Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Wood dust - Technical note: Dust capturing devices
Poussières de bois - Note technique: dispositifs de captage des poussières [in French]
Wood finishing work gives rise to fine dusts, which are among the most dangerous. Reducing dust levels in woodworking shops requires the installation of localized exhaust ventilation systems. This guidance note describes such installations, based on the example of an installation made at a specific workplace. Contents include: scope; functionality and description of the exhaust ventilation system. Dust level measurements confirm the efficiency of the system.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie (CRAM) des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue du Président Herriot, BP 3405, 44034 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Jan. 1997. 8p. Illus.
Control of exposure to perchloroethylene in commercial drycleaning (ventilation)
Perchloroethylene (PERC) (synonym: tetrachloroethylene) is the most commonly used dry-cleaning solvent. It can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure. This information sheet describes the ventilation systems used to control worker exposure and ensure thermal comfort. These include: local exhaust ventilation which captures the vapour at or near its source of release (reduces the vapour reaching the breathing zone and minimizes vapour dilution); general ventilation which dilutes the background levels of PERC; emergency ventilation which should be available to control solvent vapours in case of spills or leaks (see also CIS 01-197, CIS 01-198 and CIS 01-199).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Oct. 1997. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.
Möritz M., Hake W., Rüden H.
Retention capacity of air filters for microorganisms in ventilation systems
Rückhaltvermögen von Luftfiltern gegenüber Mikroorganismen in RLT-Anlagen [in German]
Topics: bacteria; determination in air; filter testing; filtration efficiency; fungi; microorganisms; particulate filters; ventilation systems; yeast.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Mar. 1997, Vol.48, No.3, p.108-113. Illus. 10 ref.
Guide for ventilation practice No.19 - Wastewater depollution plants and purification plants
Guide pratique de la ventilation n°19 - Usines de dépollution des eaux résiduaires et ouvrages d'assainissement [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; chemical hazards; effluents; exhaust ventilation; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; health engineering; pathogenic bacteria; sewage treatment; sludge; ventilation design; ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th quarter 1997, No.169, p.635-655. Illus. 28 ref.
Safe workstations for handling cytotoxic drugs
Les postes de sécurité pour la manipulation des médicaments cytotoxiques [in French]
Topics: air filtration; antineoplastic drugs; design of equipment; exhaust hoods; exhaust ventilation; laboratory equipment; laboratory work; local exhaust.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1997, No.71, p.219-222. Illus. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Ventilation of kitchens in catering establishments
Topics: cooking; data sheet; exhaust ventilation; hotel industry; United Kingdom; ventilation design.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. 4p.
Earnest G.S., Mickelsen R.L., McCammon J.B., O'Brien D.M.
Carbon monoxide poisonings from small, gasoline-powered, internal combustion engines: Just what is a "well-ventilated area"?
Topics: carbon monoxide; confined spaces; determination in air; gasoline engine powered tools; limitation of exposure; mathematical models; ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1997, Vol.58, No.11, p.787-791. Illus. 13 ref.
Engineering control guidelines for hot mix asphalt pavers. Part 1 - New highway-class pavers
These guidelines concern the use of engineering controls to prevent exposure to asphalt fumes during paving operations. It is recommended that paver manufacturers should develop and install exhaust ventilation systems on all new self-propelled hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavers over a specified size. Information on system operation and maintenance should also be supplied by the manufacturers. A laboratory/factory test procedure for HMA pavers is described.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1997. v, 21 p. Illus.
Collineau S., et al.
EOL-3D: Experimental validation in isothermal conditions
Validation expérimentale du logiciel de ventilation prévisionnelle EOL-3D en conditions isothermes [in French]
Software EOL-3D was developed by INRS in France as a tool for the prediction of ventilatory flow, and as such is a useful aid for the better design of ventilation systems. This article gathers several validation tests based on velocity and concentration measurements. EOL-3D predicts successfully the overall flow structure in function of velocity measurements. However, significant discrepancies arise when pollutant concentrations are taken into account. A large part of these uncertainties may be due to an imperfect understanding of the introduction of the pollutant into the workplace: that is, for example, the necessary boundary conditions and the simplification of the problem to be simulated. (See CIS 97-155).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1997, No.166, Note No.2040-166-97, p.43-57. Illus. 8 ref.
Vieira Sobrinho F.
Ministério do Trabalho
Local exhaust ventilation in electroplating
Ventilação local exaustora em galvanoplastia [in Portuguese]
Electroplating operations require good local exhaust ventilation in order to avoid health problems among workers. This manual covers: basic principles of industrial hygiene, electrolytic processes and industrial ventilation; components of a local exhaust ventilation system; dimensioning of aspiration equipment and ducts; general ventilation (dilution of pollutants, air circulation); assessment of the efficiency of a captor; exhaust in cleaning and polishing operations.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1996. ix, 48p. Illus. 2 ref.
Ventilation and purification of workplace air
Aération et assainissement des ambiances de travail [in French]
Topics: air purification; comment on directive; comment on law; France; glossary; harmful substances; legislation; limitation of exposure; mechanical ventilation; natural ventilation; responsibilities of employers; ventilation; workplaces.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1996. 48p. Illus. 39 ref.
Binding N., Witting C., Witting U.
Example of a stepwise reduction of occupational formaldehyde exposure in pathology
Beispiel für eine schrittweise Verminderung der arbeitsplatzbedingten Formaldehydbelastung in der Pathologie [in German]
Occupational formaldehyde exposure in pathological laboratory work depends on the efficiency of the ventilation system. A stepwise improvement of the ventilation system at a pathologist's workplace is described. Personal air sampling at a workplace originally equipped with a hood ventilation system resulted in values of up to 4mL/m3 in the pathologist's breathing zone. Lowering the ventilation inlet to the working level by connecting the hood to a suction unit resulted in an effective reduction of formaldehyde exposure to values of about 0.5mL/m3. Some uncomfortable side effects could only be overcome by installing ventilated worktables.
Der Pathologe, 1996, Vol.17, p.380-384. Illus. 10 ref.
Workplace organization in laboratories where harmful substances are handled or with clean rooms
Arbeitsplatz-Gestaltung und -Manipulation in verschiedenen Bereichen des Schadstoff- und Reinraumes chemischer Labors [in German]
The design and ventilation of fume cupboards and fume hoods is discussed and illustrated. Recommendations are given for improvements in the protection of laboratory personnel against harmful substances. In addition, the design and ventilation of laboratories with clean rooms is covered.
Gesundheits-Ingenieur, Feb. 1996, Vol.117, No.1, p.23-28. Illus. 4 ref.
The fume hood in the laboratory - Can it still fulfill its tasks today and tomorrow?
Der Laborabzug - Kann er seiner Aufgabe heute und morgen noch gerecht werden? [in German]
The German standard DIN 12924 Part 1 contains an illustration of a fume hood for chemical laboratories that does not provide the best possible protection of laboratory personnel against the exposure to harmful substances. An improved design is proposed.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Mar. 1996, Vol.27, No.3, p.22-23.
Jankovic J.T., Ihle R., Vick D.O.
Occupant generated carbon dioxide as a measure of dilution ventilation efficiency
Dilution chamber tests were carried out to test a model for estimating the rate of decay of occupant generated carbon dioxide after workers have left a work area. The slope of the decay curve was used to calculate the number of effective air changes per unit time and hence the effective ventilation rate. Tests in 34 locations showed that the number of air changes, as measured by carbon dioxide decay, was positively correlated with subjective assessment of ventilation effectiveness.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1996, Vol.57, No.8, p.756-759. Illus. 8 ref.
Régnier R., Dessagne J.M., Bonthoux F., Aubertin G.
Surface treatment tanks - Exhaust performance of slots
Cuves de traitement de surface - Performance de captage de fentes d'aspiration [in French]
An experimental study was carried out to determine the exhaust performances of lateral exhaust slots on surface treatment tanks. Full-scale models of different width/length ratios were tested in a wind tunnel simulating controlled air draught intensity and direction in an exhaust flowrate range covering the values generally recommended. The implementation of the recommendations of the INRS Practical Ventilation Guide leads in the case of a unilateral slot to efficiencies ranging from almost 100% to 60%, depending on the global risk level under consideration. These results apply with antagonistic air draught of 0.5m/s. To maintain the performances, the exhaust rate must be modulated in proportion with air draught intensity. The direction of air draught is also very important. The lesser sensitivity of the bilateral slot solution to air draughts was clearly demonstrated, and this is the only suitable solution for the largest tanks when the efficiency target is over 95%.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2030-165-96, p.425-441. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/cuves_traitement_surface_performance_captage.html [in French]
Fontaine J.R., Braconnier R., Rapp R., Aubertin G.
EOL: A predictive ventilation software applicable to workplace air purification
EOL: un logiciel de ventilation prévisionnelle applicable à l'assainissement de l'air des locaux de travail [in French]
Software for predicting ventilation behaviour (EOL), developed in France by the INRS, is presented. The physical and mathematical bases of the programme are summarized followed by explanations of its use, with particular emphasis on the input of boundary conditions. Finally, some simple examples of numerical simulations using EOL are presented: painting booths, premises with below-the-floor heating, air flow produced by a complex diffuser, laboratory fume hoods, office ventilation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2029-165-96, p.409-424. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/eol_logiciel_ventilation_previsionnelle_applicable.html [in French]
Acoustics - Method for the measurement of airborne noise emitted by small air-moving devices
Acoustique - Méthode de mesurage du bruit aérien émis par les petits équipements de ventilation [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for measuring airborne noise emitted by small air-moving devices such as those cooling electronic, electrical and mechanical equipment. It describes a method and the test apparatus for determining and reporting the airborne noise emitted by small air-moving devices (AMD) as a function of the airflow and the fan static pressure developed by the air-moving device on the test apparatus. Contents: scope; normative references; definitions (sound power level, air-moving device, fan, test plenum, air-moving device performance curve, point of operation, overall static efficiency of air-moving device, standard air density, frequency range of interest); measurement uncertainty; design and performance requirements for test plenum; installation; operation of air-moving device; measurement procedure; information to be recorded; information to be reported. Illustrations; informative annexes (data formats for presentation, test report).
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iii, 23p. 5 ref. Illus.
Kacergis J.B., Jones R.B., Reeb C.K., Turner W.A., Ohman J.L., Ardman M.R., Paigen B.
Air quality in an animal facility: Particulates, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds
This study measured concentrations of ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particles and mouse allergen in an animal facility. Ammonia concentrations averaged less than 1ppm; volatile organic compounds were in the 5-15µg/m3 range (only the terpenes a-pinene and a-terpinol were consistently present in concentrations greater than in outdoor air). The primary air contaminant of known pathological significance was the mouse allergen Mus mI. A particle counter was used effectively in this animal facility to identify specific activities that generate high levels of both particles and allergens. To reduce exposure to allergen during cage changing, which is the major activity for an animal caretaker, a capture-type ventilated changing table was designed and tested. Exposure to allergen was thus reduced in the workers' breathing zone from 4.9±1.1 to 2.1±0.3ng Mus mI/m3, a level comparable to background levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.634-640. Illus. 24 ref.
Flynn M.R., Lackey B.D., Muthedath P.
Experimental and numerical studies on the impact of work practices used to control exposures occurring in booth-type hoods
Wind-tunnel experiments using a mannequin and tracer gas techniques were carried out to measure differences in breathing zone concentrations for two configurations representing two work practices for the same task: worker in front of the airflow, and worker sideways to the airflow in a booth-type hood. Smoke-wire, flow-visualization techniques were used to correlate the exposures with airflow patterns. Numerical predictions using computational fluid dynamics were in reasonable agreement with measured values and correctly identified the preferred worker position. The technique may be used to estimate the impact of individual work practices on worker exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.469-475. Illus. 14 ref.
Lefèvre A., Peltier A., Dessagne J.M., Muller J.P., Boulet A., Elcabache J.M., Houot F.
Hot-dip galvanization - Assessment of exhaust devices on molten zinc tanks
Galvanisation à chaud - Evaluation de dispositifs de captage sur des creusets de zinc fondu [in French]
Measurements of pollutant concentrations taken around hot-dip galvanizing tanks in four firms did not reveal any risks to the operators, in spite of the mediocre performance of exhaust devices, thereby confirming the results of studies conducted previously in this type of workshop. The ventilation systems tested failed to extract the pollutants fully, especially during the most critical production phases. They did, however, significantly improve the quality of the work environment, in particular by evacuating the heat given off by the bath. The trace helium technique for measuring capture efficiency proved to be a reliable means of assessing the performances of the different devices installed at the zinc tanks. Booth or hood systems were shown to be the best suited to this process, since they allow for the natural movement of the pollutants and are not very sensitive to disturbances caused by draughts.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2025-164-96, p.301-320. Illus. 12 ref.
Muller J.P., Lamoureux P.
Improvement of local exhaust devices. Four traditional woodworking machines
Amélioration des dispositifs d'aspiration localisée. Etude sur quatre machines à bois traditionnelles [in French]
The purpose of this article is to show that there are reliable and usable methods for assessing the performance of exhaust devices attached to certain traditional single-function woodworking machines. These methods may be of use to designers insofar as they help to compare and classify different exhaust methods. The performance of different exhaust systems was tested on four machines: 1) three devices for band saws; 2) six narrow hoods and four wide hoods for panel saws; 3) three hoods for spindle moulders used for straight work; 4) four hoods of three different types for vertical spindle moulders used for curved work.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.163, Note No.2019-163-96, p.149-165. Illus. 13 ref.
Heinonen K., Kulmala I., Säämänen A.
Local ventilation for powder handling - Combination of local supply and exhaust air
The performance of a modified local ventilation unit was evaluated during the simulated manual weighing of flour additive powder in a test room. Five different configurations were investigated and modelled numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Breathing zone dust concentration was reduced from 42mg/m3 without local ventilation to below 1mg/m3 with local exhaust only, and to below 0.5mg/m3 with the addition of local supply air. The lowest exposure (0.08mg/m3) was achieved by locating two exhaust openings on either side of the contaminant source combined with local supply air. Numerical simulation provided useful information about airflow fields in stationary conditions but was unable to account for workers' body movements.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.356-364. Illus. 28 ref.
Crouch K.G., Johnston O.E.
Nitrous oxide control in the dental operatory: Auxiliary exhaust and mask leakage, design, and scavenging flow rate as factors
Local exhaust systems installed in a dental surgery failed to control patient mouth emissions of nitrous oxide. Laboratory testing on a head form, in conjunction with the surgery observations, established that mask leakage due to poor fit was the primary cause of these emissions. An improved mask fit and the addition of a slotted skirt around the outer mask shell individually resulted in greatly reduced leakage rates in the laboratory tests. Also, exhaust systems placed on the chin, on the chest or in the mouth proved effective in capturing mouth emissions simulated by a breathing machine and head form.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.272-278. Illus. 19 ref.
Local exhaust ventilation
Ventilación por extracción localizada [in Spanish]
Many industrial processes pollute the working environment, producing dust, fog, fumes and vapours that may seriously affect the health of workers. In order to eliminate these harmful products from the working area, it is necessary to install local exhaust systems which collect the pollutant at the source, thus preventing its dispersion. Advice and guidelines are given on the design and installation of these complex systems.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (12min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###
Auger M., Farant J.P.
Method for the measurement of ventilation efficiency in office buildings
Méthode pour la mesure de l'efficacité de ventilation dans les édifices à bureaux [in French]
Ventilation efficiency is a measure of the ability of a ventilation system to circulate air and to dilute pollutants. The ASHRAE standard recommends 10L/s/person as an acceptable value for fresh air to occupants. This rate however must be increased if the air does not circulate adequately. A new method has been developed in a test chamber to measure efficiency by simulating the CO2 generated by the occupants. The method consists of a 0.3L/minute injection of CO2 towards a CO2 monitor. This corresponds to the average production rate of CO2 from a sedentary human being. The efficiency is calculated by taking the difference between the maximum concentration obtained during the injection and the concentration before the injection. Results are presented for room/supply temperature difference of 6°C and 9°C and for air velocities of 0.07m/s and 0.45m/s. In all cases, the ventilation rate was fixed at 19L/s. Efficiencies varied by a factor of 1.5 for supply temperature changes and by a factor of 6 for air velocities. Since the method is different from existing methods, results are compared on a relative basis. This method responds to the mixing conditions in the room but additional research needs to be done by varying air flow rates. It is easy to use and can be easily applied in field conditions.
Travail et santé, June 1996, Vol.12, No.2, p.S-9 to S-12. Illus. 9 ref.
Madsen U., Fontaine J.R., Nielsen P.V., Aubertin G., Breum N.O.
A numerical study of dispersion and local exhaust capture of aerosols generated from a variety of sources and airflow conditions
A numerical model was developed to describe the effect of aerosol source and airflow conditions on the dispersion and local exhaust capture of aerosol contaminants. Parameters discussed include particle diameter, density and initial velocity, the influence of obstacles and airflow patterns, particle relaxation time, aerodynamic diameter, and stopping distance. It was concluded that local exhaust capture of passively emitted particles can be described by particle relaxation time and the vertical air velocity at the emission point. The influence of particle initial velocity is limited compared to imposed airflow conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.134-141. Illus. 21 ref.
Estill C.F., Spencer A.B.
Case study: Control of methylene chloride exposures during furniture stripping
High exposures to dichloromethane (methylene chloride) (600 to 1150ppm) at a furniture stripping operation prompted the design and installation of a modified ventilation system. Three configurations within the modified system were evaluated. Personal exposures to methylene chloride were reduced to 34ppm for a slot hood configuration, 30ppm for a downdraft hood, and 28ppm for a combination slot and downdraft hood. Although exposures are above the proposed OSHA permissible exposure level of 25ppm, results show a substantial improvement over the original ventilation system.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.43-49. Illus. 18 ref.
Controlling the occupational exposure of hand lay-up workers to styrene by the choice of ventilation, polyester and work practices
Occupational exposure to styrene is a health risk to workers during the lamination of glass fibre-reinforced products, because approx. 10% of the styrene escapes during the hardening process. The occupational exposure level (OEL) for styrene in Sweden today is 20ppm (10ppm for new and renovated plants). This study looked at three ventilation options designed to reduce the risk: supply-air and air-exhaust ventilation, "air shower" ventilation, and horizontal displacement ventilation, adapted to the size and shape of the products. All three of these ventilation options was successful in reducing exposure to styrene during the hand lamination of products to below 10ppm. This success, however, depended on employees being familiar with the system. An alternative method of exposure reduction was also studied: that of using low styrene emission (LSE), as opposed to standard (STD), polyester. Laboratory tests with LSE polyester showed significant reductions (18ppm as opposed to 29ppm with STD) in mean exposure during lamination on a mould, but no reduction at all during lamination work on a table. In actual workplace tests, no significant reductions in exposure could be found at all when LSE polyester was used. Finally, the article describes a method for reducing styrene exposure based on the identification of work steps resulting in high exposures and on the modelling of the fluid dynamics of the work room.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 40p. Illus. 53 ref.
Unventilated areas in underground mines
Zones non aérées dans les mines souterraines [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; mine ventilation; oxygen deficiency; prevention of access; underground mining.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Jan. 1995. 1p. 1 ref.
Ventilation inspection and records for health care and residential facilities
Inspection et documents relatifs à la ventilation dans les établissements de santé et dans les établissements résidentiels [in French]
Topics: air conditioning; Canada; check lists; data sheet; hospitals; inspection records; inspection; local exhaust; long-term care facilities; mechanical ventilation.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Mar. 1995. 4p.
Turner W.A., Bearg D.W., Brennan T.
Principles of workplace ventilation are reviewed. Topics covered: guidelines on the delivery of adequate quantities of ventilation air; types of air delivery systems for residential and commercial buildings; techniques for the evaluation of outdoor air supply, carbon dioxide levels and the adequacy of the heating, ventilation, air conditioning operation schedule compared to the occupancy period in the building; demand-controlled ventilation; quality of outdoor air delivered to building occupants.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.41-57. Illus. 6 ref.
Heras Cobo C., Guardino Solá X.
General ventilation in the laboratory
La ventilación general en el laboratorio [in Spanish]
This information note on general ventilation in laboratories discusses thermal and humidity conditions and air renewal in laboratories, paying special attention to the design of equipment. Ventilation systems are also discussed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 5p. 4 ref.
Intaglio printing: Reducing the toluene exposure
Tiefdruck: Toluolbelastung verringern durch neue Konzeptionen [in German]
The exposure limit to toluene established in 1994 in Germany is of 50mL/m3. The measures taken in the printing industry to reduce the exposure to toluene, in particular in intaglio printing shops to comply with the limit are described. These measures include: enclosure of the machines during operation, use of exhaust ventilation during standstill of the machine and automation of cleaning operations of machine parts.
Tag für Tag, Mar.-Apr. 1995, No.2, p.18-21. Illus.
Clean-up of workplace air
Assainissement des atmosphères des locaux de travail [in French]
Summary of 18 regulatory texts (articles of the Labour Code, orders, decrees) intended to ensure that the air of premises where work is carried out be renewed so as to remain pure enough to maintain the health of the workers and to prevent undue elevations of temperature, disagreeable odours and condensation. The regulations distinguish premises with non-specific pollution from those where certain specific harmful substances or organisms may be emitted. Some texts cover the contractors responsible for construction and maintenance of premises rather than their operators.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.64, p.277-293. Illus. 17 ref.
Le Bot J. Y.
Monitoring ventilation. Applications for painting booths
Contrôle de la ventilation. Applications aux cabines de peinture [in French]
This article discusses existing methods of monitoring (measurement of airspeed, visual observation of the state of the filters, measurement of static and differential pressures) and presents the major types of differential manometer (liquid column, diaphragm), their principles of operation and their regulation as a function of calculated changes in load. It also reviews general issues (the use of painting booths, malfunctions, regulations, standards, general principles, definition of insufficient ventilation.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.56-59. Illus.
Performance of painting booths equipped with down-draft ventilation
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.258-265. Illus. 14 ref. ###
Bémer D., Dessagne J.M., Aubertin G.
Determination of the emission rate of a gas source - Development of a helium tracer method
Traçage à l'hélium - Mise au point d'une méthode de mesure du débit d'émission d'une source gazeuse [in French]
The tracer gas method for determining the emission rate of a pollutant gas source consists of using a tracer gas along with the pollutant emitted by a constant flow source in order to establish the mass flow rate. The study demonstrates the validity of the tracer gas method for determining the emission rate of a pollutant source comprising a solvent bath placed in the open air. Limitations were noted, however, when the source was placed in very still air (air velocity above the bath <10cm/s approx.). But this situation is by no means the most common in industry, where average air velocity is generally of the order of 30cm/s or more. It is planned to extend this method to particulate pollutant sources, which are very frequent in industry (wood dusts, oil mists, welding fumes, etc.).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.161, Note No.2007-161-95, p.509-518. Illus. 11 ref.
Woods J.N., McKarns J.S.
Evaluation of capture efficiencies of large push-pull ventilation systems with both visual and tracer techniques
The contaminant capture efficiencies of push-pull ventilation systems fitted to twenty large open-surface metal finishing tanks were tested using videotaped smoke testing and novel tracer gas methods. Real-time infrared detection of sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas permitted convenient adjustment of air flows for optimum capture efficiency. The careful control of cross-drafts was the most significant factor for contaminant capture at tank liquid surfaces. The ventilation systems were therefore modified to reduce air flow rates and redirect air flows. These modifications also reduced noise levels and system energy requirements.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.12, p.1208-1214. Illus. 4 ref.
Numerical simulation of unflanged rectangular exhaust openings
The accuracy of computer simulations of turbulent airflows into exhaust hood openings is examined. Airflow fields generated by rectangular exhaust openings with aspect ratios 1:1, 4:3, 2:1, and 3:1 were calculated using the FLUENT computer code and a standard turbulence model. The effect of free-stream boundaries on the simulations was studied. The agreement between numerical simulations and experimental measurements was good for openings with aspect ratios 1:1 and 4:3 and satisfactory for the others under certain conditions. The model can be used to predict the flow into exhaust openings with reasonable accuracy if the modelling parameters are chosen correctly.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1099-1106. Illus. 22 ref.
Batterman S.A., Luoma M.
Characterization of emission sources in buildings and HVAC systems: Quantification and uncertainty
The use of in situ mass balance techniques to characterize emission sources in buildings and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is described. The techniques use flow and concentration measurements taken in the building or HVAC system from which contaminant fluxes and emissions are computed. Uncertainties in results caused by measurement errors and variability in observed concentrations and flows are discussed, and the accuracy of emission estimates derived in this way is evaluated. Results show the required measurement accuracies for various source and building conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1083-1089. Illus. 19 ref.
Practical ventilation guide. 18. Laboratory fume hoods
Guide pratique de ventilation n°18 - Sorbonnes de laboratoire [in French]
Contents: definitions and descriptions of fume hoods and systems for ensuring both energy efficiency and constant face velocity; regulations; safety specifications; rules governing procurement (site analysis, information to be exchanged, installation, acceptance), operation and maintenance; upgrading of existing fume hood installations. Details of French regulations on fume hoods and test methods are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.160, Note No.1994-160-95, p.321-339. Illus. 13 ref.
Sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas evaluations on hood exhaust reductions
Reductions in exhaust hood fan speed, and corresponding reductions in exhaust volume, as a means of reducing facility operating costs demand evaluations of exhaust hoods to ensure adequate containment efficiencies. Sulfur hexafluoride tracer tests were conducted on various designs of exhaust hoods in order to evaluate their performance in an exhaust-reduction mode. Results confirmed accepted hood design standards and showed that exhaust reductions can be safe but are highly dependent on design, manufacturer, and the operating environment. Administrative controls are required for any hood exhaust reduction programme, along with education on the proper use of the hood.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.44-49. Illus. 6 ref.
Expressions and equations for different time distributions for air in ventilated rooms
This report provides a compilation of mathematical formulae used to describe the transport of air and contaminants inside rooms. Includes formulae for residence time distributions, measurements of mean values and ventilation efficiency measures.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 38p. Illus. 46 ref.
Efficiency of local exhausts - A review
This report provides a review of the literature on efficiency measures for local exhausts. It also presents a table of the various measures with definitions, explanations and comments.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 12p. 42 ref.
Rosell Farrás M.G., Guardino Solá X., Berenguer Subils M.J.
Ventilation assessment using tracer gases
El control de la ventilación mediante gases trazadores [in Spanish]
Topics: airflow measurement; data sheet; Spain; tracer gases; ventilation design; ventilation systems; ventilation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 6p. Illus. 8 ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
New criteria for future indoor ventilation standards
Nuevos criterios para futuros estándares de ventilación de interiores [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on standard; data sheet; determination in air; microclimate; Spain; ventilation design; ventilation systems; ventilation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 7p. Illus. 9 ref.
Numerical simulation of a local ventilation unit
The applicability of numerical simulation in design of local ventilation was studied by calculating air flow and concentration fields for a local ventilation unit. The calculations were verified by air velocity and tracer gas measurements conducted under controlled conditions. The results of numerical modelling were in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, provided that the boundary conditions used in the calculations were reliable.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.38, No.4, p.337-349. Illus. 16 ref.
Huff R.D., Horwitz P., Klash S.J.
Personnel protection during aerosol ventilation studies using radioactive technetium (TC99m)
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1144-1148. Illus. 14 ref. ###
Heeg F.J., Deurer W., Feld K.H., Kleine G., Lüttke-Nymphius M., Räder K., Rodzinski H.
Improvement of the working conditions and health protection of stonecutters
Verbesserung der Arbeitsbedingungen sowie des Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutzes für Steinmetzbetriebe [in German]
Exposure to quartz dust and noise, lighting conditions and work postures were determined in 10 stone dressing plants in Germany. A questionnaire survey of the stonecutters was conducted in order to determine the subjectively perceived conditions of work. An enclosure for drawing off the quartz dust and an adjustable table to improve work posture are described. Work organization was changed. The layout of an optimized stone dressing plant is illustrated.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.205-216. Illus. 10 ref.
Methner M.M., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications. Part I: Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training; Part II: Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage
Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in commercial greenhouses with the ventilation system either on or off. Both video-imaging analysis and patch sampling indicated that when spray painting occurred with ventilation on rather than off, dermal exposure was reduced for experienced applicators, but increased for inexperienced applicators. No difference was observed between the two groups with ventilation off. Protective clothing performance was evaluated with particular reference to the hazard of contact with wet or treated foliage. Breakthrough times for four commercially available garments are reported. It was concluded that none of the garments can be considered chemical resistant under the use conditions observed. Contact with treated foliage represents a special hazard during greenhouse applications, and many chemical protective clothing products in current use are inadequate for worker protection. These products should be redesigned and field-tested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.560-574. Illus. 49 ref.
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