Endocrine diseases - 92 entries found
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Bélová V., Barna K.
Liver metabolism response to the administration of Delor 103
Metabolická odpoved' pečene na podanie Deloru 103 [in Slovak]
Report on experiments with rats to determine the effects of a double intraperitoneal dose of Delor 103 - a polychlorinated biphenyl used in a number of industries - on glycaemia, liver glycogen concentration, hepatic glycogen-phosphorylase activity and lactate and pyruvate concentrations in liver homogenate. An increase in glycogen concentration and a slow-down in glycogen-phosphorylase activity were observed. Glycaemia and pyruvate levels were unchanged and the lactate concentration fell. The result was a fall in the lactate/pyruvate ratio.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1982, Vol.34, No.2, p.46-48. 24 ref.
Newton R.W., Browning M.C.K., Nicholson P.C., Mowat D.A.E.
Adrenocortical suppression in workers employed in manufacturing synthetic glucocorticosteroids: solutions to a problem
Follow-up study in a plant manufacturing synthetic glucocorticosteroids in which severe adrenocortical suppression had been detected in 1977 and in which enhanced safety measures had been introduced. These health protection measures are described (use of full air suits instead of air hoods, regular measurement of dust levels of active glucocorticosteroids, etc.). Regular tetracosactin testing was carried out on exposed workers in whom serum cortisol levels fell below 5µg/ml. Improvement of protection for workers together with operational and plant changes resulted in a significant rise in the mean morning cortisol values of workers until, in 1979, men employed in all steroid processes had concentrations that did not differ from those of controls.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1982, Vol.39, No.2, p.179-182. Illus. 2 ref.
Chase K.H., Wong O., Thomas D., Berney B.W., Simon R.K.
Clinical and metabolic abnormalities associated with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Study of 120 male workers in a railway locomotive and carriage maintenance works, in which there had been exposure to transformer fluids containing PCBs for nearly 40 years, to determine the prevalence of increased PCB absorption and the presence of potentially related clinical and metabolic abnormalities. Workers were categorised as "exposed", "nominally exposed" and "non-exposed". Evidence of dermatotoxicity and elevated PCB levels was found most frequently in the "exposed group", correlating well with age and duration of employment; significant correlations were found between plasma PCB and STG and SGOT levels; no significant correlations were found between PCB levels and levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of levels studied on liver function tests other than SGOT. Further analysis relating frequency of reported direct contact with PCB levels suggested a dermal route of exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.24, No.2, p.109-114. 14 ref.
Some neurohormonal and blood coagulation changes in the early onset of vibration disease in miners
Nekotorye nejrogormonal'nye i gemokoaguljacionnye izmenenija pri rannih projavlenijah vibracionnoj patologii u šahterov [in Russian]
The appearance and rate of progression of vibration disease was studied as a function of metabolic and neurohormonal state in 180 hospitalised coalminers 30 to 50 years of age. Patients with various symptoms of vibration disease had elevated adrenal glucocorticoid activities and reduced activities of the peripheral sympathetic-adrenal system. Patients whose disorders were primarily in the peripheral nervous system and muscles had enhanced adrenal cortical activity but no alteration in catecholamine secretion. Patients with primarily neurocirculatory disorders showed hyporeactivity of the adrenocorticoid system with dissociation of sympathetic-adrenal function: activation of the hormonal component and suppression of the sympathetic component. The state of miners with a long history of exposure to vibration is characterised as "previbration disease", which is frequently associated with reduced urinary excretion of noradrenaline.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1981, No.5, p.39-40
Influence of age on lipid metabolism and evolution of silicosis in rats
Vlijanie vozrastnogo faktora na sostojanie lipidnogo obmena i razvitie silikoza u krys [in Russian]
Analysis of experimental data on the influence of age on the lipid metabolism and oxyproline contents of the lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, myocardium and blood during the evolution of silicosis induced by intratracheal administration or chronic inhalation of silica dust. The dry weight of the parenchymatous organs and myocardium in healthy rats increased with age parallel to the organ contents of oxyproline and lipids. In young rats silicosis developed earlier and more intensively than in older ones. The development of silicosis was accompanied by a rise in oxyproline and lipid levels in the parenchymatous organs and myocardium. Silicosis is concomitant with disturbances of the metabolism of lipids and hydroxyproline-containing proteins, and it appears that the ageing process is accelerated under the influence of silica dust.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1981, No. 4, p. 27-30, 23 ref.
Makarov I.A., Makarenko K.I., Desjatnikova N.V.
Changes in hormone and lipid metabolism in workers with chronic methyl methacrylate poisoning
Ob izmenenijah gormonal'nogo i lipidnogo obmenov pri hroničeskoj profintoksikacii metilmetakrilatom [in Russian]
After cessation of exposure, the lipid metabolism improves significantly in people suffering from chronic methyl methacrylate (MMA) poisoning. The study of hormones involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism revealed that this improvement is brought about by an increase in insulin level and a reduction in somatotropic hormone. As long as the workers are exposed to MMA, these hormone changes take place against the background of enhanced triiodothyronine secretion which inhibits the hyperlipidaemic action of insulin. After cessation of MMA exposure, the thyroid function returns to normal, which entails a stimulation of the lipogenic effect of hyperinsulinaemia.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1981, No. 4, p. 20-22. l4 ref.
Klein G., Gromadies B., Bürger A., Scheunert E., Rittner G.
Effects of long-term exposure to carbon disulfide and halogenated hydrocarbons, especially perchloroethylene, on lipid metabolism
Langzeitwirkungen von Schwefelkohlenstoff und Halogenkohlenwasserstoffen, besonders Perchloräthylen, auf den Fettstoffwechsel [in German]
Comparative study of 111 workers exposed to CS2 (222 controls) and 189 workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons (378 controls). A significantly increased rate of lipid metabolism changes (42.3%) was found in the CS2-exposed persons; in the group exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons, the hyperlipoproteinaemia rate was 13.2%. Correlations were established between the β-lipoproteins, tri-glycerides and cholesterol, and the results of other laboratory tests. The positive correlations between the Broca index, lipoproteins and cholesterol were most marked in those exposed to CS2. The pathology of changes in lipid metabolism and standard biological values (lipoproteins in particular) due to halogenated hydrocarbons and CS2 is discussed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.48-51. 21 ref.
Toftgård R., Nilsen O.G., Gustafsson J.Å
Changes in rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 and enzymatic activities after the inhalation of n-hexane, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone and methylchloroform for four weeks
Different groups of rats were exposed, by inhalation, to 324mg/m3 n-hexane (H), 2625mg/m3 xylene (X), 2345mg/m3 methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 4345mg/m3 methylchloroform (MC) for 4 weeks. Increased liver weights and liver to body weight ratios were observed for all the solvents except H. Increased in-vitro formation of certain metabolites of all the investigated substrates was found only in the rats exposed to X. The in-vitro microsomal metabolism of biphenyl, benzo(a)pyrene, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that H had no effect on rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 and that MEK and MC depressed the formation of 2 metabolites of androstenedione but did not alter the concentration of cytochrome P-450 under these experimental conditions. X was a phenobarbital-like inducer of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.31-37. 34 ref.
Histopathological studies with reference to chronic cadmium exposure in adrenal and spleen of common Indian ground squirrel
Ground squirrels were injected intraperitoneally with a daily dose of cadmium acetate, at 1.0mg Cd/kg body weight, for 4, 5, 6 and 7 weeks, and the adrenals and spleen of exposed animals were compared with those of controls. The adrenals showed dilatation of sinusoids, fatty change in the cells of the cortex, hyaline-like mass in the medulla, haemorrhage adjacent to the medulla, circumscribed haemorrhage in the cortex, and congested blood vessels. The spleen showed congestion in blood vessels, thickening of vessel walls, and congestion and dilatation of sinusoids. The body weight gain of Cd-exposed animals was significantly lower than that of the controls, and the increase in spleen weight was significantly higher.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.1, p.9-14. Illus. 8 ref.
The effect of methyl methacrylate on the body mass of workers employed in the manufacture of polyacrylate
O vlijanii metilovogo ėfira metakrilovoj kisloty na massu tela rabočih, zanjatyh v proizvodstve organičeskogo stekla [in Russian]
A comparative study of 94 plastics industry workers with symptoms of chronic methyl methacrylate poisoning and 500 controls has shown that long-term occupational exposure to this compound causes a considerable increase in body fat. This may be due to over-eating as a result of hyperinsulinaemia.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.53-55. Illus. 9 ref.
Skvorcoca P.I., Pozdnjakovskij V.M., Rudakova S.A.
Metabolic function changes in phenol-formaldehyde-resin production workers
Sostojanie nekotoryh metaboličeskih funkcij u rabočih proizvodstva fenolformal'degidnyh smol [in Russian]
Comparison of the results of medical examinations on 147 phenol-formaldehyde resin workers and 38 controls showed that chronic exposure to low concentrations of phenol and formaldehyde is accompanied by changes in metabolic acetylation. These changes indicate inhibition of metabolic regulation processes and are attributed to the effects of phenol.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.69-71. 20 ref.
Bahn A.K., Mills J.L., Snyder P.J., Gann P.H., Houten L., Bialik O., Hollmann L., Utiger R.D.
Hypothyroidism in workers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls.
4 of 35 workers involved in production of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated biphenyl oxides (PBBOs) showed primary hypothyroidism. The increase was statistically significant in comparison with controls and the general population. Thyroid abnormalities developed in animals given PBBs and PBBOs.
New England Journal of Medicine, 3 Jan. 1980, Vol. 302, No.1, p.31-33. 6 ref.
Bulatova F.D., Sof'ina L.I.
Pancreatic disorders in workers in the petrochemical industry
Funkcional'noe sostojanie podželudočnoj železy u rabočih, zanjatyh na neftehimičeskih proizvodstvah [in Russian]
Pancreatic internal and external secretion tests in 346 workers exposed to saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (concentrations approximating their TLVs) showed a predominance of pancreatic disorders in subjects with chronic cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia without symptoms of inflammation. Conclusions to be drawn regarding medical supervision of workers.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1979, No.12, p.28-30. 13 ref.
Makarov I.A., Makarenko K.I., Salmin A.A., Ermakova G.A.
Carbohydrate metabolism regulation in chronic occupational methyl methacrylate poisoning
Osobennosti reguljacii uglevodnogo obmena pri hroničeskoj profintoksikacii metilovym ėfirom metakrilovoj kisloty [in Russian]
Studies in 84 workers engaged in the synthesis, casting and moulding of this plastic. All had chronic poisoning. Provoked hyperglycaemia tests and liver function studies revealed hyperfunction of the islands of Langerhans. The body reacts to overproduction of insulin by developing insulin resistance in the tissues. The unusual blood sugar curves so often observed in methyl methacrylate poisoning appear to be due to increased intestinal glucose absorption.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1979, No.6, p.25-27. 5 ref.
Lyle W.H., Spence T.W.M., McKinneley W.M., Duckers K.
Dimethylformamide and alcohol intolerance.
Facial flushing and other symptoms similar to the disulfiram/ethanol reaction were reported by 19 of 102 dimethylformamide (DMF) workers. At least 26 of the 34 episodes occurred after consumption of alcohol. The metabolite N-methylformamide (MF) was found in the urine on 45 occasions. The highest concentration of DMF in air was 200ppm. The DMF-ethanol reaction may be due to inhibition of acetaldehyde metabolism, probably by MF.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1979, Vol.36, No.1, p.63-66. 12 ref.
Electrolyte metabolism in workers exposed to lead in modern production conditions
Sostojanie ėlektrolitnogo obmena u rabotajuščih so svincom v uslovijah sovremennogo promyšlennogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Electrolyte levels were determined in the plasma, red blood cells and urine of 133 workers (typesetters and solderers of electronic equipment) chronically exposed to lead fumes at concentrations close to the Soviet exposure limit of 0.01mg/m3. Statistical evaluation of results showed a relation between length of service and metabolic effects. Compared with 39 controls the workers had elevated blood level concentrations and excreted sodium and chlorine in the urine. Other findings were reduced extra and intracellular phosphorus, increased plasma potassium, functional renal changes, and disturbance of central water and electrolyte regulation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1978, No.12, p.24-28. Illus. 21 ref.
Menčík M., Nauš A., Švábová K.
Influence of trichloroethylene on glucide metabolism
K otázce ovlivnění glycidového metabolismu trichlóretylénem [in Czech]
Report of a study covering, firstly, 25 workers exposed for an average of 25 years, while employed in coating the insides of tanks with rubber, to trichloroethylene (TCE) concentrations which sometimes reached ceiling values of 2,730mg/m3, and secondly, 10 workers employed in a dry cleaning plant, half of whom were exposed for more than 11 years to small but stable TCE concentrations. Not more than 200mg/l trichloroethanol and 100mg/l trichloroacetic acid was found in the urine of the second group of workers. The authors observed in the first group pre-diabetic or diabetic glucide metabolism disorders and blood transaminases, or other indices of hepatic damage, above normal limits. No disorders were found in the second group. The authors consider that the findings in the first group of workers may be connected with the sudden high ceiling values of TCE to which they were exposed.
Pracovní lékařství, May 1978, Vol.30, No.5, p.183-187. 7 ref.
Occupational amino acid metabolism changes (literature survey)
Arbeitsmedizinisch bedingte Veränderungen des Aminosäurenhaushalts (Literaturbericht) [in German]
Literature published from 1952 to 1975 is presented in a review of the factors relevant to these changes (exertion, whole-body radiation, electromagnetic fields, ultrasound, cold, dust, metals and metalloids, solvents, acids and bases, pesticides, herbicides, plastics). Changes in urinary amino acid excretion due to exertion, and the presence of hydroxyproline as an indicator of collagenoses, are given special emphasis.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1978, Vol.24, No.1, p.12-20. Illus. 123 ref.
Studies on pancreatic endocrine function and changes of the eye-ground in workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
The response of blood glucose, serum insulin (IRI), serum C-peptide, plasma pancreatic glucagon and serum growth hormone (HGH) to oral glucose loading (100gm) and retinal changes was studied in workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2). The results suggest that CS2 exposure causes hypofunction of pancreatic cells and hyposecretion of HGH. There was no reduction of glucose tolerance. There appears to be a relation between the diminished response of IRI and the pathogenesis of diabetic-like retinopathy in workers exposed to CS2. Summary in English.
Folia Endocrinologica, 20 Feb. 1978, Vol.54, No.2, p.174-186. Illus. 33 ref.
Bezsmertnyj V.E., Kurljandskij B.A.
Effect of long term exposure to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride on the regulatory mechanisms for protein synthesis
O dlitel'nom dejstvii četyrehhloristogo ugleroda v malyh koncentracijah na mehanizmy reguljacii sinteza belka [in Russian]
Exposure of white rats to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) upset the mechanism for protein synthesis in the liver. Stopping the exposure started an increase in the amounts of ribonucleic acids in this organ, indicating an intensification of the recuperation process. The study of the protein synthesis regulating mechanism is useful for the determination of hepatotoxic effects. A revision of the Soviet threshold limit value of 20mg/m3 CCl4 in the workplace air is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1978, No.1, p.33-37. Illus. 5 ref.
Cavalleri A., Polatti F., Bolis P.F.
Acute effects of tetraethylthiuram disulfide on serum levels of hypophyseal hormones in humans.
9 male and 7 female volunteers were given 1.0g tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD) orally. Immediately after the TETD administration, serum thyrotropin (ST) level sharply decreased and reached the lowest point at the 24th hour. Prolactin appeared to decrease, but it reached the initial level at the 24th hour. A lower decrease was evidenced for the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), statistically significant only for males, and for the luteinising hormone (LH) of females. Since dopamine decreases the release of ST and prolactin and also since the secretion of the LH and the FSH is regulated by monoamines of the central nervous system, the findings may be related to disturbances in catecholamine metabolism induced by TETD and CS2 and they may be explained by an increase in dopamine in the central nervous system and by the concomitant decrease of norepinephrine as a consequence of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase blockade. These data may also confirm the reduced thyroid activity of workers exposed to CS2; the origin of the reduced activity seems related to a central involvement of catecholamine metabolism, which would influence the activity of target glands through hypothalamic-releasing factors and the hypophyseal hormones.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1978, Vol.4, No.1, p.66-72. Illus. 28 ref.
Steibert E., Urbanovicz H.
Experimental cadmium poisoning in rabbits - Lipid metabolism and influence of zinc
Experimentální intoxikace kadmiem u králíků. Metabolismus lipidů a jeho ovlivnění zinkem [in Czech]
1mg/kg cadmium (Cd) daily was administered parenterally to rabbits for 6 weeks. Total liver and renal lipid levels were significantly lower than in controls, and the relative proportions of the main lipid fractions were altered. These changes did not occur when the animals were given 1.2mg/kg zinc (Zn) in addition. Administration of Cd reduced, in absolute terms, the fatty acids of the main lipid fractions, while Cd plus Zn changed the proportions of unsaturated acids and certain saturated acids. These changes show Cd to produce lipogenesis disorders, attributed to reduced insulin excretion by the pancreas following Cd accumulation. The protective role of Zn was demonstrated.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1977, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.161-165. 15 ref.
Zaprjanov Z., Hadžieva I., Uševa G., Bojadžieva Ž.
Tryptophan metabolism disturbances in lead-exposed workers
Smuštenija v obmjanata na triptofana u rabotešti v kontakt s olovo [in Bulgarian]
Results of clinical studies in 11 workers exposed to lead for an average of 13 years: changes in porphyrin synthesis were accompanied by a significant increase in urinary 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and 3-pyridoxic acid (final metabolite of vitamin B6), and in the nicotinamide:total nicotinic acid ratio. These findings and results after administration of L-tryptophan showed that chronic lead exposure produces the same patterns of enzyme inhibition as found in in vitro studies, i.e. during conversion of 3-hydroxykynurenine to 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and synthesis of pyridic nucleotides from nicotinamide or quinolinic acid.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, May 1977, Vol.20, No.3, p.209-218. Illus. 48 ref.
Dumkin V.N., Ryžkova M.N., Korenevskaja S.P., Harlamova S.F., Milkov L.E.
Glucocorticoid function of the adrenal glands in the pathogenesis of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Gljukokortikoidnaja funkcija nadpočečnikov v patogeneze hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
The authors determined, by partition chromatography, the levels of 11-deoxy-17-hydroxytetrahydrocorticosterone, cortisone and their derivatives in urine samples from 40 workers with carbon disulfide poisoning (varying from initial stages to pronounced symptoms). They observed a decrease in basal excretion and modifications of the levels of constituent fractions. Administration of small doses of adrenalin provoked reactions of the hypophysio-corticoadrenal system, which were proportional to the severity of damage to the hypothalamus. The data obtained facilitate a differential approach to the treatment of carbon disulfide poisoning.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1976, No.6, p.12-16. 15 ref.
Effects of administration of cadmium sulfate on the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis in the rat
Effets de l'administration de sulfate de cadmium sur l'axe hypothalamo-hypophyso-testiculaire du rat. [in French]
MD thesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium-induced early lesions are limited to the testis or can spread to other levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis, and thus contribute to the development or maintenance of peripheral gonadal lesions. A general section on cadmium and its toxicity (metabolism, clinical signs and symptoms of poisoning, reproductive effects) is followed by a report on experiments comprising a single abdominal subcutaneous injection of 3.74mg/kg cadmium sulfate to 24 rats. Cadmium sulfate produces massive testicular lesions, involving both the germinal epithelium and Sertoli's cells and the interstitium. These lesions are related to histological changes in the gonadotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary, indicating either a functional effect secondary to the toxic testicular one, or a direct action of cadmium on these cells. Blood levels of gonadotrophin A (FSH) and B (LH) fell considerably in the first days, to increase significantly after a week. Blood testosterone fell greatly after a week.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1976. 50p. Illus. 91 ref.
Rodermund O.E., Wieland H.
Vitiligo-like depigmentation, hepatosplenomegaly and goitre caused by occupational contact with p-tert-butylphenol - A new systemic occupational disease
Vitiligoartige Depigmentierungen, Leber-, Milz-Veränderungen und Struma durch beruflichen Kontakt mit paratertiärem Butylphenol - eine neue systemische Berufskrankheit [in German]
Vitiligoid depigmentation and, for the first time, hepatosplenopathy and goitre with disturbed thyroid hormone synthesis were observed in 3 workers employed in p-tert-butylphenol production. The authors put forward the hypothesis of a systemic action of p-tert-butylphenol affecting various organ systems, as a result of ingestion or inhalation of the substance. The findings are confirmed by observations of other authors.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Dec. 1975, Vol.23, No.6, p.193-195. 6 ref.
Paulet G., Roncin G., Vidal E., Toulouse P., Dassonville J.
Fluorocarbons and general metabolism in the rat, rabbit and dog.
The metabolic effects of the inhalation of monofluorotrichloromethane (FC11) and difluorodichloromethane (FC12) were studied in various animal species, both in single exposure and repeated exposure experiments. The results are presented in tabular form and discussed. FC12 at 20% in a single exposure or at 5% in prolonged exposure (15 days) does not induce metabolic reactions. The same is true for FC11 at 2.5%; however, FC11 at 5% does produce significant effects which can be explained by a slowing down of cellular oxidation. With FC11/FC12 mixtures, the effects are clearly due to the presence of FC11.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Nov. 1975, Vol.34, No.2, p.197-203. 11 ref.
Clay K.L., Murphy R.C., Watkins W.D.
Experimental methanol toxicity in the primate: Analysis of metabolic acidosis.
Methanol was administered to rats, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). Of these animals, only the pigtail monkey reliably developed a severe metabolic organic acidosis resembling that observed in humans. Blood and urine specimens drawn from methanol-treated pigtail monkeys were analysed for organic acid content by gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and specific assays were performed for formate. A preliminary study suggested that, after methanol administation to pigtail monkeys, formate concentrations may be significantly greater in the vitreous humour than in the blood, a finding that may have particular significance in methanol blindness. The anion gap resulting during methanol acidosis was accounted for in full by increased blood concentrations of formate. Systemic formate concentrations remained low in rats and monkeys which failed to become acidotic following methanol administration. Formate appears therefore to play a role comparable to that of formaldehyde in the toxicity of methanol.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Oct. 1975, Vol.34, No.1, p.49-61. Illus. 36 ref.
Goldstein J.A., Hickman P., Burse V.W., Bergman H.
A comparative study of two polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors 1242 and 1016) containing 42% chlorine on induction of hepatic porphyria and drug metabolizing enzymes.
Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016 were fed to female rats in doses of 100 or 500ppm. At 1 week, Aroclor 1242 markedly increased liver weight and enhanced all drug-metabolising pathways investigated, while Aroclor 1016 had only minimal effects. At 6 months, however, 500ppm of both markedly increased drug metabolism, while Aroclor 1016 was much less effective than Aroclor 1242 at the 100ppm level. Both doses of Aroclor 1242, but only the higher dose of Aroclor 1016, produced porphyria. The marked differences in the biological effects of the two mixtures cannot be explained by differences in absorption, metabolism or excretion.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, June 1975, Vol.32, No.3, p.461-473. Illus. 32 ref.
Antov G., Zlateva M.
Changes in the levels of sulfhydryl groups and soluble proteins in certain internal organs of white rats under the combined effect of lead and arsenic
Promeni v količestvoto na sulfhidrilnite grupi i raztvorimite beltăci v njakoi vătrešni organi na beli plăhove pri kombinirano dejstvie na olovo i arsen [in Bulgarian]
Study of changes in the -SH and -S-S- groups and soluble proteins in liver, kidney, brain and small intestine homogenates of white rats exposed to arsenic trioxide in doses of 1/10 and 1/100 of the LD50 and to lead acetate (1/100 of the LD50), fed both separately and together, under conditions of subacute and chronic exposure. The combined action produced a fall in the levels of -SH groups and soluble proteins and an increase in -S-S- groups in the organs examined. These changes were proportional to the doses ingested and the duration of action. In the subacute test, the combined effect produced a fall in -SH groups and soluble proteins, closer to the effect of lead acetate, while in the chronic test synergism was marked. The changes observed are evidence of a disturbance of protein metabolism and redox processes.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.155-165. Illus. 22 ref.
Changes in certain protein metabolism parameters in homogenates of renal tissue of laboratory animals subjected to low frequency vibrations
Promeni v njakoi pokazateli na beltăčnija obmen v homogenati ot băbrečna tăkan na opitni životni, tretirani s niskočestotni vibracii [in Bulgarian]
The author measured the levels of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups and soluble proteins in kidney homogenates of white rats subjected to vibrations of 12 and 15Hz (accelerations of 7.3 and 7.9m/s) for 8h. He noted a fall in sulfhydryl and an increase in disulfide groups and soluble proteins. The changes observed are evidence of disturbances of protein metabolism and redox processes in the renal tissue. Vibration with a frequency of 15Hz produced more marked changes in the parameters studied.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.19-24. 9 ref.
The role of adrenocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of poisoning syndromes due to some industrial toxins (aromatic nitro compounds, lead)
Rol' disfunkcii kory nadpočečnikov v patogeneze kliničeskih sindromov otravlenija nekotorymi proizvodstvennymi jadami (aromatičeskie nitrosoedinenija, svinec) [in Russian]
Comparative study of adrenocortical dysfunction in workers chronically exposed to aromatic nitro compounds and to lead. The chronic intoxications produced by aromatic nitro compounds and by lead are characterised by a slight reduction in adrenocortical activity, which plays an important part in the pathogenesis of certain syndromes such as asthenia, gastric secretion disorders, lead anaemia and lead polyneuritis. It is desirable to take measures to normalise corticosteroid formation when chronic occupational poisoning is being treated.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.18-22. 30 ref.
Kiseleva V.I., Burlačenko L.S.
Variations in some indices of nitrogen metabolism after prolonged exposure to vibrations
Narušenie nekotoryh pokazatelej azotistogo obmena pri dlitel'nom vozdejstvii vibracii [in Russian]
Results of research on dogs exposed 1h daily to 25Hz vibrations (velocity: 4.7cm/s; vertical amplitude: 0.21-0.30mm; horizontal amplitude: 0.39mm). Examinations carried out after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days' exposure showed an increase in level of hepatic urea, a 3 to 5-fold increase in level of residual nitrogen in tissue, a decrease in total nitrogen after 15 days, followed by a considerable increase after 60 days. The observed phenomena point to a biochemical adaptation process to the effect of vibration on the tissues.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.38-39. 17 ref.
Samojlova Z.T., Šavolina V.A.
Changes in catecholamine metabolism and parkinsonian symptoms in rats with manganese poisoning
Izmenenija obmena kateholaminov i simptomy parkinsonizma pri manganotoksikoze u krys [in Russian]
Studies in rats have shown that the clinical picture of experimental manganese poisoning involves motor disorders similar to those observed in man. Manganese poisoning in rats is characterised by profound changes in the metabolism of dopamine and other catecholamines in the subcortical ganglions of the brain. The authors suggest that transformation in the brain of dioxyphenylalanine to dopamine and then to noradrenaline is disturbed in manganese poisoning.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.16-20. Illus. 11 ref.
Magos L., Green A., Jarvis J.A.E.
Half-life of CS2 in rats in relation to its effect on brain catecholamines.
Catecholamine concentrations in the brain and the sensitivity of rats to amphetamine-induced stereotype were investigated immediately after and 20h after a 4-h exposure to 2mg/l of CS2. Estimation of the half-life of CS2 in the blood, liver and whole animal shows that changes measured 20h after exposure cannot be ascribed to the presence of CS2 in the body. Despite the rapid elimination of free and reversibly-bound CS2 from the body, a decrease in the noradrenaline concentration in the brain and an increase in the sensitivity of animals to the stereotype induced by 6.0mg/kg amphetamine was observed 20h after exposure. The implication of these findings is discussed in relation to the increased frequency of coronary heart disease among workers exposed to CS2.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Jan. 1974, Vol.32, No.4, p.289-296. Illus. 23 ref.
Kolodub F.A., Evtušenko G.I.
Metabolic disorders and disturbances in liver function due to a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field
Narušenie obmena veščestv i funkcional'nogo sostojanija pečeni pri vozdejstvii impul'snogo ėlektromagnitnogo polja nizkoj častoty [in Russian]
Results of experiments on rats exposed to an electromagnetic field of 7kHz produced in 1.3ms pulses (interval between pulses: 10s). Morphological changes in the liver tissue preceded by disturbances in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism were observed. Multiple or chronic exposure produced a disjunction of the combined processes of oxidation and phosphorylation and consequently a lowering in the adenosine-triphosphate level. In some cases, the metabolic disturbances resulted in an accumulation of ammonia and glutamine, a lowering of the urea and nitramine protein levels and an inhibition of adenylate deaminase. The metabolic disturbances observed preceded changes in hepatocyte structure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1974, No.2, p.11-15. 5 ref.
Dimethylformamide: a cause of acute pancreatitis?
The occurrence of symptoms of upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting and serum amylase levels in the upper normal range observed in workers exposed to the solvent dimethylformamide suggests that exposure to this chemical may cause acute pancreatitis.
Lancet, 10 Aug. 1974, Vol.2, No.7876, p.356.
Vibration-induced changes of enzyme activity in blood and organs - Vibration-induced changes of protein metabolism and nucleic acid metabolism
Promeni v enzimnata aktivnost na krăvta i organite pri vibracionno văzdejstvie - Promeni v beltăčnija obmen i obmena na nukleinovite kiselini pri vibracionno văzdejstvie [in Bulgarian]
Literature survey of enzyme activity and metabolic disorders observed in humans and animals exposed to vibration.
Letopisi na higienno epidemiologičnite instituti, 1973, Vol.7, No.39, p.153-163. 35 and 51 ref.
Disturbed urinary excretion of metabolites of aromatic amino-acids in persons exposed to vibration and to very high frequency electromagnetic waves
Troubles de l'élimination urinaire des métabolites des acides aminés aromatiques chez les personnes exposées aux vibrations et aux ondes électromagnétiques de très haute fréquence. [in French]
French translation of: Naru¿enie vydelenija s močoj produktov obmena aromatičeskih aminokislot u lic, podvergaju¿čihsja vozdejstviju vibracii i ėlektromagnitnyh voln sverhvysokoj častoty. Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Moskva, USSR, Aug. 1967, Vol.11, No.8, p.47-49. 11 ref. Urinary excretion of phenolic compounds was investigated in 3 groups of persons (group of controls, of persons with vibration injuries, and of persons exposed to very high frequencies). The urine phenol level was found to be increased in persons affected by vibrations and by very high frequencies (VHF) at field strengths of 15 to 20 µW/cm2. This phenomenon is attributed to the disturbing effects of noise, vibration and radio frequencies on adrenal and thyroid hormone function. The increase in phenol excretion noted in persons with vibration injuries was directly proportional to the extent of the lesions.
Translation INRS 118 B-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973. 5p. 11 ref.
Milroy W.C., Michaelson S.M.
Thyroid pathophysiology of microwave radiation.
A study designed to investigate the response of the pituitary thyroid axis to microwave radiation. Rats exposed to various regimens of microwave radiation were evaluated in terms of their thyroid and thyrotropic activity. No alterations in structure or function were noted which could be attributed to a specific effect of microwave radiation. Those alterations which were detected were felt to represent non-specific reactions of age, heat and stress. Although it is unlikely that low-level microwave radiation (less than 10 mW/cm2) represents any appreciable hazard to man, it is suggested that further studies of the neuro-endocrine responses of higher animals be undertaken.
Aerospace Medicine, Oct. 1972, Vol.43, No.10, p.1126-1131. Illus. 15 ref.
Einbrodt H.J., Burilkov T.
Mineral dust content of lung tissue and lymph nodes in egg-shell calcification
Mineralstaubgehalt des Lungengewebes und der Lymphknoten bei Eierschalenverkalkungen [in German]
Results of a chemical and mineralogical analysis of the mineral deposits in the lungs and lymph nodes of 3 workers who died from egg-shell calcification silicosis and pulmonary microliths. Having commented on the results, the authors discuss the pathogenesis of this unusual endemic complication of silicosis which might be due to endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism) accompanied by a spontaneous increase in serum calcium, calciphylactic reactions related to increased dihydrotachysterol sensitivity and the presence of traces of heavy metals in the respired dust.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 23 Nov. 1972, Vol.30, No.3, p.223-236. Illus. 27 ref.
Relationship between pancreatitis and occupation
Rapporti tra pancreatopatie e lavoro [in Italian]
Following a report on the results of statistical analysis of 120 cases of surgically confirmed pancreatic lesions in a single region in Italy, and the breakdown of these cases by occupation, the authors made the following findings: men are more subject to pancreatic lesions than women; the highest incidence of pancreatic lesions was found in transport and service workers (lorry drivers, cooks, restaurant waiters). In view of the large number of workers at risk and the possible cancerous course of pancreatic lesions, the authors recommend the implementation of arrangements for early diagnosis of these disorders; diagnosis is greatly facilitated by pancreas scintillography, a simple and accurate method widely used nowadays.
Medicina del lavoro, Dec. 1971, Vol.62, No.12, p.562-571. Illus. 12 ref.
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