Nanotechnology and nanoparticles - 102 entries found
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Workplace exposure to nanoparticles
This literature survey presents the latest knowledge concerning the risks of workplace exposure to nanoparticles. With the growing importance and more widespread use of nanoparticles in the economy, it is essential that as much be learned about their potentially harmful effects (and how to prevent them) as possible. In-vivo studies have shown inflammation, fibrosis and tumours induced by several granular nanomaterials in the lungs after respiratory exposure. Currently the mechanism of tumour formation is
not fully understood and scientific uncertainties remain. No harmful effects of skin exposure have been shown so far. Protective measures that are typically used to protect against insoluble materials, like dusts, are usually recommended for nanomaterials as well. The effectiveness of current methods of respiratory protection is still to be investigated.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 89p. Illus. 341 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/literature_reviews/workplace_exposure_to_nanoparticles [in English]
Verband der Chemischen Industrie (VCI), Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin (BAuA)
Exposure to nanomaterials in Germany
This information sheet summarizes the main findings of a questionnaire survey conducted in Germany, addressed to 656 enterprises in the chemical industry; 217 responses were received (response rate 33%), Results presented in the form of graphs include: number of companies involved; volume of materials handled; number of exposed workers; exposure evaluations; information to clients; products involved; exposure measurements.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2008. 8p. Illus. 6 ref.
Exposure_to_nanomaterials.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Soucy B., Lapointe G., Woods C., Ménard L., Trottier M.
Health effects of nanoparticles - Second Edition
This report consists of a literature survey updating earlier reports on the health risks of nanotechnologies and on various aspects of industrial hygiene involving nanomaterials, considered necessary in view of the rapid advances in scientific knowledge.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2nd ed., 2008. iii, 106p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-589.pdf [in English]
Rengasamy S., King W.P., Eimer B.C., Shaffer R.E.
Filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 and P100 filtering facepiece respirators against 4 to 30 nanometer-size nanoparticles
This study investigated the filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 and P100 filtering facepiece respirators against silver aerosol particles in the diameter range of 4-30nm. A test system was developed and standardized for measuring the penetration of the particles. Findings support previous studies that indicate NIOSH-approved respirators provide protection against nanoparticles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.556-564. Illus. 29 ref.
Nanoparticles and pulmonary effects
Nanoparticules et effets pulmonaires [in French]
Little is known on the effects of human exposure to nanoparticles. However, there have been many studies on ultrafine particles, which are notably present in motor exhausts and urban pollution, but are also formed as undesirable side products in some industrial processes such as welding, thermal degradation and metal treatment. They cause cardiorespiratory effects among susceptible subjects. By analogy, one can expect that nanoparticles will cause similar effects.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.44-45. Illus.
Ostiguy C., Roberge B., Ménard L., Endo C.A.
Good practices guide to synthetic nanoparticle risk management
Guide de bonnes pratiques favorisant la gestion des risques reliés aux nanoparticules de synthèse [in French]
This document is the first Québec guide on the management of risks related to synthetic nanoparticles. It proposes a prevention strategy applicable to workers and researchers who use or produce nanoparticles. Aimed at enterprises, researchers and safety and health specialists involved with nanotechnologies, this guide describes the current state of knowledge and proposes recommendations for promoting risk factor management and control for the purpose of occupational injury prevention. The guide identifies health, safety and environmental hazards, proposes a procedure for risk evaluation and control, documents current practices worldwide and specifies the content of a company prevention program.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008.vi, 63p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-586.pdf [in French]
Gerdes A., Oehmischen D., Süssmuth J., Raunitschke D.
New strategies for the development of preventive surface protection measures
Neue Strategien für die Entwicklung präventiver Oberflächeschutzmassnahmen [in German]
Following a historical review of protective coatings in construction from ancient times until today, new systems, based on nanotechnology, which create a hydrophobic barrier on concrete are presented. Such coatings, mainly based on silanes, prevent pollutants from penetrating the concrete and attacking its surface.
Tiefbau, Oct. 2008, Vol.120, No.10, p.621-630. Illus. 22 ref.
Seillan H., Brochard P., Narbonne J.F., Léca N., Martin D.
Nanomaterials - A new type of danger?
Nanomatériaux - Un nouveau type de danger? [in French]
Topics reviewed in this collection of articles on hazards resulting from occupational exposure to nanomaterials: hazards and toxicity related to particle size; need to develop protocols for toxicity testing; inclusion of nanomaterials within the scope of the REACH (registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals) regulations; practical questions raised by the industrial development of nanomaterials.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.13-29. Illus. 4 ref.
Nasterlack M., Zober A., Oberlinner C.
Considerations on occupational medical surveillance in employees handling nanoparticles
This study compared established concepts for the development of occupational medical surveillance programmes with existing knowledge on exposures in workplaces and on health effects of nanomaterials. A variety of potential effect parameters have been proposed for medical surveillance of exposed personnel, such as heart rate variability, blood-clotting and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, none of these parameters are specific, most are not validated as individual health risk indicators and some require sophisticated equipment not routinely available. Against this background, a large German chemical company currently emphasizes the control of workplace exposure. Particle emissions are primarily avoided by manufacturing in closed systems or using effective extraction systems. Appropriate personal protective equipment is specified for such operations where potential exposure cannot be excluded.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.721-726. 32 ref.
Schulte P.A., Trout D., Zumwalde R.D., Kuempel E., Geraci C.L., Castranova V., Mundt D.J., Mundt K.A., Halperin W.E.
Options for occupational health surveillance of workers potentially exposed to engineered nanoparticles: State of the science
Health authorities, employers and worker representatives are increasingly faced with making decisions about occupational health surveillance of workers potentially exposed to engineered nanoparticles. This article identifies options that can be considered. The published scientific literature on health effects from engineered and incidental nanoparticles and the principles of occupational health surveillance were reviewed to describe possible options and the evidence base for them. The options ranged from no action targeted to nanotechnology workers to an approach that includes documentation of the presence of engineered nanoparticles, identification of potentially exposed workers, and general and targeted medical testing.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.517-526. Illus. 91 ref.
Schulte P., Geraci C., Zumwalde R., Hoover M., Kuempel E.
Occupational risk management of engineered nanoparticles
The earliest and most extensive societal exposures to engineered nanoparticles are likely to occur in the workplace. This article reviews a conceptual framework for occupational risk management as applied to engineered nanomaterials and describes an associated approach for controlling exposures in the presence of uncertainty. The framework takes into account the potential routes of exposure and factors that may influence the biological activity and potential toxicity of nanomaterials. It incorporates approaches based on the traditional industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls involving elimination or substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. It also includes secondary approaches involving medical surveillance.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.239-249. Illus. 71 ref.
Truchon G., Noël A., Cloutier Y., Maghni K., Gautrin D., Hallé S., Dufresne L., Dolez P., Tardif R.
Nanotechnology research - Where to start?
La recherche en nanotechnologie - Par où commencer? [in French]
Today, the province of Quebec has established a leading position in Canada in the field of nanotechnology. Given the growing importance of this emerging field, this article presents an overview of the main researchers, enterprises and workers involved in Quebec.
Travail et santé, June 2008, Vol. 24, No.2, p.32-35. 15 ref.
NIOSH nanotechnology metal oxide particle exposure assessment study
This information sheet announces a NIOSH research programme on exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. It describes the background, objectives, conditions for participation and benefits to participating companies. NIOSH researchers will visit the facilities of each participant to carry out personal sampling of exposure to nanoparticular metal oxides. The data collected will be used to determine the extent to which metal oxide exposure is occurring in the nanotechnology industry.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 4p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-122/pdfs/2008-122.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Soucy B., Lapointe G., Woods C., Ménard L.
Health effects of nanoparticles - 2nd edition (April 2008)
Les effets sur la santé reliés aux nanoparticules - 2e édition (avril 2008) [in French]
An earlier literature survey on nanoparticles led to the publication by IRSST of two reports in early 2006, one on the health hazards of nanotechnologies (CIS 06-1147) and the other on various aspects of industrial hygiene applicable to these technologies. However, in view of the rapid scientific advances in this field, an update was needed. This report consists of a comprehensive review of the literature published until the end of 2006 on health hazards, industrial hygiene and means of controlling the exposure to nanoparticles in the workplace.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. iii, 112p. Illus. Approx. 350 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-558.pdf [in French]
Murashov V., Howard J.
The US must help set international standards for nanotechnology
A call for action by two prominent experts on the safety and health issues of nanotechnology. It is strongly urged that US government agencies and the private sector become more involved in international efforts to establish safety standards in the use of nanotechnology, and that all efforts for such standardization be based on sound science. The article reviews a current categorization effort for the hazards of nanotechnology, Safety Guide TC 229 published by the British Standards Institute (BSI), which proposes four hazard categories: fibrous; CMAR (those already classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, asthmagenic or reproductive toxicants); insoluble; soluble. The letter to the editor by P. Hatto and the rejoinder by the authors debate the actual state of knowledge and the basis behind the TC 229 document, which is not in fact a full British Standard.
Nature Nanotechnology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, p.635-636. Illus. 14 ref. Includes a letter to the editor ("International standards for risk management in nanotechnology"), by Hatto P., and a rejoinder by the original authors, published in the Apr. 2009 (Vol.4) of the same journal (p.205-206).
NIOSH, nanotechnology, and occupational safety and health research - Frequently asked questions
Answers to frequently-asked questions on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, including production, uses, NIOSH research, number of workers exposed, effects on health, exposure evaluation, exposure tests and sources of additional information.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, May 2008. HTML document.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/faq.html [in English]
Nanotechnology: Transportation into a new universe
Nanotecnologia: O transporte para um novo universo [in Portuguese]
A survey of the possible hazards of nanotechnology for workers, presented in very simple language in cartoon format.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710, São Paulo SP, 05409-002, Brazil, 2008. 20p. Illus.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/PUBLICACAO/l/HQ1_nanotecnologia.pdf [in Portuguese]
Ricaud M., Lafon D., Roos F.
Carbon nanotubes: What are the hazards, and how can we prevent them?
Les nanotubes de carbone: quels risques, quelle prévention? [in French]
Few studies have been published on the risks of carbon nanotubes to human health. However, given the excitement generated by this new class of chemicals, the number of exposed workers is likely to increase strongly in the coming years. This article on carbon nanotubes discusses current understanding with respect to their properties, applications and toxicology, as well as the preventive measures to adopt during their handling. Pending a better understanding of occupational exposures and risks to human health, it is recommended that the precautionary principle be applied, namely that exposure levels be kept as low as possible.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2008, No.210, p.43-57. Illus. 39 ref.
Safe nanotechnology in the workplace - An introduction for employers, managers, and safety and health professionals
Nanotechnology is the engineering and manipulation of materials at the molecular level. This new technology creates materials with dimensions ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers. Particles created at the nanoscale have different chemical and physical properties than larger particles of the same material. Scientists and manufacturers can use nanoparticles to create new products that would be impossible with larger particles. This booklet addresses the following issues with respect to nanotechnology: hazards of nanoparticles to workers; exposure of workers to nanoparticles; sampling and analysis of nanoparticles; control of workers' exposure.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Feb. 2008. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-112/pdfs/2008-112.pdf [in English]
Verband der Chemischen Industrie (VCI), Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin (BAuA)
Guidance for handling and use of nanomaterials at the workplace
This guidance on the handling and use of nanomaterials at the workplace is based on the responses received to the survey on exposures to nanomaterials in Germany (see ISN 111408). Contents: production processes; general occupational safety and health rules; recommendations for workers' protection in the handling and use of nanomaterials; current situation and development of measuring methods for nanoparticles.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2007. 12p. Illus.
Guidance_for_handling.pdf [in English]
Harford A., Edwards J., Briestly B., Wright P.
Current OSH best practices for the Australian nanotechnology industry: A position paper by the NanoSafe Australia Network
Advancement of the nanotechnology industry in Australia has seen numerous researchers beginning to handle nanomaterials, as well as the establishment of industrial facilities that are producing nanomaterials for incorporation into consumer products. Traditionally, the risk assessment of chemicals relies heavily on their composition, whereas the key determinants in the adverse effects caused by nanomaterials are their physical parameters (particle size, surface area and surface chemistry). At the present time, workplace exposure standards are not available, and appropriate methods that accurately characterise exposure to nanomaterials have not been established. Exposure of workers should therefore be "as low as reasonably practicable" through risk management programs that broadly encompass all of the hierarchy of controls used for ultrafine particulates, namely appropriate engineering controls, administrative controls and personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.315-331. 51 ref.
Nanoparticles - A major occupational health challenge?
Les nanoparticules - Un enjeu majeur pour la santé au travail? [in French]
Nanoparticles are objects of less than 100 nanometres in size but whose source and use are very diverse. Because of their high rate of development, the absence of sufficient specific regulations and the lack of knowledge concerning their human toxicity, they are the cause of anxiety against risks that appear new, or which are in any case insufficiently understood. The objective of this publication is to present the current state of scientific knowledge on nanoparticles for enabling advances in research, public health and industrial hygiene. Contents: general aspects; characteristics and sources of these aerosols; routes of entry; environmental toxicological data; specific examples (simple or complex oxides, carbon-based particles).
EDP Sciences, 17 avenue du Hoggar, Parc d'Activité de Courtabœuf, BP 112, 91944 Les Ulis Cedex A, France, 2007. 701p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 54.00.
Monteiller C., Tran L., MacNee W., Faux S., Jones A., Miller B., Donaldson K.
The pro-inflammatory effects of low-toxicity low-solubility particles, nanoparticles and fine particles, on epithelial cells in vitro: The role of surface area
Mass might not be the appropriate metric for regulating exposures to low-solubility low-toxicity particles (LSLTPs) as animal studies have shown that nanoparticles produce a stronger adverse effect than fine particles when delivered on an equal mass basis. This study investigated whether the surface area is a better descriptor than mass of LSLTP of their ability to stimulate pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. In assays on a human alveolar type II-like cell line, nanoparticle preparations produced much stronger inflammatory responses than the same mass of fine particles of the same chemical composition. Oxidative stress was involved in the response to all the particles. Dose-response relationships appeared to be directly comparable with those found in vivo. These findings show that surface area is a more appropriate dose metric than mass for the pro-inflammatory effects of LSLTP and that the high surface area of nanoparticles is a key factor in their inflammogenicity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.609-615. Illus. 47 ref.
Progress toward safe nanotechnology in the workplace
This document is a report of the progress of the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC) since its inception in 2004 through 2006. Specific chapters address NTRC research contributions in the following areas: toxicology; hazard evaluation; epidemiology and surveillance; engineering controls and personal protective equipment; fire and explosion safety; safe working methods; information and training; applications.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, June 2007. xvii, 177p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-123/pdfs/2007-123.pdf [in English]
Nanotechnology - The next industrial revolution
Nanotechnologie - Vers la prochaine révolution industrielle [in French]
Topics addressed in this review article on nanoparticles and nanotechnologies: definitions; research and development; examples of nanoparticles (carbon fullerenes and nanotubes, cadmium selenide, titanium dioxide, iron oxide); health hazards (toxicity related to particle size, capability of nanoparticles to migrate within the body); protective measures and limitation of exposure.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.10-15. Illus. 3 ref.
Honnert B., Vincent R.
Production and industrial use of nanostructured particles
Production et utilisation industrielle des particules nanostructurées [in French]
This article describes the current situation with respect to nanoparticles that are currently produced on an industrial scale as well as those likely to face important industrial developments, namely titanium dioxide, carbon black, amorphous silica and various forms of alumina. It also discusses nanoparticles of secondary importance in terms of quantities (rare earths) or emerging products such as carbon nanotubes and nanoclays. For all these categories of products, a quantitative assessment is provided on the number of workers likely to be exposed during production operations, together with indications of the potential areas of use.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.5-21. Illus. 20 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202277/$File/ND2277.pdf [in French]
Les nanomatériaux [in French]
This safety guide on nanomaterials insists on the importance of critically assessing the hazards involved during occupational exposures. Even if it is too early to provide final answers, it is necessary to pool knowledge with respect to health hazards, metrology and workers' protection. While waiting for further progress in scientific knowledge, it is recommended to apply the precautionary principle and to limit exposures to the lowest level possible.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2007. HTML file. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/4428D7E01036FEC9C125729F003445E9/$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]
Nanotechnologies: New hazards?
Nanotechnologies: des nouveaux risques? [in French]
Topics addressed in this review article on the toxicity of nanoparticles: description; level of spending in nanotechnology research; findings of a few in vitro and in vivo studies on toxicity and health hazards; precautionary measures (limitation of exposure, confinement, collective and personal protection, waste disposal, information of personnel); French and European regulations.
Face au risque, June-July 2007, No.434, p.11-14. Illus.
Birraux C., Revol H.
Minutes of the public hearing of 7 November 2006 on nanotechnology: Potential hazards, ethical issues
Compte rendu de l'audition publique du 7 novembre 2006 sur les nanotechnologies: risques potentiels, enjeux éthiques [in French]
The French parliamentary office for the evaluation of science and technology policy organized a public hearing on 7 November 2007 on the potential hazards end ethical issues related to nanotechnology. The hearing opened the way for some deeper thinking on the specific aspects of nanotechnology, the issues involved and the progress nanotechnology may make possible in the fields of health care, environmental protection, transport and safety.
La Documentation française, 29 quai Voltaire 75007 Paris, France, 2007. Internet document (pdf format), 137p. Free of charge. Cost of print version: EUR 5.00.
http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/12/pdf/rap-off/i3658.pdf [in French]
Florini K., Walsh S., Balbus J.M., Denson R.
Nanotechnology: Getting it right the first time
This literature survey on nanotechnology consists of a critical review of the current United States regulatory framework for the protection of workers and the general population, judged insufficient. It argues in favour of precautionary principles and voluntary standards by industry, as well as increased government funding for research aimed at assessing the human health and environmental implications of nanotechnology.
Sustainable Development Law & Policy. Spring 2006, p.46-53. 17 ref.
Nanotechnology_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Sass J., Simms S., Negin E.
Nanotechnologies: The promise and the peril
Topics addressed in this review article on nanotechnologies: current lack of data on toxicity and health hazards; insufficient government funding in the United States for safety and health research; role of private enterprise; recommendations of the Environmental Protection Agency; responses by public interest groups.
2006, Vol.VI, No.3, p.11-14, 74. 32 ref.
Nanotechnologies_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Approaches to safe nanotechnology: An information exchange with NIOSH
This document reviews what is currently known about nanoparticle toxicity and control. It serves as a request from NIOSH to occupational safety and health practitioners, researchers, manufacturers, employers, workers, interest group members, and the general public to exchange information that will ensure that no worker suffers material impairment of safety or health as nanotechnology develops. Contents include potential health concerns, potential safety hazards, guidelines for working with engineered nanomaterials, exposure assessment and exposure control. Opportunities to provide feedback and information are available throughout the document.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2006. xiii, 43p. Approx. 200 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/safenano/pdfs/approaches_to_safe_nanotechnology.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
The assessment of different metrics of the concentration of nano (ultrafine) particles in existing and new industries
This report describes work carried out in order to determine which metric for very small particles best relates the exposure measurement to health hazards. An experimental rig was constructed in which it was possible to measure concentrations of ultrafine particles of varying chemical composition and particle shape. The relationships between the mass, count and active surface area of these particles, and how they are affected by chemical composition and morphology were investigated. Findings are discussed. No simple relationship was found for predicting active surface area and mass from the results of size and number measurements. The findings indicate that it is unlikely that nanoparticles will be present in a working environment in an unattached state.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 72p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr513.pdf [in English]
de Cózar Escalante J.M.
Occupational safety and health hazards related to nanotechnologies
Riesgos profesionales de las nanotecnologías [in Spanish]
This article reviews the safety and health hazards related to nanotechnologies. Contents: characteristics of nanotechnologies; potential occupational hazards; toxicity and carcinogenic effects; explosion hazards; nanotechnology hazard evaluation and risk management; recommendations with respect to risk prevention.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2006, No.178, p.6-17. Illus. 12 ref.
Whatmore R.W., Aitken R.J., Chaudhry M.Q., Boxall A.B.A., Hull M., Garnett M.C., Kallinteri P., Seaton A.
Nanotechnology: In-depth review
Collection of four articles: I. Nanotechnology - what is it? Should we be worried? (by Whatmore R.W.) (theoretical aspects and current trends); II. Manufacture and use of nanomaterials: Current status in the UK and global trends (by Aitken R.J., Chaudry M.Q., Boxall A.B.A. and Hall M.); III. Nanomedicines and nanotoxicology: Some physiological examples (by Garnett M.C. and Kallinteri P.); IV. Nanotechnology and the occupational physician (by Seaton A.).
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.56, p.295-316. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ostiguy C., Lapointe G., Ménard L., Cloutier Y., Trottier M., Boutin M., Antoun M., Normand C.
Nanoparticles - Actual knowledge about occupational health and safety risks and prevention measures
This review assesses the current scientific knowledge on nanoparticles, focusing on their health risks and prevention of worker exposure. An earlier report addressing the health effects (see CIS 06-1147) showed that a limited number of toxicological studies exist, but all of these studies concurred on the existence of health risks following exposure to nanoparticles. Although many risks are associated with the nature of nanoparticles, it has now been clearly established that toxicity is related to the surface area of these particles and not their mass, and that, for a given substance, the toxicity is much higher when it is of nanometric size than micrometric size. This second report summarizes the characterization, production and use of nanoparticles, safety and health risks, airborne detection, control of exposure and fire and explosion hazards.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. ix, 86p. Illus. Approx 200 ref. Price: CAD 10.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-470.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Lapointe G., Tottier M., Ménard L., Cloutier Y., Boutin M., Antoun M., Normand C.
Health effects of nanoparticles
Quebec is very active in research in the field of nanoparticle development and nanotechnology. More than 35 production companies already exist or are in the start-up phase. It is believed that the number of Quebec workers potentially exposed will grow over the next few years. To prevent the development of occupational diseases or the occurrence of accidents, the IRSST began a review of scientific knowledge to evaluate whether there are known risks associated with this emerging sector. This report summarizes current knowledge on the toxicokinetics and effects according to the route of exposure for different types of nanoparticles, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, organic and inorganic nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanospheres, nanoshells and quantum dots.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 53p. Illus. 144 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-469.pdf [in English]
A review of the potential occupational health and safety implications of nanotechnology
This review of the literature explores the occupational health and safety concerns of the nascent nanotechnology industry in Australia. The primary focus is on human exposure factors and the toxicology of nanoparticles engineered for either commercial or research use.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council, firstname.lastname@example.org, July 2006. 80p. Illus. 190 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/D31285DE-EDDF-4DA8-9A24-550E05D86971/0/ASCC_ReviewOHSimplicationsofNanotechnology.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Lapointe G., Ménard L., Cloutier Y., Trottier M., Boutin M., Antoun M., Normand C.
Nanoparticles: Current knowledge about occupational health and safety risks and prevention measures
Les nanoparticules: connaissances actuelles sur les risques et les mesures de prévention en santé et en sécurité du travail [in French]
The number of Quebec workers potentially exposed is expected to grow over the next few years. This literature survey reviews current knowledge on: the terminology, classification, characteristics and properties of nanoparticles; their development, production and use; health effects; behaviour of nanoparticles and detection in the air; potential exposure; risk evaluation and control strategies (engineering techniques, personal protection); safety measures (fire and explosion prevention); regulatory issues. See also CIS 06-1147 and CIS 10-0096.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. vii, 79p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (pdf format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-455.pdf [in French]
Ostiguy C., Lapointe G., Trottier M., Ménard L., Cloutier Y., Boutin M., Antoun M., Normand C.
Health effects related to nanoparticles
Les effets à la santé reliés aux nanoparticules [in French]
The number of Quebec workers potentially exposed to nanoparticles is expected to grow over the next few years. This literature survey explores the health effects associated with this emerging sector. Although few toxicological studies exist, they all conclude that there are health risks following exposure to nanoparticles. It has been clearly established that toxicity is related to the surface area of these particles and not their mass, and that, for a given substance, the toxicity is much higher when it is of nanometric size than micrometric size. See also CIS 06-1148.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iii, 48p. Illus. 143 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (pdf format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-451.pdf [in French]
Nanoworld: The new occupational safety and health frontier
Nanomonde: la nouvelle frontière de la prévention [in French]
Collection of articles on the occupational safety and health aspects of nanotechnology and nanoparticles (ultrafine particles), based on interviews with representatives of a nanotechnology research park, the INRS, the Institute for radiological protection and nuclear safety, an industrial enterprise and a research centre in the United States.
Réalité Prévention, Oct. 2005, No.9, 8p (whole issue). Illus. 2 ref.
Beasseur G., Witschger O., Delmotte H.
Ultrafine particles - Nanodevelopment under surveillance
Particules ultrafines - Le nanodéveloppement sous surveillance [in French]
This special feature addresses the occupational hazards faced by workers in the field of nanotechnology. The main mode of absorption is by inhalation, although there is also a risk of skin absorption and ingestion. Contents: ultrafine aerosols and their potential hazards; prevention through information; safety in laboratories during the preparation of nanopowders; vigilance during laboratory research activities.
Travail et sécurité, June 2005, No.652, p.26-36. Illus. 2 ref.
Witschger O., Fabriès J.F.
Ultrafine particles and occupational health - 2. Sources and characterization of exposure
Particules ultra-fines et santé au travail - 2. Sources et caractérisation de l'exposition [in French]
As a sequel to the article analysed under CIS 05-604, which dealt with the essential characteristics of ultrafine particles, their interactions and their potential health effects, this article describes the sources of ultrafine aerosols in workplace atmospheres. It examines sources in the conventional technology and nanotechnology fields and describes techniques for the characterization of occupational exposures to ultrafine aerosols, including strategy, instrumentation and determination of the concentration in air in terms of number of particles, surface area and mass.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.37-54. Illus. 120 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/BC245F0741557B57C1257023004C3D2B/$FILE/nd2228.pdf [in French]
Witschger O., Fabriès J.F.
Ultrafine particles and occupational health - 1. Characteristics and potential health effects
Particules ultra-fines et santé au travail - 1. Caractéristiques et effets potentiels sur la santé [in French]
Ultrafine particles (nanoparticles) present potentially serious occupational health hazards. This literature survey involved the study of approximately 180 scientific papers, reports or books, of which nearly 80% were published after the year 2000. Topics covered: characteristics of ultrafine particles (physical nature, airborne behaviour and surface deposition); air filtration; definitions of ultrafine aerosols;. deposition in the respiratory tract; potential health effects (epidemiologic studies and toxicology). The issue of occupational exposure is addressed in a separate article (see CIS 05-605).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.21-35. Illus. 75 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/295A3A062618D325C1257023004C3B82/$FILE/nd2227.pdf [in French]
Seillan H., Brochard P., Laurent L., Hervé-Bazin B.
Nanotechnologies and health hazards
Nanotechnologies et risques sanitaires [in French]
This collection of articles discusses the health hazards posed by nanotechnology. Given their nanometre-scale size, nanoparticles (nanospheres or nanotubes) of carbon, titanium dioxide or other substances can interact with living tissues differently than other larger-sized particles. While knowledge of the health hazards of these particles remains very limited, development and commercialization efforts are already highly advanced. A case is made for increased efforts in toxicological research prior to the commercialization of these substances.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2005, No.80, p.4-16. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
This information note is aimed at researchers and developers of nanotechnologies. It advises a precautionary approach to dealing with the largely still unknown hazards of nanotechnology. Contents: description of nanotechnology and nanomaterials; risk assessment; legislation (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023); scientific uncertainty; health risks; exposure potential; control measures; personal protective equipment; health monitoring; safety risks (catalytic effects, fire and explosion); management arrangements (work procedures, training, supervision, information of personnel).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. 4p. 18 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/hsin1.pdf [in English]
Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: Opportunities and uncertainties
This report on nanoscience and nanotechnologies highlights the fact that nanotechnologies offer many benefits both now and in the future but that public debate is needed about their development. It also highlights the immediate need for research to address uncertainties about the health and environmental effects of nanoparticles and makes recommendations on regulations to control exposure. Topics addressed: definition of nanoscience and nanotechnologies; science and applications; nanomanufacturing and industrial applications of nanotechnologies; possible adverse health and environmental impact; social and ethical issues; stakeholder and public dialogue; regulatory issues; conclusions; recommendations.
The Royal Society, 6-9 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, United Kingdom, 2004. Internet document. 113p. 147 ref.
http://www.nanotec.org.uk/finalReport.htm [in English]
Davies P., Tsavalos A., Fullam B., Wilson M.
Health and Safety Commission
Managing the risks from nanotechnology
This working paper of the Health and Safety Commission on nanotechnology highlights the uncertainty surrounding knowledge of the health hazards of nanoparticles and stresses the need for adopting a precautionary approach. It outlines a proposed plan for priority research areas and for providing guidance on minimizing exposure.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2004. 4p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/aboutus/HSC/meetings/2004/060404/c42.pdf [in English]
Particle toxicology: From coal mining to nanotechnology
Partikeltoxikologie: Vom Steinkohlenbergbau zur Nanotechnologie [in German]
Research into the toxicology of particulate matter is closely related to industrial operations and to certain materials such as coal, asbestos, glass wool and more recently, airborne dust. The study of the effects of inhaled particles is no longer limited to the lungs. It is now believed that the particles enter the bloodstream and that the inflammation of the lungs gives rise to systemic effects. Developments in the field of nanotechnology are causing new materials composed of ultrafine particles to appear, whose health hazards are still unknown even if inhalation exposure risks are considered minimal. Toxicological research efforts therefore need to be focused on the activity and biological effects of ultrafine particles as well as on the influence of their surface and their size on these effects.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2004, Vol.54, No.6, p.188-197. Illus. 51 ref.
Discourse on the need to take stock of the situation with respect to the hazards of ultra-fine particles
De la nécessité de faire un point sur les dangers des particules ultra-fines [in French]
The emergence of new technologies which use or produce ultra-fine particles or nanoparticles raises the question of the hazards encountered during occupational exposure. Although the knowledge gained in the environmental field is applicable to some extent, it does not fully cover the potential industrial hazards. There is a need for improved toxicological data and identification of the main toxicity factors. Measurement techniques and technical or health reference standards need to be improved or created to ensure that conditions of work comply with the need to protect the health of exposed persons. The diversity of existing and projected applications for ultra-fine particles represents a new challenge to the ability of our occupational safety and health systems to adapt to technological changes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2004, No.197, p.53-60. 99 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_date1_view_view/73C049CB88E6F3ECC12570230049AEE2/$FILE/pr15.pdf [in French]
Aitken R.J., Creely K.S., Tran C.L.
Health and Safety Executive
Nanoparticles: An occupational hygiene review
Nanotechnology is a broad interdisciplinary area of research, development and industrial activity which has been growing rapidly for the past decade. Nanoparticles are the end products of a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological processes. This article reviews the following aspects of nanoparticles: potential routes for human exposure; industrial sources of occupational exposure; level of exposure; means of, and effectiveness of control measures; potential numbers exposed; ease with which gaps in knowledge could be filled; trends in the potential use of nanotechnology; views as to the likely impact of the transition from research to full-scale industrial use.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 100p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr274.pdf [in English]
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