Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Guidance for protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biological or radiological attacks
This document provides guidance on preventive measures to be adopted by building owners and managers to protect air environments from a terrorist release of chemical, biological or radiological contaminants. These recommendations focus on short-term actions and are to be considered only as a first step of a process to develop more comprehensive guidance. Contents: scope; background; importance of understanding current building systems; specific recommendations (things not to be done; physical security; ventilation and filtration; maintenance; administration and training); decisions and measures.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, May 2002. vii, 28p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/bldvent/pdfs/2002-139.pdf [in English]
Vieira Sobrinho F.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Local exhaust ventilation in electroplating
Ventilação local exaustora em galvanoplastia [in Portuguese]
Electroplating operations require good local exhaust ventilation in order to avoid health problems among workers. This manual, which replaces the edition of 1995 (see CIS 01-731), covers the following topics: basic principles of industrial hygiene, electrolytic processes and industrial ventilation; toxicity of products used in eletroplating; components of a local exhaust ventilation system; dimensioning of aspiration equipment and ducts; general ventilation (dilution of pollutants, air circulation); assessment of the efficiency of a captor; exhaust in cleaning and polishing operations.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 2002. 85p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: BRL 7.00.
Health and Safety Executive
LEV: Dust capture at fixed belt sanding machines
This information sheet aimed at designers, installers and users of woodworking machines provides guidance on the design of local exhaust ventilation systems (LEV) fitted to various types of fixed belt sanding machines (large horizontal belt (pad) sanders, small horizontal belt sanders (linishers) and vertical belt sanders).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis25.htm [in English]
Moschandreas D.J., Chu P.
Occupant perception of indoor air and comfort in four hospitality environments
This article reports on a survey of customer and staff perceptions of indoor air quality at two restaurants, a billiard hall and a casino. The survey was conducted at each environment for eight days: two weekend days on two consecutive weekends and four weekdays. Occupant perception of environmental, comfort and physical variables was measured using a questionnaire. Significant differences of occupant environment perception were identified among customers and staff. The acceptability of the environment was found to be affected by temperature, occupant density, occupant smoking status, odour perception, health conditions, sensitivity to chemicals and enjoyment of activities.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.47-54. Illus. 15 ref.
Muller J.P., L'Huillier J.C.
Design of efficient exhaust devices for radial saws and numerically-controlled routers
Conception de dispositifs de captage performants sur scie radiale et défonceuse à commande numérique [in French]
This article describes a novel approach for the design of wood dust collection devices applied to two machines, a radial saw with manual feed and a numerically-controlled router. The original exhaust device of each machine was assessed, and the functions, machining configurations and constraints that the new devices had to satisfy were evaluated. Exhaust solutions of reasonable cost when compared to the cost of the machines were developed and tested, for both a simple and a complex machine. Several exhaust device prototypes for radial saws were built with a view of testing them on other existing models of machines. The pivoting device developed for the router will however require case-by-case assessments on its suitability for existing machines. This approach could be applied by manufacturers of new machines.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.53-69. Illus. 10 ref.
Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Lee E., Khan J.
Improving the use of mixing factors for dilution ventilation design
A safety factor is often used when specifying the dilution ventilation flow rate to compensate for uncertainties and health impact severity. The component of the safety factor accounting for imperfect mixing, Km, was studied for the purpose of developing more effective design procedures. Air flow and contaminant distribution were simulated for steady, isothermal conditions using computational fluid dynamics. A series of ten simulations explored factorial combinations of air exchange rate and inlet types. This work suggests that air quality data can be used to calculate dilution flow rate requirements. Also, dilution flow rate requirements may be reduced by enhancing room mixing with fans or altering air inlet configuration. However, mixing should not be increased if the altered room air currents could transport contaminants to an occupant's breathing zone or interfere with other control methods that depend on segregation of incoming air and contaminant.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.333-343. Illus. 19 ref.
A simple method for tracer containment testing in hospital isolation rooms
This article describes a simple method for tracer containment testing of hospital isolation rooms using a portable gas chromatograph system. Results from tracer testing of two isolation rooms in two different hospitals are presented. One isolation room had a significant negative pressure differential between room and corridor, and the other isolation room was not at negative pressure. A small quantity of sulfur hexafluoride gas was injected manually in an isolation room. Tracer concentrations were thereafter measured in the corridor adjacent to the room at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after the injection, yielding a quantitative measure of leakage of the tracer from the isolation room. Finally, measuring the tracer concentration in the isolation room 30 minutes after injection yielded an indication of how effectively the ventilation system removed a contaminant released at the position of the bed. The results show that the method is well-suited for studying containment in hospital isolation rooms.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.486-490. Illus. 19 ref.
Croteau G.A., Guffey S.E., Flanagan M.E., Seixas N.S.
The effect of local exhaust ventilation controls on dust exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities
This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities using various tools. Three ventilation rates were tested for each tool. With the exception of the hand-held saw, the use of LEV resulted in a significant reduction in respirable dust exposure. Although exposure reduction was significant, personal respirable quartz exposures remained very high: 1.4-2.8 times the permissible exposure limit (PEL) at the low ventilation rate and 0.9-1.7 times the PEL at the high ventilation rate. Exposure levels found under actual field conditions would likely be lower due to the intermittent nature of most job tasks. Despite incomplete control, LEV reduces the risk of workers developing disease, allows workers to use a lower level of respiratory protection, protects workers during short duration work episodes, reduces exposure to nearby workers, and reduces clean-up associated dust exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.458-467. Illus. 25 ref.
Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Khan J., Lee E.
Performance of deterministic workplace exposure assessment models for various containment source, air inlet, and exhaust locations
Contaminant concentration estimates from simple models were compared with concentration fields obtained by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for various room and source configurations under steady-state conditions. For a high wall jet inlet, simulations were performed for nine room air exhaust locations and eight source locations. For a ceiling diffuser inlet the impact of two exhaust locations and eight source locations were investigated. Parameters of the one- and two-zone completely mixed models (CM-1 and CM-2) and the uniform turbulent diffusivity model (UD) were determined from CFD simulation results. The CM-1 model had generally the best performance for applications such as occupational epidemiology for the conditions and configurations studied. However, CM-1 tended to underestimate the near field concentration; thus, CM-2 was judged to be better in the near field when underestimation is undesirable, such as when determining compliance with occupational exposure limits. The UD model performed poorly on average in both near and far fields.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.402-412. Illus. 25 ref.
Hygiene of ventilation systems - Hygiene requirements applicable to ventilation systems for offices and conference rooms
Hygiene in raumlufttechnischen Anlagen - Anforderungen an RLT-Anlagen für Büro- und Verwaltungsräume [in German]
This document describes the hygiene requirements that must be met by ventilations systems for offices, conference rooms and other types of meeting rooms and provides information on the techniques that are currently available for complying with the standard VDI 6022-1. Contents: importance of standards, specifications and directives; requirements with respect to hygiene during the planning, erection, use and maintenance of ventilation systems; requirements applicable to various components and functionalities (regulation strategies, components, air intakes, central equipment housing, filters, air humidifiers, heat exchangers, ventilators, heat recovery, humidity absorbers, cooling ceilings); variables that need to be periodically checked (temperature, pressure, humidity, air drafts, airflow, germ counts); health hazards (sick building syndrome, biological and chemical hazards); supply of personal protective equipment in the event where technical measures cannot by themselves ensure the safety of workers.
Expert verlag GmbH, Wankelstr. 13, 71272 Renningen, Germany, 2001. 107p. Illus. 41 ref. Index. Price: EUR 19.80.
Lefèvre A., Lamoureux P., Muller J.P.
Device for collecting dust from woodworking band saws - YOTA - Technical report
Dispositif d'aspiration pour scie à ruban de menuiserie - YOTA - Dossier technique [in French]
Woodworking generates dust which is dispersed in the workplace air and which may be inhaled by the workers. Following a brief description of dust local exhaust systems that generally equip band saws in particular, this technical report presents a dust exhaust system developed by the INRS, characterized by an enclosure which directs the dust towards an aspiration duct, together with the results of workplace airborne dust measurements with band saws equipped with various exhaust systems, including that developed by the INRS. It also includes all technical details and drawings needed to install such a system.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Jan. 2001. 19p. Illus.
Pollution control on work premises
Ograniczanie emisji zanieczyszczeń w pomieszczeniach pracy [in Polish]
This publication describes the various types of ventilation and dust-removal systems. It is aimed at helping to select means of controlling internal air pollution in the work environment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 71p. Illus. 30 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Catalogue of technical measures against the pollution of workplace air: Ventilation technology - Documentation on air capture installations, air purifying equipment and air inlets
Katalog technischer Maßnahmen zur Luftreinhaltung am Arbeitsplatz: Lufttechnische Maßnahmen - Dokumentation von Erfassungseinrichtungen, RLT-Anlagen und Luftdurchlässen [in German]
Presented in the form of a collection of individual sheets, this document contains data on the various commercial ventilation and industrial equipment systems for the prevention of air pollution at the workplace. It consists of four parts: overview of products and elements that can be ordered and installed separately; local exhaust and ventilation systems; examples of equipment installations; examples of systems that allow the passage of air. Each sheet mentions the product name, the manufacturer, the dimensions, the hourly airflow and the product description, its applications, the location where it needs to be installed and other useful information. A buyers' guide in tabular form lists equipment suppliers and installers, together with the area of application of their products. This is the 2nd part of a catalogue, the first part of which covers the design, choice and installation of ventilation equipment.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 285p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: EUR 22.00.
Three woodworking shops adopt variable-flow exhaust ventilation
Trois menuiseries industrielles adoptent l'aspiration à débit variable [in French]
Wood dust being a known carcinogen, it is necessary to equip woodworking shops with dust collection systems. This article presents the experience of thee small woodworking shops having opted for a variable-flow exhaust ventilation system. This system constantly adjusts the flow of air required for collecting dust as a function of the number of machines being used. As a result, it is not only more efficient, but also allows energy savings. The schematic design of a variable-flow exhaust ventilation system is presented. The article also refers to relevant French and European regulations, in particular to Council Directive 1999/38/EC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work (see CIS 00-1516).
Travail et sécurité, June 2001, No.608, p.10-15. Illus.
Régnier R., Brand F., Dessagne J.M.
Open ventilated booths: Vertical or horizontal air flow? Comparative study in the stonemasonry sector
Cabines ouvertes ventilées: flux vertical ou horizontal? Etude comparative dans le secteur de la taille de la pierre [in French]
Open ventilated booths are one of the most frequently-used means of eliminating the pollutants generated in workshops. Most of these booths apply a horizontal airflow on one side, open to the workshop, and extract it on the opposite side. Vertical air flow ventilation is an alternative which could improve the capture of contaminants. This capability was assessed in two stonemasonry companies using a methodology similar to those used on the test bench. The findings show vertical air flow to be between 20 and 200 times more efficient than horizontal air flow.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.49-67. Illus. 8 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
LEV: General principles of a design system
This information sheet contains guidance aimed at designers and manufacturers of woodworking machines, as well as at designers, installers and users of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems in woodworking shops. Contents: nature of wood dust; LEV system design principles; design of fans and collection units; commissioning, inspection and maintenance of LEV systems.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.
Görner B., Karl M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Technical ventilation measures for protection against solvent vapours in the silk-screen printing industry
Lufttechnische Massnahmen zum Schutz vor Lösemitteldämpfen in Siebdruckereien [in German]
Silk-screen printing processes involve solvents which are present in printing inks, cleaning products and additives. In order to limit the exposure of workers to these harmful substances, appropriate technical measures need to be taken to improve ventilation. A study was conducted on this subject in eight printing shops, where the diffusion of solvent vapours and ventilation parameters were determined for the purpose of developing guidelines. On the basis of the results obtained as well as on the measures already implemented for preventing solvent emissions, a number of recommendations are made for applying these ventilation measures in practice.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 65p. Illus. 23 ref.
Guffey S.E., Flanagan M.E., van Belle G.
Air sampling at the chest and ear as representative of the breathing zone
Tracer gas concentrations were measured on a 60%-sized mannequin, which was holding a sulfur hexafluoride source at waist height while standing in a wind tunnel. Samplers were placed at the mannequin's mouth, in front of the ear and at three chest locations at lapel level. Simultaneous 15-min time-weighted average samples were taken with sampling pumps. Concentrations at all sampling locations when the mannequin faced to the front and side were less than a tenth of the levels measured at the nose, when the mannequin faced downstream. Different flow orientations and velocities affected the ratios of concentrations. At the back orientation, the chest sampler provided lower overestimates of measurements at higher velocities than at lower values. Results showed significant differences between concentrations at the nose and lapel. These findings should be interpreted with caution, because a dense tracer gas and an unheated not breathing mannequin were used.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.416-427. Illus. 22 ref.
Booth D.W., Guffey S.E.
An evaluation of industrial ventilation branch screening methods for obstructions in working exhaust systems
Methods in identifying obstructed branches in industrial ventilation systems are divided into two categories: pressure comparisons and pressure ratio comparisons. The first compares measured static pressures with the corresponding design static pressures or previously measured pressures. The second compares the ratios of two measured pressures. Data were collected from 6 industrial ventilation systems. Each one was tested for naturally occurring or deliberately inserted obstructions. The pressure ratio method was substantially superior for the detection of obstructions.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.401-410. Illus. 23 ref.
Practical ventilation guide - 2. Ventilation of surface treatment vats and tanks
Guide pratique de ventilation - 2. Cuves de traitement de surface [in French]
This study is intended as a guide and reference document for the design and monitoring of installations for collecting or diluting the pollutants emitted by surface treatment vats and tanks. It applies to all chemical or electrolytic processes in which the parts to be treated are immersed in liquids (excluding solvent degreasing processes, processes using salt or molten-metal baths and organic coating processes in general). Contents include: hazard evaluation; collection systems; flowrate calculations; design of the ventilation network. Appendices: classification of surface treatment processes and general design data for ventilation systems. Replaces CIS 82-400.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 6th ed., Sep. 2001. 23p. Illus. 12 ref.
Danet J.P., Dubernet F., Magniez G., Aussel H., Rolin A.
Airflow balance of asbestos sites
Le bilan aéraulique des chantiers d'amiante [in French]
Contractors qualified in the removal or confinement of friable asbestos must ensure the protection of employees and the environment, in particular by systems to clean the air and maintain a negative pressure in the working zone. The airflow technique allows firms to adopt a rigorous step-by-step approach. It ensures the control of risk by predicting equipment requirements in advance and limiting improvisation on site. Finally, measurements carried out on site allow validation of the assumptions made and feedback on experience, which is a factor of progress in the prevention of occupational risks on asbestos removal sites.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.181, p.17-40. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/le_bilan_aeraulique_des_chantiers_d_amiante.html [in French]
Duchaine C., Grimard Y., Cormier Y.
Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings
Eight pigpens were visited twice during winter and once during summer to measure the concentrations of biological and chemical contaminants. For each of the premises, the cleanliness, number of ventilators, air temperature, number of animals and building size were noted. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, microbiological counts and endotoxin levels. Significant decreases in bacterial levels, dust, ammonia and CO2 were observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mould counts were positively correlated with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter. Bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals. Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other. Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 15 ref.
Shibata N., Tanaka M., Ojima J., Iwasaki T.
Numerical simulations to determine the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions in small enclosed workspaces
To improve arc welding working conditions in a small enclosed workspace, numerical simulations were conducted to find the most appropriate welding currents, hood position and flow rates. Distributions of airflow vectors and fume concentrations were calculated for two hood opening positions: one faced a welder's breathing zone, the other a contaminant source. It was predicted that a hood opening facing a breathing zone remarkably lowered the fume concentration in the breathing zone compared with that facing a contaminant source. The reliability was confirmed in CO2 arc welding experiments in the enclosed workspace by using a welding robot. In addition, the number of blowholes in welds, examined with X-ray, decreased with the increase in the welding current and with the decrease in the exhaust flow rate. These results showed that the fume concentration near welder's breathing zone and the number of blowholes could be reduced by appropriate selection of the welding current and hood position.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.356-365. Illus. 26 ref.
Welling I., Andersson I.M., Rosen G., Räisänen J., Mielo T., Marttinen K., Niemelä R.
Contaminant dispersion in the vicinity of a worker in a uniform velocity field
The transportation of gaseous contaminants from a low and moderately-low impulse (velocity < 1m/s) source to the breathing zone was studied in a uniform air stream flow. There were three important findings: firstly, for a given low and moderate impulse contaminant source in the near field of a worker, the worker's orientation relative to the principal air flow direction was the most important factor in reducing occupational exposure, with an air velocity of about 0.3m/s; secondly, the effect of convection resulting from body heat on air flow was lower than expected; finally, arm movements influenced contaminant dispersion, and should be included when models assessing exposure are developed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 2000, Vol.44, No.3, p.219-225. Illus. 15 ref.
Guide for ventilation practice - 9.1 Booths for spray-painting of liquids
Guide pratique de ventilation - 9.1 Cabines d'application par pulvérisation de produits liquides [in French]
Guide and reference document for the design and operation of ventilation systems in booths for the spraying of liquids (paints, varnishes, etc.). Contents: areas of application; review of the main regulations, hazards involved and general safety principles; air purification in the various types of spray cabins (cabins with vertical, horizontal or other types of ventilation), drying equipment, polluted air filtration devices; conditioning of incoming air; noise reduction; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems. Replaces CIS 83-1886.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., 2000. 22p. Illus. 23 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
General ventilation in the workplace - Guidance for employers
General ventilation or dilution ventilation is a term used to define the flow of air into and out of a working area, so that possible contaminants are diluted by adding fresh air. This can be provided by natural ventilation or forced (or mechanical) ventilation. Aimed at employers, this booklet covers the principles of natural ventilation, the conditions in which general ventilation is applicable, the criteria that need to be taken into consideration when selecting the rate of air renewal as well as methods enabling the evaluation of the efficiency of the ventilation system. It also includes the regulations applicable to this area.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. iv, 16p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Fontaine J.R., Rapp R.
Controlled compensation of a ventilation system
La compensation contrôlée d'une installation de ventilation [in French]
Aimed at employers, regulators and equipment suppliers, this information sheet summarizes the main technical and legal requirements for exhaust ventilation systems with make-up air. Topics covered: French regulations; reasons why make-up air is required; design criteria to be observed for workshops with specific pollution risks; steps to be followed for selecting the appropriate type of equipment.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2000, No.593, 4p. Insert. Illus. 10 ref.
Practical ventilation guide - 12. Woodworking
Guide pratique de ventilation 12 - Deuxième transformation du bois [in French]
This document is designed to provide practical answers to all persons involved in the design, reception, operation and control of ventilation equipment used in the woodworking industry. It covers only the essential questions relating to ventilation systems and the different particles generated in wood processing workshops such as shavings, sawdust and dusts produced by certain operations. Other hazards such as vapours emitted during varnishing, and the problems of pollutant rejection into the environment, are not addressed. Appendices include relevant French regulations and a glossary. Updates and replaces CIS 92-963.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Aug. 1999. 36p. Illus. 32 ref.
Le Roy A.
Ventilation of workplaces
Aération et assainissement des lieux de travail [in French]
This booklet presents a concise overview of the current regulations applicable to workplace ventilation in France. Topics covered: specific rules covering various types of premises (premises with non-specific or specific pollution, amenities, smoking and non-smoking areas); rules concerning the design of all equipment (air filtration, thermal environment, noise level) which the owners of the premises must comply with; regular maintenance and control of equipment; special ventilation requirements (work in confined spaces, work exposed to noxious emissions, underground work, scouring, polishing or sanding, exposure to biological agents, exposure to asbestos). The appendix contains texts of relevant regulations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., 1999. 36p. 19 ref.
Approach for integrating safety during the design of semi-automatic woodworking machines applied to the development of a system for the catchment of dust of numerically-controlled router
Vers une démarche d'intégration de la sécurité à la conception des machines à bois semi-automatisées - Application au développement d'un système de captage des poussières pour défonceuse à commande numérique [in French]
Notwithstanding their degree of automation, automated woodworking machines do present risks for operators working in their proximity. This study presents a design approach aimed at integrating hygiene, safety and ergonomic principles as early as possible in the development cycle of these machines. This process, developed within a framework of concurrent engineering, is based on a distributed design method. The usefulness of the approach is assessed in a practical application, the development of a catchment system for a numerically-controlled router. After validation, the efficiency of the designed device is improved compared to the initial device.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1999. 182p. Illus. 103 ref.
Sérieys J.C., Cornu P.
Improving the air flow performance of a ventilated area with walls and mechanical compensation
Améliorer le fonctionnement aéraulique d'une aire ventilée avec paroi et compensation mécanique [in French]
Ventilated areas are rarely mentioned among the first solutions recommended to risk prevention problems. However, in some cases, introducing such areas represents the only possible way of complying with occupational health and safety standards. A working group was set up to review the subject and propose improvements. The results of a site study and a predictive ventilation optimization study for a painting booth are presented. The on-site study revealed airflow deficiencies in the ventilated areas. Ventilation modelling helped to validate several hypotheses by varying the following parameters: air flow, exhaust vent size, type of extraction, height and shape of walls, and type of mechanical compensation. The result is a proposal for an optimized ventilated area which now needs to be tested on site.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.176, p.17-33. Illus. 5 ref.
VDI Gesellschaft Technische Gebäudeausrüstung
Technical concepts with respect to air for smoking and nonsmoking zones
Lufttechnische Konzepte für Raucher- und Nichtraucherzonen [in German]
Proceedings of a German Association of Engineers (VDI) conference on the design of ventilation systems for smoking and nonsmoking zones in buildings, held at Fulda on 25 Feb. 1999. Topics covered: legal situation protecting nonsmokers; recommendations for ventilation in buildings having both smoking and nonsmoking zones; characteristics of tobacco smoke; air purification; separation of ventilation air flows from smoking and nonsmoking zones; ventilation techniques; perception of cigarette smoke in the air and degree of acceptance by smokers and nonsmokers. Filters for smoke elimination have proven to be unsatisfactory so far.
VDI Verlag, Postfach 10 10 54, 40001 Düsseldorf, Germany, 1999. 107p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 78.00.
"Use in well-ventilated area"?
The warning "Use in a Well-Ventilated Area" often found on material safety data sheets (MSDSs) or equipment specifications is not adequate. This admonition provides no specific information or guidance that would allow safety, industrial hygiene or facility engineering functions to anticipate, design or achieve a workplace that will protect occupants. This article presents a method for manufacturers of equipment, consumer goods or industrial process systems to enhance product stewardship by quantifying the total volatile emission rates of a unit of equipment and then specifying the number of total air changes required per unit to assure a workplace atmosphere below acceptable inhalation exposure guidelines or regulatory limits. It is proposed that manufacturers and distributors of equipment, consumer goods or industrial process units provide MSDS information specifying the number of air changes per hour of uncontaminated air that would be required for each device, consumer product or piece of equipment to achieve adequate ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May-June 1999, Vol.60, No.3, p.377-383. Illus. 8 ref.
González Ferradás E., Miñana Aznar A., Baeza Caracena A., Morales Mateo F., Marzal Martínez F.J.
Ventilation systems used in industrial hygiene
Los sistemas de ventilación utilizados en el ámbito de la higiene industrial [in Spanish]
A normal ventilation system that dilutes the concentrations of dangerous substances in the zones of work does not apply to industries that generate emissions of heat or harmful substances. In such conditions, other methods must be used, namely a localized aspiration and an adequate design of workplaces in order to capture the emissions.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.76, p.13-19. Illus. 17 ref.
González Ferradás E., Miñaza Aznar A., Baeza Caracena A., Morales Mateo F., Marzal Martínez F.J.
Influence of the length of surface coating baths on the efficiency of ventilation systems
Influencia de la longitud de los baños de tratamiento de superficies en la eficacia de los sistemas de ventilación [in Spanish]
Topics: applied research; electroplating; exhaust ventilation; surface coating; ventilation design; ventilation systems; wet dust collectors.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.15-21. Illus. 6 ref.
Radon K., Opravil U., Hartung J., Szadkowski D., Nowak D.
Work-related respiratory disorders and farming characteristics among cattle farmers in Northern Germany
1,735 farmers were visited on their farms in Northern Germany and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire on work-related respiratory symptoms and farming details. 84.6% of the farmers were cattle farmers. The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms was 40.3%. A low prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms were shown to be significantly associated with ventilation via the wall of the cattle house (dds ratio = 0.57), feeding of cattle once daily (OR = 0.53), and plant crop (OR = 0.75). Farmers living inland showed a significantly higher prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.34). The use of ventilation via the wall might be recommended for new cattle houses in regions with warm winters.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.444-449. Illus. 16 ref.
Wood dust - Technical note: Installing variable-flow exhausts in woodworking shops
Poussières de bois - Note technique: installation d'aspiration à débit variable dans l'industrie de deuxième transformation du bois [in French]
Guidance note on the installation of systems for absorbing wood dust in woodworking shops of small enterprises, where the level of activity is highly variable. The guidance is based on a real case installation of a variable-flow system in a company. Contents include: preliminary study; principles of a variable-flow network; description of the installed system; evaluation of the system. These systems contribute towards better working conditions (no need to wear dust respirators; reduced levels of noise; reduced risks of rhinitis; cleaner workshops).
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie (CRAM) des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue du Président Herriot, BP 3405, 44034 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Oct. 1998. 17p. Illus.
Airborne contaminant exposure control in a partitioned work environment by exhaust ventilation systems
The evaluation of contaminant removal effectiveness can play a key role in a working environment quality investigation and in remediation efforts. In this study a computer simulation technique was developed for assessing the efficiency of contaminant removal within a partitioned working environment. To determine the effect of the physical parameters of each partitioned space on contaminant removal effectiveness, a relative contaminant concentration unit was used to show the simulation results. In addition, tracer gas techniques were adopted to validate the accuracy of the prediction model. A comparison of measured CO2 concentrations in a controlled environment chamber with the results of a simulation model is presented. This study investigated the partition configuration of work environment and environment parameters including openings operation, constant concentration and exhaust air volume mode. Results indicated that variations of these three parameters can produce great differences in overall ventilation performance. Through this type of study, the interaction of airflow and contaminant concentration between partitioned spaces can be understood in advance and adequate knowledge can be provided to maintain a high-quality and healthy environment for workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1998, Vol.59, No.5, p.346-352. Illus. 16 ref.
Does the sick building syndrome also occur in naturally ventilated buildings?
Sick-Building-Syndrom auch bei Fensterlüftung? [in German]
Preliminary results of a questionnaire survey of 3,252 workers in 10 air-conditioned or naturally ventilated office buildings in Germany show that health complaints such as headache and irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes were voiced by employees in both types of office buildings. Between 22 and 55% of workers had complaints. Younger, less well-trained workers and those working on visual display terminals voiced complaints more frequently than others. Workers complained of too dry air and poor air quality, and measurements verified that humidity was low in both air-conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings. In 53 of 859 workplaces in which measurements were taken the carbon dioxide concentration was above 1000ppm. Most of these worklaces (51) were in naturally ventilated buildings. Topics: air conditioning; CRT display terminals; ergonomics; lighting; microclimate; natural ventilation; office work; qualifications; questionnaire survey; sick building syndrome.
Argus Journal, Mar. 1998, Vol.10, No.1-2, p.22-23. Illus.
Air purification ventilation system for earthmoving machinery used in moving solid waste
Erdbaumaschinen mit Anlagen zur Atemluftversorgung bei der Müllumlagerung [in German]
For moving approximately 40,000m3 of refuse at a waste landfill site in Germany an excavator was equipped with a pressurized driver's cabin and an air purification ventilation system. Ambient air was passed through 2 consecutive dust filters for the collection of coarse and fine dust and an activated carbon filter for the removal of harmful gases and vapours. The equipment was selected on the basis of quantitative analyses of the harmful substances present in the landfill. Topics: air purification; civil engineering; drivers cabs; dust collectors; earthmoving equipment; excavators; garbage; harmful substances; refuse collection; ventilation systems.
Tiefbau, Feb. 1998, Vol.110, No.2, p.84-86. Illus.
Equipping earthmoving machines with ventilation systems for work in municipal waste landfills
Ausrüstung von Erdbaumaschinen mit Anlagen zur Atemluftversorgung bei Bauarbeiten auf Hausmülldeponien [in German]
A procedure is described for the selection of air purifying equipment which needs to be installed in cabins of earthmoving machinery used in waste landfills. The procedure is based on analyses which are carried out to determine type and quantity of hazardous substances present in the landfills. The properties of the identified substances and the hazards they pose are listed. The substances on the list which are most harmful to human health are selected and the quantities to which the drivers of earthmoving equipment are exposed are determined. If only dust- or particle-bound substances are present dust filters need to be installed in the ventilation system for the driver's cabin. If gases and vapours containing carcinogenic or mutagenic substances are encountered a pressurized enclosure is needed. Topics: air purification; civil engineering; drivers cabs; dust collectors; earthmoving equipment; excavators; garbage; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; ventilation systems; volatile substances.
Tiefbau, Feb. 1998, Vol.110, No.2, p.79-83. Illus. 5 ref.
Controlling formaldehyde exposures during embalming
Topics: formaldehyde; data sheet; embalming; exhaust hoods; exhaust ventilation; health hazards; limitation of exposure; local exhaust; threshold limit values.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Oct. 1998. 2p. Illus. 1 ref.
Teitsworth J.E., Sheehan M.J.
The effectiveness of local exhaust-ventilated (shrouded) hand power tools used for grinding/sanding composite materials
A portable hand tool used for machining composite materials was fitted with an enveloping shroud which was connected to a vacuum source to remove particles generated by the tool. Dust exposure was measured during the sanding and grinding of fibrous glass/epoxy composite materials using a shrouded and an unshrouded tool. While use of the shroud reduced airborne total dust concentrations, the effect of a shroud on respirable dust exposure was inconclusive because of the limited amount of respirable dust collected in these short-term samples. Topics: abrasive operations; aerosols; air sampling; airborne dust; description of equipment; evaluation of equipment; exhaust hoods; field tests; hand tools; local exhaust; personal sampling; respirable dust.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1998, Vol.59, No.10, p.689-693. Illus. 19 ref.
Improving indoor air quality through the use of continual multipoint monitoring of carbon dioxide and dew point
An approach for improving the indoor air quality in a building by providing feedback on the performance of the ventilation system is described. This is achieved by means of an automated sampling system that draws air from multiple locations and delivers it to a carbon monoxide monitor and a dew point sensor. The use of single shared sensors facilitates calibration checks and helps to guarantee data integrity. Topics: air sampling; carbon dioxide; continuous monitoring; determination in air; humidity measurement; humidity; ventilation systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1998, Vol.59, No.9, p.636-641. Illus. 6 ref.
Buchanan C.R., Dunn-Rankin D.
Transport of surgically produced aerosols in an operating room
Topics: aerosols; computer aided design; computer simulation; germ transport; operating theatres; USA; ventilation design; ventilation systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1998, Vol.59, No.6, p.393-402. Illus. 21 ref.
Smandych R.S., Thomson M., Goodfellow H.
Dust control for material handling operations: A systematic approach
Topics: conveyors; dust collectors; dust control; dust suppression at source; exhaust hoods; exhaust ventilation; hazard evaluation; local exhaust; materials handling; mechanical feed and ejection; packing, filling; physical processes; storage; suppression of airborne dust.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1998, Vol.59, No.2, p.139-146. Illus. 66 ref.
Maupins K., Hitchings D.T.
Reducing employee exposure potential using the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods as a diagnostic tool
Topics: comment on standard; evaluation of equipment; exhaust hoods; laboratories; local exhaust; tracer gases; USA; velocity of flow.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1998, Vol.59, No.2, p.133-138. Illus. 4 ref.
Altemose B.A., Flynn M.R., Sprankle J.
Application of a tracer gas challenge with a human subject to investigate factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods
Topics: air movement; airflow measurement; description of technique; evaluation of equipment; exhaust hoods; laboratories; leakage testing; leakage; tracer gases; ventilation design.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1998, Vol.59, No.5, p.321-327. Illus. 31 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Maintenance, examination and testing of local exhaust ventilation
Topics: data sheet; equipment testing; inspection; legislation; local exhaust; preventive maintenance; suppression of airborne dust; United Kingdom; ventilation systems.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Mar. 1998. 35p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting
Ventilating a fire compartment during operational fire fighting procedures may have unpredictable consequences. In some cases the ventilation is advantageous: the hot gases are removed from the fire enclosure, the visibility improves and the enclosure cools down. In some cases the opposite happens: the burning rate accelerates, more smoke is spread around, and the temperatures rise. The most dramatic consequence is a severe explosion. The effect of ventilating the fire compartment was studied systematically by quarter-scale laboratory tests. Both natural and positive pressure ventilation (PPV) were applied. The tests revealed that when properly used, PPV clearly improves the survival probability in the compartment.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 1997. 52p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 35.00 (+ 8% VAT). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/1997/P326.pdf [in English]
Wood dust - Technical note: Dust capturing devices
Poussières de bois - Note technique: dispositifs de captage des poussières [in French]
Wood finishing work gives rise to fine dusts, which are among the most dangerous. Reducing dust levels in woodworking shops requires the installation of localized exhaust ventilation systems. This guidance note describes such installations, based on the example of an installation made at a specific workplace. Contents include: scope; functionality and description of the exhaust ventilation system. Dust level measurements confirm the efficiency of the system.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie (CRAM) des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue du Président Herriot, BP 3405, 44034 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Jan. 1997. 8p. Illus.
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