Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Recent developments in air-conditioning in South African gold mines and their possible application in coalmining
Neuentwicklungen in der Klimatechnik des südafrikanischen Goldbergbaus und ihre Anwendungsmöglichkeiten im Steinkohlenbergbau [in German]
Review of the main ventilation and air-conditioning techniques used in South African mines: ventilation networks, underground cooling units, underground cooling towers, practical aspects of air cooling methods and installations, location of cooling units. Description of the most important new developments: cooling units for air pre-cooling installed on the surface close to the entry shaft; underground water spray chambers and high-output coolers for main and partial ventilation air; cooling of water used at mine faces; use of Pelton-wheel turbines for energy recovery from the pressure drop in cold water circuits. Pelton-wheel turbines may also be of use in coalmines.
Glückauf, 17 Dec. 1981, Vol.117, No.24, p.1591-1599. Illus. 8 ref.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
ASHRAE Handbook - 1981 fundamentals
This handbook contains the theory and basic data essential for equipment development, system design, and application on air conditioning, heating, ventilation and refrigeration. The 39 chapters are arranged in 6 sections: theory (thermodynamics, heat transfer), general engineering data, basic materials, load and energy calculation, duct and pipe sizing, general (terminlogy, units, standards). Some chapters of special interest to the occupational health specialist are: heat transfer, psychrometrics, sound and vibration control, physiological principals and comfort, air contaminants, ventilation, air conditioning. A companion volume contains a product directory.
1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, Ga. 30329, USA, 1981. 970p. Illus. Bibl.
Gumuła S., Markowski T.
Efficacy and potential use of cyclonic turbulance in ventilation systems
Wstęp do badań nad przydatnością i możliwościami wykorzystania wiru powietrznego w technice wentylacyjnej [in Polish]
Report on laboratory studies to determine the characteristics of cyclonic turbulence in a closed space and its potential application to the design of ventilation systems. The studies covered velocity, pressure and temperature distribution in relation to turbulence induction procedure, the effect of gas emission point, specific gravity and system positioning in relation to gravity field on gas concentration distribution, and on installation dynamics. The results show the value of turbulence ventilation, but research is still required on turbulence resistance to various disturbing effects (mechanical obstacles, fluctuations in volumetric airflow in the ventilation system, etc.).
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1981, Vol.31, No.108, p.13-30. Illus. 6 ref.
Dąbrowski S., Jaroszczyk T., Markowski T.
Cleaning dust-laden air in a recirculating ventilation system
Problemy oczyszczania powietrza z pyłów w systemie wentylacji z recyrkulacją [in Polish]
Analysis of critical factors in the design and operation of a recirculating ventilation system. The following parameters should be taken into consideration: characteristics of the pollutants and the air-cleaning system, the filtration system and assessment of its performance. The methods used for testing filters and filter materials are described. To prolong filter life, it is advisable to use one of the following types of prefilter: multicyclones made up of minicyclones and microcyclones, man-made-fibre filters, paper filters and porous plastics filters.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1981, Vol.31, No.108, p.3-12. Illus. 26 ref.
Markowski T., Jaroszczyk T.
Eliminating solid and liquid aerosols from the workplace
Zwalczanie aerozoli stałych i ciekłych na stanowiskach pracy [in Polish]
Review of the various techniques available for eliminating airborne pollutants in the workplace. Report on work in this field carried out under the auspices of the Polish Central Workers' Protection Institute (CIOP). Future trends in ventilation systems.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1981, Vol.31, No.109, p.109-115. 15 ref.
Harmful substances and heat recovery in industrial ventilation systems
Schadstoffsituation bei der Wärmerückgewinnung an Lüftungsanlagen in Industriehallen [in German]
Rules of hygiene to be observed in recovery of heat from polluted air containing dust or harmful substances. Methods for heat recovery and recycling of purified air. Examples of heat recovery with or without recycling of clean air, and different systems employed (heat exchangers, regenerators, heat pumps). The use of exchangers eliminates the danger of propagating harmful substances.
BIA-Information, No.5/81. Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach 2043, 5205 St. Augustin 2, Federal Republic of Germany, June 1981. 3p. Illus. 9 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents: types of ventilation and cleansing systems (local exhaust; general; dilution; wet scrubbers; sorbent beds; catalytic converters; fibrous filters; electrostatic precipitators; mechanical separators); hazards (general; respiratory; air contaminants); occupational exposure limits; precautions (process control; ventilation; air cleaning devices); monitoring, direct reading instruments; pre-employment and periodic medical examinations; first aid; 2-page summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1981. 13p. 8 ref.
Acute hazards of explosive gases, their detection and control
Diagnosis and control of explosion and fire hazards due to methane, forecasting of methane emissions, and the control of underground fires in situations where methane is known to be present are discussed in terms of the responsibilities of the ventilation department. Quantity surveys for methane, the interpretation of these surveys and the advantages of continuous monitoring and ventilation are considered. The problems are related to conditions in coal and gold mines. The sources of hydrogen in mines and the associated hazards are also discussed.
Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, Jan. 1981, Vol.34, No.1, p.1-14. Illus. 7 ref.
Refrigerating installations to overcome problems of microclimate in underground mineworkings
Kälteanlagen zur Bewältigung grubenklimatischer Probleme [in German]
Problems of mine ventilation and air conditioning in underground coal mines are linked to the depth of the workings, the rate of production, the amount of electric power installed, and efforts made to improve workplace conditions. This article considers the possibilities afforded by various mine ventilation techniques used for air cooling, and emphasises above all the necessity to use refrigerating equipment: criteria for siting this equipment; elements and their purpose; decentralised and centralised siting. After exhausting the possibilities afforded by decentralised installations, the present trend is towards large centralised installations. Examples, and principles on wich these installations work.
Glückauf, 5 Fev. 1981, Vol.117, No.3, p.131-139. Illus.
Mine ventilation techniques to solve microclimate problems underground
Wettertechnische Massnahmen zur Bewältigung grubenklimatischer Probleme [in German]
Review of the causes of high ambient air temperature (air compression; heat emitted by rock, coal transported by conveyor, machines). Information on various methods for improving the microclimate: increasing ventilation flow, pneumatic stowing, ventilation method and air cooling. Description of the elements of an air cooling installation. Attempt to classify air-conditioning techniques in order of effectiveness. The techniques described are adequate for rock temperatures < 60°C, on condition that coal production does not exceed 1,500t/day (thin seam) or 3,000t/day (thick seam).
Glückauf, 5 Feb. 1981, Vol.117, No.3, p.124-131. Illus. 5 ref.
Magyar Szabványügyi Hivatal
Occupational safety requirements in the heating and ventilation of workplaces [Hungary]
Munkahelyek fűtésének és szellőztetésének munkavédelmi követelményei [in Hungarian]
This standard (effective: 1 Jan. 1980) prescribes acceptable levels of temperature, humidity, air circulation and dust concentration for workplaces (excluding underground mine workings) and general methods for their control.
Szabványbolt, Budapest, Pf.162. 1431, Hungary, 1980. 11p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: For.44.00.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Smoke and smell from coremaking and mould pouring
Data sheet on methods for controlling smoke and smell emissions during foundry operations such as coremaking and shell moulding. Gases emitted are dimethylamine, triethylamine and SO2.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Methane, climate, ventilation in the coalmines of the European Communities
Grisou, climat et aérage dans les charbonnages de la Communauté européenne [in French]
Procedings of a symposium organised by the Commission of the European Communities in Luxembourg on 4-6 Nov. 1980. The 1st technical meeting was devoted to the release and control of methane and to the prediction of methane release. The 6 papers in the 2nd technical meeting deal with the prediction of air-temperature rise in faces and headings, and methods of air conditioning. The 3rd technical meeting brings together papers on mine ventilation: planning and monitoring, in particular by use of electronic process computers; and the installation and control of ventilation systems, in particular secondary ventilation.
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Information Market and Innovation, Boîte postale 1907, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1980. 533p. Illus. bobl.
Zacev S.I., Artemenko A.A., Paršin Ja.D., Ovanenko S.Ja., Blagovidov A.A.
Research on a ventilated shelter chamber
Issledovanie kamery avarijnogo vozduhosnabženija [in Russian]
The feasibility of temporary shelters with emergency ventilation in which iron ore miners are protected from exposure to blasting fumes was studied. The shelter is a dead-end roadway closed off by a wooden partition, the entrance to which is sealed by a rubber curtain. To prevent blasting fume from entering, the shelter is slightly pressurised by a take-off from the roadway ventilation duct.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Nov. 1980, No.11, p.57. Illus.
Stecenko V.G., Žužman V. Ja.
Local exhaust ventilation of harmful substances during the application of anti-corrosion coatings
Lokalizacija vrednostej pri nanesenii antikorrozionnyh pokrytij [in Russian]
An exhaust ventilation and filtration system for contaminated air from spray painting booths is described. Parts being painted are placed on a grid over a water trough into which larger particles are precipitated; a filter cartridge containing metal or plastic swarf (cheap and easily replaced) collects the finer particles.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Nov. 1980, No.11, p.17-18. Illus.
Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers
Resolution on the different means to be applied to prevent the dispersion, reduce the concentration in the air and avoid the inhalation of dust at workplaces
Résolution relative aux différents moyens à mettre en ¿uvre pour empêcher la diffusion, réduire la concentration dans l'air et éviter l'inhalation des poussières sur les lieux de travail [in French]
Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 11 June 1980, this resolution specifies the provisions on the different means to prevent the spread, reduce the concentration and prevent the inhalation of dust at workplaces and recommends that the 7 States parties to the Partial Agreement (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, United Kingdom) and the government of Austria should bring their regulations into conformity with these provisions. Individual provisions concern: definitions of types of dust; different means to be applied and their technical characteristics; hazards connected with exhaust ventilation; special measures required in the case of flammable and explosive dust; general hygiene measures; studies, tests, measures and controls. Technical guidelines for setting up an exhaust ventilation system are appended, and cover: study prior to installing a dust-capture system; system design; commissioning, maintenance, system noise; mechanical and electrical hazards; fire hazards.
Direction de la presse et de l'information, 67006 Strasbourg Cedex, France, 1980. 11p.
Mücke G., Glodek E., Uhlig H.
Performance of air coolers at the workface and in roadways
Die Kühlleistung von Streb- und Streckenkühlern [in German]
Review of various types of air coolers. Method for measuring their efficacy. Measurement methods (with clean and dust-laden air). Results of performance tests on some recently developed air coolers. The influence of dust levels and condensation on performance was determined.
Glückauf, 6 Nov. 1980, Vol.116, No.21, p.1095-1104. Illus. 11 ref.
N.F.Romejko, Ščibraev E.V.
The control of harmful gases near equipment under pressure by means of air curtains
Lokalizacija gazovyh vrednostej u oborudovanija s vnutrennim izbytočnym davlenijem vozdušnymi strujami [in Russian]
One means of improving the atmosphere in production areas is to install air curtains at the outlets of equipment working under pressure and releasing harmful substances. Air curtains can be compared with gate valves regulating the throughput of contaminated air at a pre-set rate. Empirical formulae to determine the efficiency of 3 types of air curtain are given for angles of incidence between curtain air stream and outlet plane of 0 to 90°. Examples of calculations are given.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.11-13.
Improving working conditions in the gas welding of aluminium
Ulučšenie uslovij truda pri gazovoj svarke aljuminija [in Russian]
Submerged arc welding of aluminium gives rise to the formation of hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen oxides and other harmful gases. A vertical-flow exhaust ventilation device has been developed to draw off these gases; it comprises an inclined louvred panel and a welding table which is also louvred to allow air to flow upwards. Detailed description, technical specification and calculations of airflow required to eliminate welding fumes. Air samples collected at a height of 10cm above the welding table showed that HF, NOx and CO concentrations were below threshold levels.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1980, No.6, p.35. Illus.
Nikitin V.S., Bitkolov N.Z.
Ventilation planning in opencast mines
Proektirovanie ventiljacii v kar'erah [in Russian]
Contents: meteorological, geological and technological factors influencing the composition of the atmosphere in opencast mines and quarries; prediction of this composition and measures to be taken to achieve a normal atmosphere; data required for prediction and planning; mathematical evaluation of the efficacy of natural ventilation in an opencast mine; determination and evaluation of measures to be taken; choice of materials and methods for dust control and gas removal; supervision and monitoring of ventilation; evaluation of these measures from the economic point of view.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tretjakovskij proezd 1/19, 103633 Moskva, URRS, 1980. 171p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: Rbl.0.60.
Atmospheric pollutants in work premises - Principles of their formation, propagation and prevention
Luftföroreningar i arbetslokaler - Principer för uppkomst, spridning och åtgärder [in Swedish]
Approaches to practical industrial ventilation problems illustrated by ventilation airflow diagrams. Individual sections of the report deal with: pollutant formation; propagation and dilution of pollutants by ventilation; air cleaning and air volume in work premises; local exhaust ventilation systems; exhaust ducts and air curtains; machine enclosure and ventilation; hazards of recirculating air which has been drawn off and cleaned; pollutant propagation during vacuum cleaning; air turbulence; condensation phenomena; pollutant propagation due to vehicle or personnel movements; leaks and ventilation systems as sources of pollution; other factors affecting pollution; measurement methods; respiratory protection.
Arbetarskyddssfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1980. 43p. Illus. 17 ref.
Niemelä R., Riipinen H., Aatola S., Kähkönen E., Mäkelä P., Vähä-Söyrinki A.
Ventilation in particle board and plywood plants
Ilmanvaihto lastulevy- ja vaneritehtaissa [in Finnish]
Study to determine possibilities of reducing airborne formaldehyde (F) by different ventilation systems in 3 particle board plants (PBP), 2 plywood plants and one coating plant. Ventilation was analysed by mapping airflow patterns and measuring ventilation rate, F concentrations and thermal climate. Tracer technique was used to investigate the spreading routes of F. PBP had higher F concentrations than the plywood and cotaing plants, in spite of more forced ventilation. Significant differences in airflow (general ventilation, exhaust hoods) were observed in 3 PBP. At a ventilation rate of 20h-1, F concentration was below 1cm3/m3, it was 2x higher in PBP having an air exchange rate of <10h-1. Recirculation of exhaust air was common in PBP. F concentrations could be lowered by more efficient enclosure and local exhaust ventilation. The amount of free F in urea-formaldehyde resins (UFR) used in the PBP has a significant influence on F concentrations. Release of F from phenol-formaldehyde resins was smaller than that from UFR.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1980. 75p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00.
Schläger P., Meffert B., Christensen H.
High-performance secondary ventilation installations
Hochleistungs-Sonderbewetterungsanlagen [in German]
With the mechanisation of roadway driving and the increase in roadway cross section, there has been a significant increase in conduit diameter (1-2m). Work at higher temperatures and the increase in installed electrical power entail air flow rates several times higher than the officially specified minimum levels. The effectiveness of long ventilation lines depends on the characteristics and strength of the fabric used for air conduits. The forces to which conduits are subjected are analysed and the characteristics of new fabrics are reviewed (in particular synthetic fabrics). Calculation of ventilation line performance and tear strength required for fabrics as a function of conduit diameter. A mathematical analysis shows the effect of leakage on performance and emphasises the need for non-leak conduits.
Bergbau, July 1980, Vol.31, No.7, p.408-414. Illus.
Goedecke M., Meyer H.
Principles of a mine air conditioning strategy in underground workings
Grundsätzliche Probleme einer Klimatisierungsstrategie für den Untertagebau [in German]
Overview of the capacity of cooling installations in South Africa, the Federal Republic of Germany and the USSR and review of the criteria employed and ventilation measures introduced in deep mines in these 3 countries: physiological temperature limits, adaptation to heat, auxiliary ventilation, centralised and decentralised air cooling systems, personal cooling systems. The criteria employed are compared in an enthalpy/ventilation-air vapour-content diagram. The USSR criterion (26°C dry bulb) is the closest to the thermal comfort zone. The ventilation strategy comprises: microclimate analysis; evaluation of the effect of microclimate on man and establishment of criteria, measures to ensure that limit values are not exceeded, measures to improve individual heat tolerance, total-air cooling, personal cooling. Personal cooling is becoming increasingly important as a back-up to total-air cooling.
Bergbau, July 1980, Vol.31, No.7, p.387-391. Illus. 26 ref.
Des cabines pour l'ébarbage. [in French]
Profusely illustrated report on a modern fettling installation for castings, with a mechanical handling system, a dust and fume exhaust system (each of the 12 fettling booths is connected to a powerful exhaust ventilation unit equipped with filters and dust collector) and noise control linings (inadequate) on the booth walls.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1980, p.652, 661-665. Illus.
A new computer programme for precalculating microclimate in locally ventilated underground mine workings
Ein neues EDV-Programm zur Klimavorausberechnung für sonderbewetterte Grubenbaue [in German]
Design and potential of a computer programme intended primarily for mechanically worked underground mines with positive-pressure local ventilation. The input data capacity includes the following variables: 3 rock temperatures; 3 mining depths; 3 rock types; 2 drivage speeds; 2 road cross sections; and 2 roadway ages. Provision for automatic calculation of equivalent thermal conductivity and water temperatures upstream and downstream of the air cooling units. The programme can handle up to 2 main ventilation ducts, 2 auxiliary ventilation ducts and up to 5 air-cooling or heating units. The ventilation ducts can be subdivided into sections of different lengths.
Glückauf-Forschungshefte, Oct. 1980, Vol.41, No.5, p.197-203. Illus. 8 ref.
Direct measurement of sound intensity, an efficient method for acoustic measurement in ventilation and air conditioning techniques
Die direkte Messung der Schallintensität - ein leistungsfähiges Verfahren für akustische Messungen in der Lüftungs- und Klimatechnik [in German]
Description of a method enabling sound intensity in ventilation installations and ducts to be measured by means of 2 ordinary pressure-type microphones. The method is based on the Schultz and Pavić techniques, using numerical frequency analysers for acoustic signal analysis. The advantage of this 2-microphone technique is stressed as regards the influence of the stationary wave and pseudo-noise.
Luft- und Kältetechnik, 1980, Vol.16, No.2, p.98-100. Illus. 6 ref.
Laboratory fume hoods.
Capabilities and limitations of fume cupboards and fume hoods; basic elements of a fume hood; improved fume hoods equipped with air by-pass system; performance criterion (face velocity); location, maintenance and testing; need for local scrubbing of effluent if highly toxic chemicals are being used.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1980. 4p. Illus.
Ventilation, air conditioning and heating in undertakings in the light industry sector
Ventiljacija, kondicionirovanie vozduha i otoplenie na predprijatijah legkoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Contents: basic theory; determination of heat loss and heat transfer in premises; hygrometry, determination of concentrations of harmful vapours and gases; air-flow measurement; removal of airborne dust; heating of ambient air; modification of air temperature and humidity; design of humidification chambers of air-conditioning systems; delivery of air in ventilation systems; pneumatic transport; air distribution in premises; local ventilation devices; local exhaust; natural ventilation; heating of industrial buildings; principles of automatic regulation; technical and economic data; air cooling; air conditioning and ventilation units; special cases in the footwear and clothing industries; servicing and maintenance of installations.
Izdatel'stvo "Legkaja industrija", Kuzneckij most 22, 103 031 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 343p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: Rbl.1.00.
Garrison R.P., Byers D.H.
Static pressure, velocity, and noise characteristics of rectangular nozzles for high velocity/low volume exhaust ventilation.
See CIS 81-384 and 81-405 for parts 1 and 2. These characteristics of nozzles were studied for average face velocities of 25-150m/s. Nozzle variations included plain and flanged profile shapes with width-to-length ratios (WLR) of 1.0, 0.5, 0,25, and 0.1. Centre-line static pressures for all nozzles indicated formation of pronounced vena contracta in post-entry airflow. The centre-line velocity gradient into the nozzles became more gradual with decreasing WLR. Nozzle noise levels varied with face velocity. Flanges had a significant effect on nozzle performance.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1980, Vol.41, No.12, p.855-863. Illus. 4 ref.
Ventilation of chemical plants.
Ventiljacija himičeskih proizvodstv [in Russian]
Contents: occupational hygiene standards for air pollution in factories; theory of the diffusion of airborne harmful substances; monitoring of these substances in air; local exhaust ventilation; general ventilation; emergency ventilation; monitoring of composition of the air and automation of ventilation systems; prevention of neighbourhood pollution by industry.
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", Stromynka 13, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 284p. Illus. 140 ref. Price: Rbl.1.20.
Bau F., Sifflet P., Ulmer G.
Heat recovery and improvement of the working environment in steel foundries - Application of dust control measures in a fettling shop
Récupération de chaleur et amélioration des ambiances de travail en fonderie d'acier - Application à la lutte contre les poussières dans un atelier d'ébarbage. [in French]
The fettling shop was equipped with a heating system consisting of 2 hot air distribution circuits obtained by recovery of energy from the cooling water from a battery of induction melting furnaces and the heat of workpieces leaving a heat treatment furnace. Measurement of airborne dust concentrations showed renewal of the air to be sufficient to reduce pollution to below exposure limits. The energy savings permit the capital invested in the installation to be amortised within 3-4 years.
Fonderie, Feb. 1980, Vol.35, No.396, p.57-64. Illus.
Formation of nitrogen oxides in gas cutting and welding
Stickoxidbildung bei Autogenverfahren [in German]
Report on systematic research to determine the quantity of nitrogen oxides produced according to fuel gas used (acetylene, propane, natural gas) and the burner of torch used (welding, cutting or heating). Production of nitrogen oxides depends above all on gas flow rate and distance between the burner and the workpiece (flame length). Required ventilation, and concentrations of nitrous gas determined in a welding shop.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 83p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: DM.15.50.
Contaminant concentration reduction: general ventilation versus local exhaust ventilation.
The use of 4 and 10 air changes/h of general ventilation is studied. The general ventilation effect of local exhaust points in the vicinity of the dust sources is compared with the effect of general ventilation at an asbestos-cement pipe plant. For equal effectiveness of dust control, general ventilation is much more expensive than local exhaust ventilation. Local exhaust can provide far more effective dust control. Any effect of general ventilation is difficult to measure. Recommendations for reducing dust counts or contaminant concentrations are given: improved enclosure; increased amount and effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation; improved housekeeping and work practices; change of process and equipment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1980, Vol.41, No.11, p.812-818.
Garrison R.P., Byers D.H.
Static pressure and velocity characteristics of circular nozzles for high velocity/low volume exhaust ventilation.
These characteristics of nozzles for average face velocities of 50-125m/s were studied. Design variations consisting of 7 profile shapes with an inside diameter of 2.54cm, and 5 plain profiles of 1.27-3.81cm inside diameter were examined. Plain and flanged nozzles showed formation of prounounced vena contracta; flared and rounded nozzles did not. Centerline velocity gradients were affected strongly by variations in nozzle shape, but not in nozzle size and face velocity. Shape and size significantly affected static pressure loss. Equations permitting calculations for nozzle design were determined. See also a related article in section 080, Noise, hearing, vibration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1980, Vol.41, No.11, p.803-811. Illus. 6 ref.
Braem M., Brunet R., Janiaut M.
Ergonomic work table with exhaust unit - Application in a finishing station in the chinaware industry
Table de travail ergonomique avec aspiration - Application à un poste de finissage en porcelainerie. [in French]
Description of a working surface and its local exhaust ventilation unit, designed for use in glueing, welding or brazing small workpieces. The ergonomic design aims at reducing fatigue to a minimum (adjustable chair and footrest, circular cutout in work table, ergonomic layout of feed system). Example of use in a finishing unit in a pottery works. Technical data for the exhaust hood are given.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1284-101-80, p.511-518. Illus.
Computer control of ventilation at the Waterschei workings of the Kempense Steenkolenmijnen
Contrôle par ordinateur de la ventilation du siège de Waterschei des Kempense Steenkolenmijnen. [in French]
Contrôle par ordinateur de la ventilation du siège de Waterschei des Kempense Steenkolenmijnen [in Dutch]
Automatic distribution of airflow between the various areas of a mine is obtained by remote control of active or passive regulators, coordinated through a central control system. Various phases of the development of the ventilation system are presented: development of a mathematical model; automatic network; model of methane outburst; design and regulation of ventilators or ports; supervision, remote measurements, filtering. The remote-controlled regulator, the control and measurement equipment, and the control programme are described in detail.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1979, Vol.34, No.1, p.22-38. Illus. 10 ref.
Garrison R.P., Byers D.H.
Noise characteristics of circular nozzles for high velocity/low volume exhaust ventilation.
Noise characteristics of nozzles for average face velocities of 25-175m/s were studied. Design variations consisting of 7 profile shapes with an inside diameter of 2.54cm, and 5 plain profiles of 1.27-3.81cm inside diameter were examined. Maximum noise level was reached at less than maximum face velocity with all nozzles. At maximum face velocity there was a pronounced fall in high-frequency noise, with a shift in peak frequency from 4000 to 2000Hz. Variations in nozzle shape and size had significant effect on noise levels. See also a related abstract in section 100, "Heating, ventilation".
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1980, Vol.41, No.10, p.713-720. Illus. 4 ref.
Buzin V.A., Kazak Ju.P, Sel'skov V.M.
Dust control in scraper loading of potassium ore
Obespylivanie vozduha pri skrepernoj pogruzke rudy [in Russian]
Description of a dust control system consisting of the emission of a curtain of filtered air above the dragline winch operator's post, and exhaust hood, with a filter dust collector, above the loading tip. This system provides push-pull ventilation and reduces general dust levels by a factor of 5 (reduction by a factor of 13-14 at the dragline operator's post).
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1980, No.1, p.47-48. Illus.
A literature survey and design study of fumecupboards and fume-dispersal systems.
Contents: fume cupboard design and installation (styling; air velocity, velocity compensation, auxiliary air types, working aperture, materials and details of construction, fume cupboards for special uses; upgrading of existing fume cupboards, noise level, siting in the laboratory, storage space, portable fume cupboards); extract and supply systems (general, filtration, airflow sensors, dampers, the extract ductwork, extract fans, induction venturis, multiple extract systems, air supply systems); fume dispersal (general, re-entry into buildings, unacceptable terminations, dispersal formula, dilution formula, net effect of a diluting duct, choice of stack height, examples of dispersal systems in different sized buildings).
Science Review Ltd, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1980, 82p. Illus. 184 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Reducing the ignition risk from auxiliary fans.
Following a colliery explosion probably due to ignition from friction of an all-steel auxiliary ventilation fan, a committee was set up to consider all aspects of the ventilation of narrow drivages including the design, maintenance and methods of installation of auxiliary fans. Work carried out at the Explosion and Flame Laboratory of the Health and Safety Executive included the examination of the frictional ignition hazard likely to arise from the use of certain combinations of metals in the manufacture of fans, and has shown that a practical solution to the problem would be to retain the mild steel impeller but to make the casing of leaded (60/40) brass.
Mining Engineer, Sep. 1980, p.147-149. 8 ref.
Robertson P., Bailey P.V.
Suggested improvements to prevent the escape of fume from beneath the sash of a fume cupboard.
Problems described are: a stable vortex of contaminated air remains behind the partly opened sash; the handle of the sash creates a second, smaller vortex partly outside the cupboard; external disturbances of airflow may result from movements in the laboratory (studies of a person walking in front of the fume cupboard are described); air can escape from the cupboard when objects are removed from it. Improvements described are: modification of the bottom edge of the sash with a horizontal plate; provision of a "bellmouth" entrance below the sash; use of a turning vane. Using the vane and a face velocity of 0.5m/s it was very difficult to cause smoke to escape from the cupboard.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1980, Vol.23, No.3, p.305-309. Illus. 3 ref.
Local exhaust systems and improvement of working conditions
I sistemi di aspirazione localizzata per la bonifica degli ambienti di lavoro [in Italian]
Contents of this booklet: physical data on air pollutants (dust, fumes, gases and vapours); methods for removal of pollutants; local exhaust and general ventilation; direction of air flow; distance of exhaust hood from pollutant source; positioning and shape of hood; exhaust velocity and range; ducts; fresh air; noise; cleaning of exhausted air; testing the efficiency of an exhaust ventilation system.
Assessorato alla sanità della regione Lombardia, Clinica del lavoro "L. Devoto", Università di Milano, Milano, Italy, July 1980. 62p. Illus. 7 ref.
Goodfellow H.D., Bender M.
Design considerations for fume hoods for process plants.
Techniques are developed and their practical application to complex fume hood design and operating performance problems presented. Aspects covered are: evaluation of volume and heat flow rates for emission sources; local capture of process emissions; remote capture of process emissions, and case studies of fume hood applications (electric arc furnace tapping hood, ladle spout lancing hood, iron refining laddle hood).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1980, Vol.41, p.473-484. 5 ref.
Control of airborne pollutants
Åtgärder mot luftföroreningar [in Swedish]
This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1981) prescribes measures to prevent health damage from exposure to aerosols or dust polluting the working environment: automation of production processes, use of robots, hermetic enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, mechanical ventilation and pressurisation of workplace, use of respirators. Detailed commentaries.
AFS 1980:11, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 19 Aug. 1980. 8p. Gratis.
Control of particulate matter in spray booths - Analysis of the problem - Design of a ventilation system
Control de materia particulada en cabinas de pintura - Análisis de la problemática - Diseño de sistema de ventilación [in Spanish]
Report of a pluridisciplinary study (aerodynamics and occupational hygiene) of 3 spray booths. Important factors: type of paint, paint spraying technique, air renewal rate at different points in the booth, air flow rate, pollutant concentrations, push-pull ventilation system. Description of a booth providing optimal conditions, with a ventilation system providing >0.25/s air renewal.
Salud y trabajo, June 1980, No.25, p.15-27. Illus. 4 ref.
Bogoslovskij V.N., Ščeglov V.P., Razumov N.N.
Heating and ventilation
Otoplenie i ventiljacija [in Russian]
Contents: heating of buildings (heat transfer, thermal insulation, calculation of required calorific power); classification of heating systems; heating equipment; hot water heating systems and their design; steam heating systems; warm-air heating; boilers and boiler rooms; remote heating; air and its physical properties; principles of ventilation; natural and mechanical ventilation systems and their design (calculations); ventilation equipment; air-conditioning systems; installation, testing, control and operation of heating and ventilation systems.
Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 295p. Illus. 12 ref.
Kalliokoski P., Niemelä R., Salmivaara J.
The tracer gas technique - A useful tool for industrial hygiene.
Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and sulfur hexafluoride were added to the make-up air to determine local ventilation rates and spreading routes of dilution air in the work environment. Continuous monitoring of NO by infrared spectrophotometer was the most practical choice for ventilation testing; plastic bag sampling of NO or SF6 and analysis by gas chromatography were useful for emission spreading studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1980, Vol.6, No.2, p.123-130. 23 ref.
Gases and vapours in workplaces in foundries
Gase und Dämpfe an Arbeitsplätzen in Giessereien [in German]
Review of sources of toxic gases and vapours set free during coremaking, moulding and casting. A table lists typical harmful gases which arise at each process or production stage, with corresponding TLVs. Recommended measures to control harmful emanations: separation of workplaces, local exhaust ventilation, isolation of critical area by suitable ventilation, regeneration of sand, observance of supplier's recommendations as regards quantity of binders to be added, monitoring of concentrations of harmful gases in workplace air.
BIA-Information Nr.2/80, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Langwartwag 103, 5300 Bonn 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1980. 2p.
US National Safety Council.
Instruments for testing exhaust ventilation systems.
This data sheet gives information for testing the efficiency of exhaust ventilation systems for removal of pollutants from workplace air. Considered are: air flow (basic principles); repairs; compliance with regulations; pressure losses; measuring instruments (Pitot tube; manometer; rotating vane anemometer; swing vane anemometer); air-flow rate and velocity tests.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 1-431-80. Apr. 1980, Vol.121, No.4, p.71-78. Illus. 8 ref.
Surface treatment baths - Ventilation and other means of improving the environment
Ytbehandlingsbad - Om ventilation och andra åtgärder för en bättre miljö [in Swedish]
Contents: responsibilities of management, supervisory staff, safety officer and electroplaters for improving the workplace environment; enclosure of tanks with exhaust; respiratory and skin hazards; practical measures against atmospheric pollutants (replacement of cyanides by less toxic products, reduction in concentration of chemicals, use of low current density, addition of surface-active agent, lowering of roof height); appropriate ventilation systems (enclosure with air locks or negative pressure, air curtains); control of efficacy and maintenance of exhaust equipment; economic aspects; practical solutions.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Sveavägen 166, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 23p. Illus. 10 ref.
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