material. Airborne concentrations of asbestos were consistently less than 0.008 structures per cubic centimeter (s/cm3), with only 15 of 60 samples having detectable levels. The highest concentrations were found in the construction area (0.007 s/cm3) and in the area with no suspended ceiling (0.008 s/cm3), though tests of statistical significance for these effects were equivocal.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1994, Vol.55, No.9, p.823-828. Illus. 26 ref.
Yost M.G., Gadgil A.J., Drescher A.C., Zhou Y., Simonds M.A., Levine S.P., Nazaroff W.W., Saisan P.A.
Imaging indoor tracer-gas concentrations with computed tomography: Experimental results with a remote sensing FTIR system
To show that computer tomography (CT) is a useful tool for investigating pollutant concentration in a real room setting, a remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was mounted on a moving base and a passive tracer was released from a point source into the room under constant ventilation conditions. The experiments produced two data sets, one consisting of 36 beam-path-averaged values and the other consisting of 44 point values from the FID array. Good qualitative agreement between reconstruction and point sample data was obtained. Problems of temporal resolution, size and geometry can be overcome with better instrumentation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.395-402. Illus. 29 ref.
Passaro P.D., Cole H.P., Wala A.M.
Flow distribution changes in complex circuits: implications for mine explosions
On at least two separate occasions, methane gas explosions occurred in underground mines when separate ventilation systems were connected. Research indicated that conceptual errors made by miners may have contributed to these disasters. A study of 136 mine workers revealed that as many as 70% formed inadequate mental models of flow distribution changes within the mine ventilation circuit. These errors may contribute directly to errors of judgement during changes to mine ventilation arrangements.
Human Factors, Dec. 1994, Vol.36, No.4, p.745-756. Illus. 15 ref. Index.
Melenk K., Breunig P.
Ventilation system for workplaces with sorting table conveyors
Raumlufttechnik an Sortierbandarbeitsplätzen [in German]
The sorting-table conveyor in a garbage composting plant in Germany was entirely enclosed for the installation of a ventilation system. All air polluted by smelly substances and pathogens in the breathing zone of workers who sort garbage into compostable and non-compostable components manually is removed by exhaust ventilation. Fresh air is supplied to each of the workplaces at the rate of 300m3/h. In addition, high thermal comfort is provided by the ventilation system. Tracer experiments revealed that unpolluted, fresh air is pushed deep down into the cabin so that even workers who have to bend over the sorting table conveyor are still within the unpolluted zone.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Dec. 1994, Vol.45, No.12, p.609-612. Illus. 2 ref.
Költzsch P., Neise W., Preuss U., Franke D., Walden F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Low noise design XVI: Integrated noise reducing techniques for fans
Lärmarm konstruieren XVI: Integrierte Lärmminderungsmassnahmen an Ventilatoren [in German]
Study of the principles of the design of fans and of the pipes in the vicinity of the fans providing low noise emission and good performance. A number of parameters that determine the noise emission from fans were investigated by measurements in a test setup. Among the parameters to be investigated were type of fan, dimensions, geometric properties, absorption properties of the surfaces, materials etc. Comprehensive data sheets were prepared on the basis of the test results to document the design and acoustic and aerodynamic performances of the noise protection elements.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. ix, 223p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Measurement of outdoor and recirculated air percentages by carbon dioxide tracer
This article presents a technique to extend the utility of carbon dioxide dataloggers in the provision of information on the percentages of both outside air and recirculated air in a ventilated compartment. An electronic timed sampling valve is used to alternately collect air from the room supply and from the recirculated airstream. The timed valve provides a dataset for each location that can be used to calculate the percentages of outside and recirculated air. The technique uses ambient carbon dioxide as a natural tracer gas. The carbon dioxide tracer technique can be used when the psychrometric temperature method for calculating outside air percentage is indeterminate because the return air and outdoor air temperatures are equal.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.525-528. Illus. 4 ref.
Protection from exhaust gases in motor vehicle repair shops
Schutz vor Autoabgasen in Kfz-Werkstätten [in German]
In many vehicle repair shops in Germany, high carbon monoxide concentrations in excess of the exposure limit were measured. Noise levels during engine tests were found to amount to about 95dB(A). An instruction manual was issued which recommends protective measures such as: exhausting the vehicle exhaust gases at the various workplaces, providing separate rooms for noisy tasks, wearing hearing protectors and reducing vehicle movements inside the repair shops. Formulae are presented for quickly assessing the carbon monoxide pollution and the fresh air volume needed to comply with the exposure limit.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, June 1994, No.6, p.180-182.
Practical guide to ventilation. 14 - Free-jet blasting in blasting chambers
Guide pratique de ventilation. 14 - Décapage, dessablage, dépolissage au jet libre en cabine [in French]
Guide and information sheet intended for people and organizations involved in the development, construction, use and control of ventilation systems in free-jet blasting chambers. Main contents: risks (poisoning; fire and explosion, etc.); technical aspects: main activities concerned; equipment used (blasting apparatus, chamber); operating principles of high-pressure blasting equipment; ventilation: purpose, design, choice; characteristics of air exhaust and supply devices; air exhaust rates; make-up air and heating; dust control; rejection of polluted air outside premises, air recirculation; operators outside the blasting chamber; automated devices; metallizing; personal protection; inspection and maintenance; fires and explosions; noise; lighting (required lighting; lighting calculations; lighting fixtures); servo-systems (blasting/closing of doors, blasting/ventilation and lighting).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1948-154-94, p.5-19. Illus. 24 ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
Indoor air quality: Microbiological hazards in air conditioning and ventilation systems
Calidad del aire interior: riesgos microbiológicos en los sistemas de ventilación/climatización [in Spanish]
Topics: air conditioning; air humidification; allergies; biological hazards; data sheet; infectious diseases; legionellosis; microclimate; Monday fever; Spain; ventilation systems.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. Illus. 9 ref.
Microbiological decontamination of ventilation systems
La décontamination microbienne des systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this article: origin of bioaerosols in indoor air; contribution of bioaerosols to indoor air quality; effects on health; decontamination techniques; case study of an industrial-scale laundry serving about 30 Quebec hospitals.
Objectif prévention, Winter 1993, Vol.16, No.4, p.30-32. 15 ref.
Smoragiewicz W., Cossette B., Boutard A., Krzystyniak K.
Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings
The presence of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust samples from the air conditioning systems of four office buildings in Montreal, Canada, was determined. The buildings were known to cause sick building syndrome among their occupants. Analyses of the dust samples by thin-layer chromatography yielded four kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins. The results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This method appeared to be more sensitive while positive colour reaction on thin-layer chromatography plates using 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine proved less costly and less time-consuming. It was found suitable for qualitative detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust extracts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.2, p.113-117. 25 ref.
Burkhart J.E., Stanevich R., Kovak B.
Microorganism contamination of HVAC humidification systems - Case study
Water samples were collected from humidification system water reservoir pans in a large office building. Air washers and steam injection humidification systems are used in the building. Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were found to be the most predominant microorganisms. Only small quantities of bacteria were found in the steam systems, while water collected from the air wash systems was highly contaminated. Data were also available to test the effectiveness of the cleaning system. A sample collected one day before cleaning had 58,100 colony forming units per millilitre (CFU/mL). Samples collected one and two days after cleaning had 250,200 and 258,160 CFU/mL, respectively. This demonstrates not only that the cleaning process is ineffective biologically but also that it may increase the risk of bioaerosol contamination. Sample concentrations, in colony forming units per millilitre, were found to be quite different depending upon the side of the baffle plates from which the sample was collected.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 1993, Vol.8, No.12, p.1010-1014. Illus. 8 ref.
Krockenberger O., Schwarz R.
Air pollution control in weighing and mixing stations
Luftreinhaltung an Wiege- und Mischarbeitsplätzen [in German]
Dust exposure is high in the manual weighing and mixing stations of plastics converting industries. A polyvinyl chloride converting plant is used to illustrate feasible dust control measures. After describing existing conditions, two solutions are proposed. In the first case the existing equipment is used and manual handling of the equipment is maintained. An exhaust ventilation is applied that suppresses the dust at source. In the second case a new automated weighing and mixing technology with low dust emission is used. The exhaust ventilation is designed to draw off the remaining dust. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. xii, 172p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: DEM 33.00.
Climate and air quality in the workplace
This revised directive describes the physical factors that determine indoor air quality (previous ed. under CIS 94-691). Main subjects covered: effects of the indoor environment on health, well-being and work capacity; air quality; selection of construction materials; ventilation; energy conservation, heat recovery and recirculated air; indoor thermal environments; adjustment of air flow rates, measurement and documentation; specifications. A brief survey of relevant Norwegian legislation is included. Replaces previous edition (CIS 94-691).
Directorate of Labour Inspection, PO Box 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Nov. 1993. 44p. 27 ref. Index. Available from: Tiden Norsk Forlag A/S, PO Box 8813 Youngstoret, 0028 Oslo, Norway.
Ventilation and air quality [Sweden]
Ventilation och luftkvalitet [in Swedish]
Directive on indoor air quality and mechanical ventilation systems. Entry into force: 1 January 1994. Contents: definitions: air quality, air from the outside, supply air, exhaust air and maintenance and control. The directive does not deal with process ventilation. Updated guidelines on application of the directive and comments are included.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 2 Aug. 1993. 24p. Illus.
Ventilation of workplaces in production facilities to carry off air pollutants
Gezielte Belüftung der Arbeitsbereiche in Produktionshallen zum Abbau der Schadstoffbelastung [in German]
A ventilation design was tested on models. The design uses convection to carry off air pollutants from workplaces. Through its use, pollution levels could be reduced by up to 90%, a much larger reduction than is possible through conventional ventilation systems. Heat exposure could be reduced by 60%. Application of the new concept to the modernization of an existing ventilation system confirmed the results obtained on the models. The modernized ventilation system reduced the exposure to coolants on the workplaces by 50%. Computer programmes were developed and applied which permit the calculation of the energy consumption as well as of the heat and air pollution levels connected with the ventilation system design.
Verein der Förderer der Forschung im Bereich Heizung-Lüftung-Klimatechnik, Pfaffenwaldring 6a, 7000 Stuttgart, Germany, Sep. 1993. xii, 157p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Work environment in welding. Exhaust-arms
Arbetsmiljö vid svetsning. Utsugningsarmar [in Swedish]
Booklet on design of devices meant for holding exhaust hoods which are used to collect welding fumes. Main issues: types of exhaust arms, components, exhaust source, efficiency and testing of the exhaust system. A checklist is included for use when choosing equipment. The most common brands of exhaust arm on the Swedish market are outlined and described.
Hellmans Förlag, Box 316, 641 23 Katrineholm, Sweden, 1993, 32p. Illus.
Mickelsen R.L., Jacobs D.E., Jensen P.A., Middendorf P.J., O'Brien D.M., Fishbach T.J., Beasley A.A.
Auxiliary ventilation for the control of nitrous oxide in a dental clinic
Four auxiliary (local) ventilation systems, one system using only scavenging and three different local exhaust systems in conjunction with scavenging, were evaluated in a dental clinic. Two of the three local exhaust systems were effective in lowering the dental assistant's breathing zone samples to below the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) REL of 25 parts N2O per million parts (ppm) of air. Both systems consisted of a scavenging system and flexible duct connected to a fan. The dental hygienist's breathing zone samples were greater than the NIOSH REL for all the systems tested. Increasing the capture velocities and thus improving the control could be achieved by either increasing the air-flow rates or moving the hood closer to the patient's mouth. Because of unacceptable noise levels created by increased air-flow rates, locating the hood closer to the patient may be the most effective means to improve the exhaust systems.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1993, Vol.8, No.6, p.564-570. Illus. 23 ref.
Modeling existing ventilation systems using measured values
Equations are derived to model installed exhaust ventilation systems using measured diameters, flows, and pressures. The system of equations does not require knowledge of system components or their loss coefficients except for those components that will be replaced. The approach also allows detection of physical changes in existing systems. Measurement errors limit the accuracy of predictions. The nonquadratic relationship between flow and friction loss limits the accuracy of predictions when there are extreme changes in duct velocities. The modelling procedure is demonstrated for an example problem in which "observed" values are created for "initial" and "final" conditions from velocity pressure loss coefficients.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.293-306. Illus. 14 ref.
Edmonds M.A., Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Clark N.J.
Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry
The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. The greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated full ladle. The addition of local exhaust ventilation could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.260-266. Illus. 10 ref.
An anesthesia mask gas-scavenging system
The level of nitrous oxide (N2O) contamination in the breathing zone of anaesthesiologists was measured while they administered inhalation anaesthesia by mask to five patients. A mask gas-scavenging attachment was used for 30min and then removed while anaesthesia continued for a further 30min. The levels of N2O with and without the scavenging attachment were compared. Use of the scavenging attachment reduced N2O contamination from >150ppm to <5ppm, a level well below the 25ppm limit recommended by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The device consists of a clear plastic drape that covers the patient's face, and a suction tube connected to a vacuum line.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1138-1141. Illus. 6 ref.
Practical ventilation guide. 17 - Use of powders
Guide pratique de ventilation n°17 - Emploi des matériaux pulvérulents [in French]
This guide for ventilation practice highlights the risks associated with the dust produced by different industrial operations (size reduction, sieving/screening, transportation, production, packaging/package opening). It addresses the following issues: definition of the "dust" hazard: particle size distribution, behaviour of airborne particles, risk, dust measurement; air cleaning and ventilation (air cleaning methods, regulations and limit values, ventilation); plant and equipment used in the processing of powders. A series of technical files proposing concrete solutions to the problems encountered in certain plants is provided at the end of the ventilation guide.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.152, Note No.1933-152-93, p.391-423. Illus. 18 ref.
Linnainmaa M., Louhelainen K., Eskelinen T.
Effect of ventilation on ammonia levels in cowhouses
Report on survey of ammonia concentration in Finnish cowhouses (cowsheds). Diffusion tubes were used to measure ammonia levels and were found to be reliable and sensitive for field purposes. The correlation between ventilation rates and ammonia concentration was generally poor, indicating that other factors are also important. Nevertheless, it is recommended to improve ventilation rates in order to reduce air impurities and relative humidity. Supply air should also be warmed in winter.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.678-682. Illus. 12 ref.
Bowes S.M., Mason E.G., Corn M.
Confined space ventilation: Tracer gas analysis of mixing characteristics
Study of the mixing effectiveness of dilution ventilation of confined spaces (the hold of petrochemical vessels). The tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was used as an experiment, with an infrared analyzer capable of sampling at 90L/min used as the monitoring instrument, and smoke tubes and anemometry used to assess air circulation. It was found that air in the vessels showed mixing that was much slower than predicted by theory, due to the complicated dynamics of internal air circulation. Tracer gas studies are shown to be useful for the assessment of air mixing inside confined spaces.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.639-646. Illus. 10 ref.
Luftbefeuchtung [in German]
Umidificazione dell'aria [in Italian]
Humidification de l'air [in French]
Some enterprises require the installation of humidification equipment because constant relative humidity is necessary in the production process. However, poorly or infrequently cleaned humidifiers can cause diseases, such as "humidifier fever" or "humidifier lung". This booklet describes measures for preventing these diseases.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1993. 8p. Illus. 3 ref.
Cornu J.C., Gaillardin M.
Air flows in laboratory fume hoods - Review of the literature
L'aéraulique des sorbonnes de laboratoire - Revue bibliographique [in French]
This literature survey takes stock of current knowledge on laboratory fume hoods. The subjects covered include rules for the design, installation, use, inspection and maintenance of fume hoods, together with a description of methods for measuring their containment efficiency. It also describes possible ways of improving existing hoods. Appendix: methods to assess or measure fume hood performance.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1920-151-93, p.211-228. Illus. 42 ref.
Indoor air quality and HVAC systems
This manual provides a practical guide to the design, installation, operation and maintenance or evaluation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Contents: introduction to indoor air quality problems and the role of HVAC systems; descriptions of HVAC systems; individual components of HVAC systems; evaluation criteria for indoor air quality; evaluation of the ventilation system; quantity of outdoor air delivered to occupants; ventilation characterisation; air movement pathways and pressure relationships; evaluation tools and techniques; sources of air contaminants; glossary and acronyms.
CRC Press, 22-24 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HJ, United Kingdom, 1993. xii, 220p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 48.00.
Cornu J.C., Gaillardin M.
Local exhaust ventilation devices applied to laboratories - Terminology, description, areas of use
Les dispositifs de ventilation localisée appliqués aux laboratoires - Terminologie, description, domaines d'emploi [in French]
This guidance note describes the operating principles of local exhaust ventilation systems and the fields in which they are used. The equipment concerned can be classified into two main categories: enclosing devices (fume cupboards, microbiological safety cabinets, laminar flow hoods, chemical hoods, glove boxes with air purification) and induction devices (mobile extractor heads, suction tables, non-physical hoods and covers). The regulatory principles governing laboratory ventilation are also presented, together with general remarks on air purification. Glossary of French terms.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1906-150-93, p.13-24. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
An introduction to local exhaust ventilation
This revised guidance note (see CIS 88-952 for previous edition) describes the important features of good local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems in order to assess their effectiveness and performance. It is stressed that all means of controlling contamination should be considered before a local exhaust system is designed, so that the most effective degree of control can be achieved. Contents: the generation of airborne contamination; assessing the hazard; inlets to LEV systems; partial enclosures; hoods; ductwork; airflow distribution and balancing; air cleaners; fans and air movers; discharge to the atmosphere; commissioning and maintenance; examination and testing of LEV systems; legal requirements.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1993. iii, 21p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 4.50.
The HVAC technician
L'agent d'exploitation en génie climatique [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technicians: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: normal work areas, tools, equipment, products used, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, OSH measures - safety plans, emergency preparedness, specific first-aid measures); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch. Final remarks: this is a job involving, in general, solitary work, high-level of technical knowledge and cognitive strain; it is recommended to provide postural training and to prepare plans for emergency response.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1992, Vol.32, No.4. Insert.
Industrial ventilation: A manual of recommended practice
Chapters of this manual cover: general principles of ventilation; general industrial ventilation; local exhaust hoods; air cleaning devices; exhaust system design procedure; fans; replacement and recirculated air; construction guidelines for local exhaust systems; testing of ventilation systems; specific operations. A list of ACGIH Threshold Limit Values is included in appendix. New version of document abstracted under CIS 89-1308.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6500 Glenway Avenue, Bldg. D-7, Cincinnati, Ohio 45211, USA, 21st ed., 1992. xi, 470p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Brunk M.F., Dittes W., Pfeiffer W.
Design of industrial ventilation systems
RLT - Anlagenauslegung für Produktionshallen [in German]
A method for the design of industrial ventilation systems is presented which departs from the use of empirical air exchange rates as is recommended in many directives. Instead, it takes into account the amount of harmful substances which will be used and the heat generated by all sources including the people, illumination, and solar radiation. The process of cleaning plastic bumpers for motor cars with isopropyl alcohol is used as an example to explain the method.
HLH - Heizung Lüftung/Klima Haustechnik, Mar. 1992, Vol.43, No.3, p.118-126. Illus. 38 ref.
How do exhaust systems function properly over a long period of time?
Wie sind Abzüge auch auf Dauer sicher? [in German]
In school, university and hospital laboratories, exhaust systems must be used to eliminate harmful substances from the workplace air. According to the new version of the German Standard DIN 12924 part 1, the performance of exhaust systems must be monitored. An optical as well as acoustical alarm must be sounded in case of any malfunction. For exhaust systems built before 1991, the old version of the Standard, with no monitoring requirement, still applies. The velocity at which air is drawn off by these units must be checked at regular intervals in order to determine whether they are still functioning properly. The procedure to determine the exhaust rate is outlined.
Sicherheit im öffentlichen Dienst, Jan.-Feb. 1992, Vol.20, No.1, p.5-7. Illus.
Huré P., Guillerme I.
Ventilation and purification of workplace air: Obligations of the plant manager - Practical guide
Aérations et assainissement des ambiances de travail - Les obligations du chef d'établissement - Fiche pratique de sécurité [in French]
This practical guide describes the legally imposed obligation on French plant managers concerning the ventilation and purification of workplace air. These obligations include the preparation of an installation log-book, the respecting of certain reference values (flow rates, pressure), the following of instructions and the carrying out of periodic inspections. The possible requests of labour inspectors and of workers' representatives are also outlined.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1992, No.498, p.207-210.
A proposed model for converging flow junction pressure calculations
The pressure calculation methodology described in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' Industrial Ventilation - A manual of recommended practice (for a recent edition, see CIS 89-1308) lacks an empirical basis for calculations involving pressures near junction fittings. Changes to the methodology are proposed to incorporate recent empirical findings concerning both upstream and downstream pressures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.556-565. Illus. 19 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Harmful substances - Clean air in the workplace - Proceedings of the European Community Conference on 2 July 1992 in Dresden
Gefahrstoffe - Saubere Luft am Arbeitsplatz - Vorträge der EG-Tagung am 2. Juli 1992 in Dresden [in German]
Contents: requirements placed by the European Community on air quality monitoring at workplaces; the major air pollutants at workplaces in the new Länder (states) of Germany; what the chemical industry in the new states is doing against air pollution at the workplace; personal protection against exposure to asbestos fibres during building renovation; emissions by diesel engines used in potash mines and in public transportation in the new states; exposure to wood dusts in both the new and old states and reduction of wood dust emissions; extractive ventilation for the elimination of harmful substances from workplaces as practiced in the new states.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. 152p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 28.00.
Guide to ventilation practice - 16. Denture manufacturing workshops
Guide pratique de ventilation - 16. Ateliers de fabrication de prothèses dentaires [in French]
This guidance note highlights the different types of risk encountered in denture manufacturing workshops. Denture manufacturing techniques are described in detail, together with: the pollutants and associated pathologies; regulations and recommended limit values in France; risks associated with the different substances used (metals, resins or ceramics); workplace hazards. Risk prevention measures concern: elimination of pollutant emissions (workplace layout, choice of materials, products and techniques); exhaust and ventilation: local exhaust ventilation and inventory of the technical solutions for ventilation equipment for each workplace (preparation of plasters and coatings, preparation of ceramics, ovens, fusion and casting of alloys, removal from mould, sanding, wax modelling, finishing); exhaust ventilation network, fresh air input, exhaust and recycling of air extracted, general ventilation, inspection, maintenance and cleaning; personal protective equipment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1992, No.149, Note No.1894-149-92, p.437-454. Illus. 13 ref.
Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Silica and lead: Control of exposure in the pottery industry
Contents of this guidance note: legislation and exposure limits for silica and lead; requirements for hazard assessment under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (CIS 89-1092); recommended designs for local exhaust ventilation systems; design guidelines for local exhaust ventilation for processes for which specific designs have not been developed; significant factors in controlling exposure; examination and maintenance of control measures. Appendices include summaries of the main sources of silica dust and lead.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 32p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.
Contents of this revised guidance note (see CIS 91-1699 for previous edition): general and local exhaust systems and their components; hazards of poor or no ventilation; control (inspection, testing, training); maintenance of the hood system, duct work, collecting devices, motors and fans; legislation. A sample checklist is appended.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 250 Yonge Street, 28th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2N4, Canada, 1989. 6p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: CAD 2.35 (CAD 1.15 IAPA members).
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Principles of ventilation engineering calculations for drying chambers and continuous driers
Grundsätze für die lüftungstechnische Berechnung von Kammertrocknern und Durchlauftrocknern [in German]
Contents: scope, definitions; design calculations for drying chambers and continuous driers (with abbreviations); examples. A list of relevant directives and safety rules is appended.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Apr. 1992. 23p. Illus. Price: DEM 3.40.
Grenier M.G., Hardcastle S.G., Kunchur G., Butler K.
The use of tracer gases to determine dust dispersion patterns and ventilation parameters in a mineral processing plant
An assessment of the effectiveness of tracer gases as a reliable supplement to conventional air monitoring and ventilation measurements was conducted in a fluorspar milling plant. A tracer gas was used as a surrogate substance to analyse the direction and rate of spread of contaminants from various potential dust production points in the plant. Time-weighted average dust concentrations varied between 0.18 and 0.57mg/m3 for total dust and 0.04 and 0.20mg/m3 for quartz respirable dust, depending on the location. Correlation of these values with steady-state tracer gas concentrations yielded linear relationships with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.87, respectively, for total and quartz dust. Results indicate, therefore, that tracer gases may help model the spread of airborne respirable dust from point sources. These tracer gas releases also allowed the simultaneous quantitative determination of air residence times and contaminant clearance times from the building.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.387-394. Illus. 10 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Measures to reduce explosion and fire hazards in mine workings with secondary ventilation and to improve the protection of workers in case of explosion or of fire in coal mines [CEC]
Mesures visant à réduire les risques d'explosion et d'incendie dans les ouvrages miniers en aérage secondaire et à améliorer la protection du personnel en cas d'explosion et d'incendie dans les mines de charbon [CCE] [in French]
Contents of this report on a symposium held at Luxembourg on 6 and 7 Dec. 1990 include: 1. Session A. On-going ventilation; improving the monitoring of secondary mine ventilation; electricity; reducing explosion hazards; fire safety in mine workings with secondary ventilation; human factors. 2. Session B. triggered barriers; portable respirators; secondary ventilation system. 3. Session C. firedamp monitoring instruments; alarms; ventilation and air conditioning; fire at the King's Cross metro station in London. 4. Session D. The Channel tunnel (construction - general observations; ventilation of lung tunnels during excavation); conclusions and summaries. Annexes. List and addresses of session chairpersons and speakers.
Directorate General Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Jean Monnet Building, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Complete report: doc. No.5147/89, 315p. Illus. Summary report: doc. No.5148/1/89.
Practical ventilation guide - 15. Automobile radiator repairs
Guide pratique de ventilation - 15. Réparation des radiateurs automobiles [in French]
This guide is intended mainly for small- and medium-size enterprises where welded radiators are repaired. Contents include: automobile radiator repair (description and risks); exposure limit values under the French legislation; atmospheric lead concentrations and biological parameters; general ventilation techniques; technical solutions; hygiene; two practical examples.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1876-147-92, p.127-138. Illus. 11 ref.
Harie M., Ashida T., Mori Y., Ohmori K.
Local ventilation systems in welding workshops - Improvements of the workplace environment and problems
Yōsetsu sagyōba ni dōnyū sareta kyokusho haiki sōchi - kaizen no kōka to mondaiten ni tsuite [in Japanese]
The working environment in 4 welding workshops of sash window manufacturers was measured 10 times over a period of 5yrs, during which time the effects of introducing various types of ventilation systems and their performance in removing welding fumes from the workplace environment were analysed. The workplace environment was evaluated by area and personal monitoring for airborne particles, which were analysed in terms of mass concentration and free silica content (determined by X-ray diffraction). The effects of the ventilation systems were also monitored with a continuous direct reading dust meter. Enclosure hoods on robot welders and canopy hoods with curtains installed above welding tables improved the workplace significantly. Small portable exterior hoods attached to welding torches were more effective than expected, but were not favoured by the workers due to the increase in torch weight.
Journal of Working Environment, 1 Jan. 1992, Vol.13, No.1, p.56-62. Illus. 10 ref.
Climate and air quality in the workplace
Klima og luftkvalitet p@a6 arbeidsplassen [in Norwegian]
This new, retitled, edition of the directive describes the physical factors that determine indoor air climate and air quality. Main subjects covered: impact of microclimate on health; well-being and work ability; air quality; appropriate selection of construction materials; ventilation, energy-saving measures and ambient temperature. Guidelines on how to design indoor air climate in the construction process are given. A brief survey of relevant Norwegian legislation is provided. The previous edition of this directive was Climate and ventilation of indoor workplaces (CIS 90-1429).
Direktoratet for Arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 1991. 46p. Illus. 22 ref. Index.
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