Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Fletcher B., Johnson A.E.
Velocity profiles around hoods and slots and the effects of an adjacent plane
Results of measurements around local exhaust ventilation hoods and slots up to an aspect ratio of 16:1, taken with the hoods freely suspended and when resting on a plane surface, are given. A nomogram, previously designed to predict centreline velocities in front of freely suspended hoods, can also be used for hoods resting on a plane surface. Flanged hoods are more effective, and much higher velocities can be produced in front of a hood resting on a plane than with a freely suspended hood.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.4, p.365-372. Illus. 3 ref.
Toppila E., Niemelä R., Tossavainen A.
Measurement of ventilation efficiency
Ilmanvaihtotehokkuuden mittaus [in Finnish]
Development and testing of theoretical models of ventilation in the workplace. The models were: single compartment, multicompartment and transition time models. Equations describing the circulation of gases were derived for the models, and the results compared with experimental data concerning the dilution and ventilation of nitrous oxide in the air of several locations. The models gave similar results, confirmed by the data.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 54p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: Fmk.23.00.
Eczema defeated by a hood
Eksemen försvann när dragskåpen kom [in Swedish]
Interview with 2 workers employed in the fabrication of plastic, metal or glass assemblies with epoxy glues. For many years, these workers suffered from eczema and rhinitis. A study of the subjects' workplaces revealed a number of airborne pollutants (epoxy resins, hardeners, solvents). The gluing workstations were transferred to a location with a ventilation system and were equipped with hoods with transparent fronts; this eliminated all airborne pollutants.
Arbetsmiljö, 1982, No.7, p.42-43. Illus.
Local exhaust ventilation problems of stationary welding workplaces and new solutions
Probleme und neuere Lösungen zur Absaugung an stationären Schweissplätzen [in German]
Review of the effects of working methods, ventilation and convection currents on atmospheric contamination during welding. Presentation of new designs for welding benches with: (a)built-in exhaust ventilation hood; (b)additional exhaust ventilation slots; and (c)a positive ventilation slot at the front of the welding bench producing an air curtain which forces the fumes into the exhaust ventilation hood. The effectiveness of the blower/exhaust device is shown diagrammaticaly.
Schweissen und Schneiden, 1982, Vol.34, No.2, p.90-93. Illus. 3 ref.
Caplan K.J., Knutson G.W.
Influence of room air supply on laboratory hoods
The effect of room air supply system on laboratory fume hood performance was investigated using a previously developed test. The test measures the concentration of tracer gas in the breathing zone of the worker when the tracer, mixed with air, is released at known rates at various positions within the hood. The terminal velocity of supply air jets is as important as the hood face velocity in its effect on performance. Terminal velocity of jets should be <1/2 to 2/3 the face velocity. Data for wall grilles, ceiling diffusers and perforated ceiling panels are presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1982, Vol.43, No.10, p.738-746. Illus. 3 ref.
Caplan K.J., Knutson G.W.
A performance test for laboratory fume hoods
A performance test was developed, using the measured concentration in the breathing zone of a worker (mannikin) at the face of the fume hood when known amounts of tracer, mixed with air, were released in the hood. The test method yields a performance rating which includes all parameters, e.g., the influence of room air currents and the presence of a worker, not just face velocity. A performance rating incorporating the tracer gas release rate in litres/min, the as-used-in-the-laboratory conditions, and the control level, in ppm, in the breathing zone of the worker, was determined. Tests conducted in the absence of a mannikin yielded much lower control levels than with the mannikin present.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1982, Vol.43, No.10, p.722-737. Illus. 7 ref.
Flow visualization II
These symposium proceedings (Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany, 9-12 Sep. 1980) include papers on: visualisation of mixing and removing methane layerings with respect to mine ventilation problems, oscillating functioning of safety valves caused by their inlet geometry, three-dimensional visualisation of flow, effects of temperature gradients on visualisation of gas flow, optical methods of flow visualisation and instrumentation.
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1025 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA, 1982. 803p. Bibl. Price: US$90.00.
Experimental studies on factory ventilation with large heat sources: Part 2 - Natural ventilation
Scale model studies were carried out on the natural ventilation of a factory building with a large heat source through air inlet openings in the working floors, in an attempt to develop a method which would take full advantage of the more marked vertical than horizontal temperature gradient. In the case of natural ventilation resulting from the density difference between columns of outdoor and indoor air, the values of the Archimedes' number in the model and under natural conditions were the same. A stratification method using the temperature gradient effect required a smaller area for vents than the conventional method and resulted in more economic ventilation designs.
Transactions of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Oct. 1982, No.20, p.1-9. Illus. 8 ref.
Pommerenck C., Granda A., Ibañez M., Almirall P., Mugica J.
The microclimate and its relation to the health and productivity of sugar industry workers
El microclima y su relación con la salud y productividad del trabajador de la industria azucarera [in Spanish]
Results of a study conducted in 10 sugar refineries on 95 workers employed in the boiling and crystallisation of sugar: determination of the corrected effective temperature, physiological examination (heart rate, oral and skin temperatures, hourly sweat rate), psychological tests. Discussion of the tabulated results. Comparison of the data collected before and after introduction of better workplace ventilation shows that appropriate ventilation has both physiological and psychological (improved productivity) benefits.
Instituto de Medicina del Trabajo, Habana, Cuba, Oct. 1982, 15p.
Centreline velocity characteristics of local exhaust ventilation hoods
Studies in front of plain and flanged local exhaust ventilation hoods show that design equations based on the work of Dallavalle and Silverman, which form the basis of today's design methods, are not valid in general. Recent experimental data were compared with a new formula and gave very close agreement.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1982, Vol.43, No.8, p.626-627. Illus. 4 ref.
Validation of a method to determine a protection factor for laboratory hoods
The method described determines a hood's relative efficiency for containing a vapour released at a known rate inside the hood. Measurement of vapour contamination in the breathing zone of a mannequin standing at the face of the hood allows determination of the effects on hood performance of air supply, turbulent room air, hood location, hood sash configuration or worker position. The test method and protection factor calculation is valid for different hoods and is a valuable tool for comparison of laboratory hood systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1982, Vol.43, No.8, p.596-601. Illus. 2 ref.
Heinsohn R.J., Johnson D., Davis J.W.
Grinding booth for large casting
Design recommendations are made for a grinding booth suitable for large castings and portable hand-held grinders. Systematically studied were the air velocities within the booth as functions of the geometry of the suction ports, recirculation jets, ventilation flow rate and recirculation flow rate. The rate at which grinding particles are injected into the air from the grinding wheel is described in terms of a size distribution function and the metal removing rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1982, Vol.43, No.8, p.587-595. Illus. 13 ref.
Stott M.D., Champion A., Wallis R., Lodge P., Sims B.J.
Environmental assessment of the SCRATA "Arcstract" air-carbon arc extraction system
The British Steel Castings Research and Trade Association (SCRATA) has designed an extraction booth marketed under the trade name Arcstract. Assessment of the fume and noise exposures associated with the new system are described. The operator's fume exposure is one-fifth of the TLV, and noise exposure approx. 90dB(A). Ergonomic benefits offered by the booth are presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.3, p.279-290. Illus. 15 ref.
Bujanov A.A., Sviščev G.a., Umanskij S.I.
Exhaust-ventilation and dust-collecting equipment in shoe and leather-article manufacturing plants
Aspiracionnye i pyleuboročnye ustanovki obuvnyh i kožgalanterejnyh predprijatijah [in Russian]
Sections cover: characteristics of dusty waste occurring in these industries; types of dust extraction equipment; removal of deposited dust using vacuum cleaners; design of exhaust-ventilation and dust-collecting equipment; fans, ducting, shutters, plenums, dust arrestors, filters; examples of how to calculate exhaust and dust-collecting systems; operation and maintenance of exhaust systems; principles of noise and vibration control in thse systems; atmospheric pollution control; safety engineering and fire protection (prevention of fires and explosions in exhaust and dust-collecting systems, safe maintenance and repair work).
Izdatel'stvo "Legakaja i piščevaja promyšlennost'", 1-j Kadaševskij per.12, 113035 Moskva M-35, USSR, 1982. 184p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: Rbl.0.75.
Local push-pull exhaust ventilation for surface treatment vats
Nawiewno-wywiewna wentylacja miejscowa przy wannach z kąpielami technologicznymi [in Polish]
Studies aimed at optimising the characteristics of the system to obtain maximum economy of energy and improved safety and health conditions, with particular reference to electroplating shops, are described. Aspects studied were laminar air flows drawn along the surface of the open baths, exhaust spectra of the exhaust hoods and their interaction with total enclosure of the vat. The results were combined with data from the world literature to generate flow parameters and construct a push-pull device for vats of Polish manufacture, taking the particular requirements of automatic electroplating into account. This type of ventilation is effective and allows the total air flow in vats more than 0.7m in width to be reduced by half compared with local exhaust ventilation systems.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.114, p.201-217. Illus. 38 ref.
Wirski W., Nowicki J., Glinski M.
Study of a local ventilation and air-cleaning installation at arc-welding workstations
Badania urządzenia przeznaczonego do wentylacji miejscowej i oczyszczania powietrza na stanowiskach spawania łukowego [in Polish]
This laboratory study, undertaken in industrial conditions, aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a recently designed ventilation and filtering device for the collection of welding pollutants at their point of emission. Description and diagram of the device which proved satisfatory for manual and semi-automatic arc welding. It may also be used in other working conditions where there is a risk of exposure to harmful and toxic vapours and aerosols.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.113, p.89-105. Illus. 13 ref.
Feilcke F., Hölzel G., König R.
Improvement of ventilation and exhaust installations in welders' training shops
Verbesserungen von Be- und Entlüftungsanlagen in Ausbildungsschweisswerkstätten [in German]
Report describing the research carried out to determine the conditions for an efficient elimination of harmful substances produced by welding: initial situation, problem definition, methods, research work (general information on ventilation, measurement of temperature rise during welding, measurement of pollution and air movements produced by various welding techniques, tests on models). In the light of the results obtained, rules for the design and construction of welding benches are set out. Air pollution may be reduced at little cost by use of welding benches with built-in exhaust systems as described in this document.
Deutscher Verlag für Schweisstechnik GmbH, Postfach 2725, 4000 Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 174p. Illus. 10 ref.
Measurement of air-change rates using integrating instruments
Luftomsättningsmätning med medelvärdesmätande instrument [in Swedish]
Description of a method for measuring the air-change rate in a room by using instruments normally used for exposure measurements (e.g. charcoal detector tubes). Tests and error calculations show that, under favourable circumstances, this integrating instrument method gives a level of accuracy similar to that obtainable when using instruments that have instantaneous data presentation (i.e. continuous measurement using a tracer gas).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 22p. Illus. 6 ref.
Capture of contaminants by local exhaust ventilation devices
Utsugs infångning av föroreningar [in Swedish]
The capture efficiency of local exhaust systems is defined and the effect of exhaust systems on contamination reduction is discussed. The functional relation between capture efficiency and exhaust air flow may be described by S-shaped curves. The combined effect of capture efficiency and degree of use is considered; the level of combined effect depends mainly on the smaller of the 2 parameters. Local exhaust systems with a built-in filter and recirculated exhaust air are dealt with.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 23p. Illus. 15 ref.
A new generation of laboratory fume cupboards
Eine neue Generation von Abzügen [in German]
The operation and limitations of conventional fume cupboards are described. These criteria (high cost of laboratory air, reduction of airflow) were used as basic parameters for a computer-assisted design programme. The outcome was the development of a new model of laboratory fume cupboard with a modified airflow system (2 vertical vortexes moving in opposite rotational directions and flowing upwards). This new design underwent extensive testing: air velocity profiles in the working aperture, gas dwell time in the hood, interference factor of the sliding window when left open. One of the advantages of this laboratory fume cupboard is the virtually total separation of laboratory air and fume - cupboard air.
Chemische Rundschau, 20 Oct. 1982, vol.35, No.43, p.3 and 6. Illus.
Lückner S., Österberg L.
Improving the working environment at low pressure spraying work stations
Möjligheter att förbättra arbetsmiljön vid lågtryckssprutning [in Swedish]
A description of the low-pressure paint spraying technique is given, and it is pointed out that during normal work up to 50% of the paint sprayed may be lost into the atmosphere. To minimise atmospheric contamination, it is proposed that : the spray method and spray nozzle should be selected to ensure that paint atomisation is no finer than necessary; spraying parameters should be optimised to minimise spray loss; ventilation air should be directed in such a way as to carry spray mists away from the operator. The most important parameter affecting spray loss is the spraying distance: the greater the spraying distance the greater the paint loss. Increased air pressure and decreased paint flow also increase the paint loss.
Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 11485 Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 1982. 21p. Illus. 7 ref.
Ventilation and air-conditioning in mines
Grubenbewetterung und Klimatechnik [in German]
This issue reproduces the papers presented at a special session of the Federal German Technical Committee on Mine Ventilation and Air Conditioning (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany, 24 June 1982): trends, innovation and progress in air conditioning in German coal mines; causes of air heating in face workings and roadway headings; design and operation of central refrigeration plants; cooling the airstream at faces and gateroads; air cooling for roadway headings; design and capacity of ventilation-air coolers; testing cooled suits for miners; the current situation in air conditioning and future perspectives.
Glückauf, 1982, Vol.118, No.19, p.973-1015. Illus. 68 ref.
Measurement of ventilation flow rates in an emergency situation
Mesure des débits d'aérage en situation d'urgence [in French]
Description of methods for rapidly determining, e.g. in the event of fire, a mine roadway cross-section or the airflow velocity. The error may be up to 20% in the measurement of cross section and up to 10% in the measurement of air velocity; the total error will be a maximium of 30%.
Industrie minérale - les techniques, 1982, No.5, Supplement to May issue 1982, p.315-317.
Nironi G., Ravarini L.M.
The operator's protective booth in spray painting
Nella verniciatura fondamentale la cabina per la protezione dell'operatore [in Italian]
Considerations on the basic health and safety requirements to be met by paint spray booths are followed by sections on: classification of spray booths and walls; cleaning of the mist-laden exhaust air; booth dimensions; ventilation system; exhaust ventilation, pressurisation, air conditioning; requirements with regard to the elimination of solvents and paint particles, to micro-climate and ambient air pollution; tables of solvent TLV's and illumination levels for paint work; minimum ventilation performances (air volume and velocity, turbulence, temperature, humidity); monitoring of air velocity; booth flooring; spray painting of cavities; relations between booth and paint spray equipment.
Rivista di meccanica, Oct. 1982 (II), No.771, p.97-107. Illus.
Guide to ventilation practice - 1: Purifying the workplace air
Guide pratique de ventilation - 1: L'assainissement de l'air des locaux de travail [in French]
This information sheet gives guidance and reference material for the design, operation, inspection and testing of air cleaning and purification systems. Sections cover: design and operation of exhaust ventilation systems (with or without air cleaning devices and heat recovery units); air recycling systems; design, calculation and monitoring of an air recycling installation; heat recovery units; air purifiers; monitoring systems for air recycling units.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1982, No.109, Note No.1394-109-82, p.473-491. Illus. 8 ref.
Clapp D.E., Groh D.J., Nenadic C.M.
Ventilation design by microcomputer
An interactive computer programme for the Apple II Microcomputer, which eliminates the manual calculations and provides the additional power and flexibility of computer processing, for use in the design of ventilation systems is described. Designs can be reworked and stored for later recall, review and possible redesign. The computer programme prompts the user through the design process in a logical step by step manner. Most design data is contained in the programme, and the user needs only a schematic drawing of the layout and a selection of hoods including exhaust volume, duct velocity, and entry losses.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.212-217. Illus. 4 ref.
Atmospheric dilution of fume hood exhaust gases
Guidelines are proposed for the design of fume hood exhaust systems such that sufficient atmospheric dilution is obtained to prevent unacceptable contamination of fresh air intakes. An empirical design criterion, used in pharmaceutical research laboratories, is presented. The literature on the calculation of atmospheric dilution near buildings is reviewed and suggestions are offered regarding the appropriate choice of a design formula for a given application.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.185-189. Illus. 7 ref.
Goodfellow H.D., Smith J.W.
Industrial ventilation - a review and update
This review of the technological progress being made in the industrial ventilation field by different investigators throughout the world covers: natural ventilation; local exhaust ventilation; specialised ventilation techniques (dilution, air jets and curtains, recirculation of filtered air, exhaust of open surface tanks, tracers for ventilation studies); mine ventilation. Typical applications of the new technology to solving ventilation problems are presented, and important areas requiring further research and development work are identified.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.175-184. 128 ref.
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres - Part 13: Construction and use of rooms or buildings protected by pressurization
Matériel électrique pour atmosphères explosives - Treiziène partie: Construction et exploitation de salles ou bâtiments protégés par surpression interne [in French]
This IEC report defines the conditions for the use of electrical apparatus in a room or a building in which there is a protective gaz at a pressure higher than that of the outside atmosphere (where flammable gases or vapours may be present). It includes recommendations for the construction, equipment and operation of rooms or buildings and recommendations for the necessary tests (protective-gas ducts, protective measures for electrical apparatus, values of overpessure and of protective-gas flow, verifications and tests, and marking).
International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1982. 17p. Price: SF.28.00.
Niemelä R., Pfäffli P., Härkönen H.
Ventilation and exposure to organic solvents at car-wash installations
Ilmanvaihto ja liuotinainealtistuminen autonpesupaikoilla [in Finnish]
Report of a study of 11 car-wash installations to determine: the level of exposure of workers to solvents (white spirit containing mainly aliphatic but also some aromatic hydrocarbons); and the effectiveness of the ventilation systems. Concentrations measured varied widely due to differences in both the efficiency of the ventilation systems and the type of vehicle being washed. The average concentration in the breathing zone was 160mg/m3 (range of 5-465mg/m3) when private cars were being washed; for lorries the corresponding figures were 270mg/m3 and 45-685 mg/m3. The average exposure was below the recommended limit of 770mg/m3. However, peak concentrations were as high as 4,500mg/m3. Average airflow during car washing was 1.3m3/s. Ventilation was most efficient when make-up air was blown down from the ceiling and exhausted near floor level.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniitynitie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 39p. 19 ref. Illus. Price: Fmk.20.00.
Niemelä R., Heikkilä P., Rantanen S., Liius R., Lund G.
Local exhaust systems and air contaminants in hot dip galvanising
Kuumasinkitysaltaiden kohdepoistot ja ilman epäpuhtaudet [in Finnish]
The composition and concentrations of fumes released during hot dip galvanising were determined and effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems in hot dip galvanising shops were assessed. Fume concentration and composition were measured in 9 plants, and ventilation effectiveness was determined in 5 plants. The main source of fume was usually the flux, and fume composition was ammonium chloride (41%), zinc ammonium chloride (47%), zinc chloride (5%), zinc and zinc oxide (7%) and small amounts of hydrogen chloride. Average fume concentration in the worker's breathing zone was 5.6mg/m3. Highest exposure occured when immersing articles in molten zinc. Highest fume concentrations were in plants with no local exhaust ventilation systems. The most effective systems had an exhaust hood covering the full length of the tank with an airflow of 1.3m3/s/m2. Other factors in exhaust hood design are described. French translation available from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Tiöterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 50p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00.
Industrial ventilation - A manual of recommended practice - 17th Edition
Chapters of this manual cover: general principles of ventilation; dilution ventilation; ventilation for heat control; hood design; specific operations that require special hood and ventilation designs; design procedure for ventilation systems; make-up and recirculated air; construction specifications for local exhaust systems; testing of ventilation systems; fan design, selection and installation; air cleaning devices (types, selection, costs, and special requirements for radioactive materials). Appendices give: threshold limit values; sensory limits; physical constants of selected substances, solvent drying times and psychrometric charts.
Committee on Industrial Ventilation, P.O. Box 16153, Lansing, MI 48901, USA, 1982. 17th edition. 416p. Illus. 140 ref.
Stuart D.G., Greenier T.J., Rumery R.A., Eagleson J.M.
Survey, use, and performance of biological safety cabinets
The types of cabinet available, how they are designed to function, their proper use and their expected performance are discussed. A class II Type A biological safety cabinet was evaluated by challenge with Bacillus subtilis spores at line voltages of 85-130V in order to determine performance during simulated brownout and power surge conditions. With a 20.3cm high work opening the cabinet passed both personnel and product protection tests at all voltages. With a 25.4cm high work opening the cabinet passed the same tests with the exception of the personnel protection test at 85V. The motor-blower performance characteristics were adequate for this cabinet to perform its safety function over a considerable range of line voltages.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1982, Vol.43, No.4, p.265-270. Illus. 18 ref.
Amano K., Mizuta Y., Hiramatsu Y.
An improved method of predicting underground climate
Proposal of a more accurate method of precalculation that takes into account the observation that the temperature of the airway wall at which water vaporisation occurs is lower than the temperature in case of no vaporisation. Geothermal heat flow from dry rock therefore increases, and temperature and humidity of air current are affected. To perform the calculation by this method, the authors present a new method for determining the wetness factor. Applicability and accuracy of this method were examined by comparing the calculated results with the measured results. The comparison showed that the new method gives temperature and especially humidity predictions with improved accuracy. Improved prediction of underground climate can be expected from simultaneous calculation of rate of flow, temperature and humidity in the underground network.
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Feb. 1982, Vol.19, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. 20 ref.
Welding fume extraction - a guide to equipment selection
Guidance to workshop managers and other people responsible for the purchase of this equipment: protection criteria to reduce welding fume exposure; selection of a local exhaust extraction systems (portable or wheel-mounted units, benches or booths with built-in extraction ventilation, ducted systems); factors affecting the choice (welding processes, welding consumables, shop layout, power supplies, existing ventilation, type of fabrication work, production considerations, need for filtration, economic factors); data to be specified when placing the order (performance, power requirements, engineering, health and safety, maintenance).
Metal Construction, Apr. 1982, Vol.14, No.4, p.186-191. Illus. 2 ref.
Practical ventilation guide - 2. Ventilation of surface treatment vats and tanks
Guide pratique de ventilation - 2: ventilation des cuves et bains de traitement de surface [in French]
This study is intended as a guide and reference document for the design and monitoring of installations for collecting or diluting the pollutants given off by surface treatment vats and tanks. Field of use: all chemical or electrolytic processes in which the parts to be treated are immersed in liquids (excluding solvent degreasing processes, processes using salt or molten-metal baths and organic coating processes in general). Sections are devoted to: general principles of ventilation; ventilation system design (determination of category and overall level of risk, choice of ventilation configuration, flowrate calculations, effluent treatment); installation inspection and monitoring. Appendices: classification of surface treatment processes and general design data for ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1982, No.106, Note No.1361-106-82, p.1-21. Illus. 10 ref.
Environmental factors in mines
Grubenklima [in German]
After a general survey of the various environmental factors in mines, this manual describes in detail the correlations between man, microclimate and work (criteria for thermal stress, temperature limits around the world), the different microclimates and heat sources in mines. Chapters dealing with climate improvement in mines: principles and methods, climate forecasting and measurement data, microclimate planning in coal mines and air cooling, personal and areal cooling equipment, climate measuring instruments. Practical tables and examples of calculations are presented in the appendix.
Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Postfach 103945, 4300 Essen 1, Federal Republic Republic of Germany, 1981. 229p. Illus. 140 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Recirculation of cleaned air
This data sheet describes the safety precautions to be taken when recirculation of air is used in the workplace.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1981. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Measuring air flow in ducts and hoods
This data sheet describes equipment and techniques for measuring air flow in ventilation ducts and hoods used in foundries.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1981. 3p. Illus. 7 ref.
Janov A.P., Stukanov V.I., Ivanov V.N., Poddubnyj V.L., Loginov S.M., Lubenec V.A., Petik V.V., Potemka N.G.
A high-speed electric air filter for mines with a liquid precipitating electrode
Skorostnoj rudničnyj ėlektrofil'tr s židkostnym osaditel'nym ėlektrodom [in Russian]
In a new air filter for use in mines, horizontal pans of water are the precipitating surfaces; the liquid offers a very flat surface which is continuously renewed, and precipitated dust is continuously removed by the liquid stream. The design of the filter makes use of both electrostatic and aerodynamic forces: the air stream makes repeated contact with the precipitating electrodes, which promotes inertial precipitation of the entrained dust. A description, diagram and performance characteristics of the filter are given. The filter can be used for cleaning both exhaust ventilation air and air from local exhaust systems in ferrous ore comminution, enrichment and sintering plants.
Gornyj žurnal, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.54-56. Illus. 5 ref.
Marques de Almeida M.J.
Manual of dust control at the workplace
Manual de captação de poeiras nos locais de trabalho [in Portuguese]
Contents: pressure determination, determination of exhaust speed; determination of pressure drop; fans; dust collectors; ducts; accessories; particle collection in various industries. Annex: relevent Portuguese regulations, TLVs, technical data.
Livraria Bertrand, Apartado 37, Amadora, Portugal, 1981. 388p. Illus. 56 ref.
Air conditioning of underground workings at the Darcy mine
Climatisation de chantiers au siège Darcy [in French]
Example of heat control in a mine heading. The aim of the project was to ensure that the underground temperature did not exceed 28°C. Description of the manner in which the project was carried out and of the central cooling installation (definition of requirements, location and characteristics, installation techniques). Technical and economic results.
Industrie minérale - les techniques, 1981, No.10, supplement to Dec. 1981, p.783-787.
Röder M., Damm G., Ritscher G.
Method for determining dust emissions and for optimising local exhaust ventilation of harmful substances on machinery and plant
Methode zur Ermittlung staubförmiger Emissionen und zur Optimierung der lüftungstechnischen Erfassung von Schadstoffen an Maschinen und Anlagen [in German]
This brochure gives an introduction to the collection of dust and harmful substances and the theoretical principles of collection: exhaust hoods and apertures, exhaust slots, push-pull ventilation systems, air speed. Following a review of the main rules to be observed in the design of ducting for air containing harmful substances, consideration is given to the characteristics of gas, dust and liquid separators (mechanical, filters, electrostatic, scrubbers). Portable test equipment for determining dust emission at source and the necessary minimum exhaust air speed are described: equipment, functional diagram, mode of operation, analysis of measurement results. Practical examples of the use of this equipment in the control of dust given off by mixing drums in the pottery industry.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Strasse 1, 8020 Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 1981. 69p. Illus. 20 ref.
Health and Safety Laboratories
The design of local exhaust ventilation hoods and slots
Hoods of 9 different aspect ratios between 1:1 and 16:1, with <6 different areas at a given aspect ratio were examined at Health and Safety Laboratories. Air was drawn into the hoods by a centrifugal fan; volume flow rate was regulated by a valve and measured by means of an orifice plate. Average face velocities in the range 2.30m/s were produced. Velocities along the centreline were measured with a constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer. Velocities across the hood face were found to be uniform except close to the hood edges. Centreline velocity is strongly dependent on aspect ratio, which means that the design formulae of Dallavalle (1930) and Silverman (1942) previously used to predict centreline velocities are not valid in general. The velocity induced by suction fell very rapidly with increasing distance from the hood; correct siting of the hood is therefore important if the system is to be effective. Effects of flanges are also considered.
Technical Information Leaflet, Environmental Contaminants 11, Enquiry Point, Health and Safety Executive, Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TF, United Kingdom, 1981. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: £0.15.
Barker A.H., Highton W.
Auxiliary ventilation in its wider aspects
Discusses the basic theory of the use of single fans and fans in combination in coal mines, and explains the reasons why certain fans are suitable for series and parallel combinations. The basic theory of ventilation ducting efficiency is examined and applied in several ventilation problems to produce effective solutions. A method of calculating the best combinations of fans for specific ventilation duties is detailed, including an appreciation of ways of improving ventilation performance. The basic ventilation systems are covered briefly and related to degassing procedures. The installation of standby alternative ventilation systems is explained in relation to fan maintenance.
Mining Engineer, Feb. 1981, p.573-581. Illus.
Pisarenko V.L., Roginskij M.L.
Ventilation of workstations in welding shops
Ventiljacija rabočih mest v svaročnom proizvodstve [in Russian]
Contents: occupational hygiene evaluation of the welding and gas cutting methods used (welding fumes, TLVs for atmospheric concentrations of harmful substances, health hazards specific to particular methods); atmospheric pollutants and analysis of general workplace ventilation and local exhaust ventilation; design data for local exhaust equipment (welding tables with built-in exhaust ventilation, devices for automatic welding/cutting machines, and for welding large workpieces); problems involved in calculations for, and design of, ventilation systems (determination of air exchange rate, choice of general ventilation system, efficacy of ventilation and possibilities of improvement).
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per.4, 107076 Moskva B-76, USSR, 1981. 121p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: Rbl.0.40.
Environmental aspects of auxiliary ventilation
A short review of basic ventilation systems for headings or tunnels is followed by description of ventilation systems suitable to deal with the main environmental problems in underground workings: shotfiring fumes, firedamp, and heat. Aspects of dust control in mechanised drivages using controlled recirculation systems of auxiliary ventilation are discussed. Sources of firedamp and heat in headings are considerd. Heat from various sources (geothermal heat, heading machines, auxiliary fans) is evaluated quantitatively. Discussion about: heat released by caving rock versus monolithic packing; methane concentration and recirculation system; dust sampling technique; heat resulting from the oxidation of coal; heat from autocompression of air.
Mining Engineer, Oct. 1981, Vol.141, No.241, p.217-226. Illus. 25 ref.
Centerline velocity gradients for plain and flanged local exhaust inlets
Experimental data obtained recently for high velocity, low volume, exhaust nozzles was compared with findings from the studies of circular, rectangular and narrow slot inlets, conducted by Dalla Valle and Silverman in the 1930s and 1940s and used as the basis for design equations. The application of the existing design equations for circular and rectangular inlets and narrow slots was generally confirmed. Significant variations were noted for flanged and rectangular configurations. The implications of the experimental and analytical methodology are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1981, Vol.42, No.10, p.739-746. Illus. 8 ref.
Ventilation and heating of iron- and steelworks
Ventiljacija i otoplenie zavodov černoj metallurgii [in Russian]
This manual deals with: general rules (energy requirements, economic aspects); heating industrial buildings (heat losses, choice of type of heating, calculations, thermal insulation, etc.); general ventilation (blast and other furnaces, continuous casting, hot rolling mills, calculating the rate of air renewal); local exhaust ventilation; practical examples (exhaust ventilation, air-cooling and general ventilation installations); supervision and maintenance of heating and ventilation installations.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per.14, 119034 Moskva, USSR, 1981. 240p. Illus. 64 ref. Price: Rbl.0.70.
Ventilation in welding shops
Be- und Entlüftung in Schweisswerkstätten [in German]
Following a brief analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey on working conditions in 150 welding shops (shop size), this report describes laboratory experiments on exhaust ventilation systems: experimental set-up, measurement units and methods, analog model, rising thermal current and air speed during welding, comparison of various exhaust ventilation methods for welding benches, combined exhaust positive-pressure ventilation. The results were used as the basis for rules in the design of exhaust-ventilated welding benches. Review of the ventilation systems found in various workshops visited during the study.
VDI-Verlag, Graf-Recke-Strasse 84, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 172p. Illus. 5 ref.
Recent developments in air-conditioning in South African gold mines and their possible application in coalmining
Neuentwicklungen in der Klimatechnik des südafrikanischen Goldbergbaus und ihre Anwendungsmöglichkeiten im Steinkohlenbergbau [in German]
Review of the main ventilation and air-conditioning techniques used in South African mines: ventilation networks, underground cooling units, underground cooling towers, practical aspects of air cooling methods and installations, location of cooling units. Description of the most important new developments: cooling units for air pre-cooling installed on the surface close to the entry shaft; underground water spray chambers and high-output coolers for main and partial ventilation air; cooling of water used at mine faces; use of Pelton-wheel turbines for energy recovery from the pressure drop in cold water circuits. Pelton-wheel turbines may also be of use in coalmines.
Glückauf, 17 Dec. 1981, Vol.117, No.24, p.1591-1599. Illus. 8 ref.
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