Sick building syndrome - 136 entries found
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Crawford J.O., Bolas S.M.
Sick building syndrome, work factors and occupational stress
Topics: character; job dissatisfaction; literature survey; microclimate; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; risk factors; sick building syndrome; symptoms.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1996, Vol.22, No.4, p.243-250. Illus. 71 ref.
ABC of work related disorders: Building related illnesses
Information note on building-related illnesses, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS)., a term used to describe a situation where more than the expected number of people working in a building suffer from various symptoms for no apparent reason. These symptoms are those associated with common illnesses and allergies, usually in a mild form. There is no single known cause of the syndrome, but several risk factors related to work, buildings and the environment have been identified. SBS not only occurs in office buildings, but has been identified in schools, nurseries, libraries and apartment buildings as well. Common indoor air pollutants and their sources are described. In some workplaces airborne allergens may be involved. Two other kinds of bacterial agents involved in SBS are: actinomycetes, to which outbreaks of humidifier fever are attributed, and Legionella implicated in flu-like illnesses (legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever). Some suggestions for prevention are made.
British Medical Journal, Sept. 1996, Vol.313, p.674-677. Illus. 4 ref.
Ooi P.L., Goh K.T.
Sick-building syndrome in a tropical city
This brief communication describes a morbidity survey among 2856 workers in 56 air-conditioned office buildings in Singapore. After excluding health complaints with known causes, 19% of respondents had frequent mucosal and skin irritations, neurotoxic reactions and other ailments suggestive of sick building syndrome. Building-related symptoms were not found to be reliable predictors of indoor air quality or ventilation problems. Factors associated with the syndrome included thermal comfort, lighting and noise.
Lancet, 23 Mar. 1996, Vol.347, No.9004, 841-842. 4 ref.
Aronoff S., Kaplan A.
Total workplace performance - Rethinking the office environment
This books deals with issues relevant to the design and management of the office workplace. Main topics: office facilities; productivity; knowledge work; building systems and occupied space; thermal comfort, air quality and acoustics; computers; psychosocial factors and stress; workplace diagnostics; facility management.
WDL Publications, P.O. Box 8457, Station T, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H8, Canada, 1995. x, 404p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Solé Gómez D., Pérez Nicolás J.
The sick building syndrome: Simplified questionnaire
El síndrome del edificio enfermo: cuestionario simplificado [in Spanish]
Reference to CIS 95-1131. Topics: data sheet; offices; questionnaire survey; risk factors; sick building syndrome; Spain; symptoms.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 6p. 7 ref.
The legal aspects of indoor air and health
Legal issues relating to the causation of building-related illness and sick-building syndrome are reviewed. Brief case studies are presented and legal requirements and reported legal actions are examined.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.205-215. 19 ref.
The medical evaluation
Medical conditions related to the indoor environment are reviewed and strategies for their management are described. Topics covered include: doctor-patient relationships; recovery and illness behaviour; risk communication; diagnosis; medical conditions (allergic respiratory disease, skin discomfort, mass psychogenic illness, mucous membrane irritation, central nervous system symptoms, lung cancer, sick building syndrome); characterization of exposure.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.177-194. 109 ref.
The sick-building syndrome
Epidemiologic and experimental studies on the causes and symptoms of sick-building syndrome are reviewed. Human risk factors are identified and other factors which may contribute to the syndrome are discussed: ventilation, presence of volatile organic compounds or bioaerosols, and psychosocial aspects of work. In the majority of cases, engineering problems and pollutant sources can be identified that contribute to the generation of complaints.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.167-175. 71 ref.
Cain W.S., Cometto-Muñiz J.E.
Irritation and odor as indicators of indoor pollution
Irritation and odour pollution are discussed in relation to health complaints associated with indoor air pollution. The use of biological assays to determine the potency of an irritant is described and investigations into odour and irritation thresholds in humans are discussed. Both animal and human data point to common physicochemical determinants of potency, especially for the weak irritants that often exist in indoor environments.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.133-145. Illus. 29 ref.
Physical factors in the indoor environment
Physical factors in the non-industrial indoor environment that affect human health, comfort, productivity, and well-being are reviewed. Topics covered include: thermal comfort (environmental variables, activity and clothing levels, building design considerations, humidity); noise and vibration; light and other electromagnetic radiation (lighting design, health effects, ultraviolet radiation); combined effects and sick building syndrome.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.59-94. Illus. 78 ref.
Nordström K., Norbäck D., Akselsson R.
Influence of indoor air quality and personal factors on the sick building syndrome (SBS) in Swedish geriatric hospitals
Symptoms of sick building syndrome and personal factors were measured by means of a standardized self administered questionnaire in 225 female hospital workers of eight hospital units in the south of Sweden. The technical investigation comprised a building survey and measurements of room temperature, supply air temperature, air humidity and exhaust air flow. The prevalence of symptoms differed from one unit to another. Eye irritation was related to work stress and self reported exposure to static electricity. Nasal symptoms were related to asthma and hay fever only. Throat symptoms were more common in smokers, subjects with asthma or hay fever, new buildings, and in buildings with a high ventilation flow. Facial skin irritation was related to a lack of control of the work conditions. General symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, were related to current smoking, asthma or hay fever, work dissatisfaction and static electricity. As the prevalence of symptoms was high, there is a need to improve the indoor environment as well as the psychosocial environment in hospitals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.170-176. 25 ref.
Muller W.J., Black M.S.
Sensory irritation in mice exposed to emissions from indoor products
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.794-803. Illus. 22 ref. ###
Mikatavage M.A., Rose V.E., Funkhouser E., Oestenstad R.K., Dillon K., Reynolds K.D.
Beyond air quality - Factors that affect prevalence estimates of sick building syndrome
In an investigation of sick building syndrome (SBS), workers in 39 offices completed one of two questionnaires; one described the SBS study, the other did not. SBS was defined as a symptom in the previous 24-hour or seven-day recall period that was more severe at work and not related to suspected confounding factors (allergy, cold or flu). SBS prevalence was 5%. It was higher among workers aware of the SBS study relative to those who were not and higher for the seven-day relative to the 24-hour recall period. A standardized methodology is required for the assessment of SBS prevalence.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1141-1146. Illus. 29 ref.
Herington T.N., Morse L.H.
Occupational injuries - Evaluation, management and prevention
Contents of this manual includes: epidemiology of work injury; occupational health care and workers' compensation; operation of an occupational health clinic; administrative aspects; legal and ethical issues in occupational medicine; management of disorders of the hand, shoulder, elbow, neck, spine, knee, foot, brain, eyes and skin; management of burns, respiratory injuries, and chest and abdominal pain; patient management; pain management; injuries related to repetitive motion, chemical exposures, temperature, noise, vibration, radiation, electricity and lightning; building-related and infectious disorders; injuries to divers and compressed air workers; psychiatric issues; resources for the physician treating injured workers; personal protective equipment; ergonomics; vocational rehabilitation; drug testing.
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1995. xxi, 579p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 61.00.
Contemporary ergonomics 1995
Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's Conference held in Canterbury, England, 4-6 April 1995. Topics covered include: mechanisms of musculoskeletal injury at work; quantifying and qualifying the value of ergonomics to business; organizational ergonomics and worker participation; introduction of new technology; developments in ergonomic methodology; speech communication; workload assessment and musculoskeletal strain; built environment (sick building syndrome, access for the disabled); risk assessment; control rooms; personnel training; drivers and driving; human-computer interfaces; manual handling; posture; human performance; controls; visual depth perception in keyhole surgery.
Taylor & Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 8PR, Hants., United Kingdom, 1995. 580p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 44.00.
Maroni M., Axelrad R., Bacaloni A.
NATO's efforts to set indoor air quality guidelines and standards
Report on a multinational cooperative programme (200 experts from 15 countries during 1989-1993) conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. The programme examined policy strategies related to indoor air quality (IAQ) and various health conditions related to buildings (building-related symptoms/health complaints (BRC)/illness (BRI), sick building syndrome). The achievement of health and comfort in the indoor environment combined with energy efficiency can be obtained by a proper control of human exposure to indoor air contaminants. Recommendations for this purpose were made by the Committee concerning: building design and internal HVAC pollution; source control; development of guidelines and standards; definitions; health effects by indoor environment to be considered in epidemiological investigations; use of a questionnaire for epidemiological investigations of indoor-related health problems; diagnosis and medical management; ascertainment of IAQ factors possibly responsible for BRI/BRC; medical activities and advice for the treatment and prevention of BRI/BRC; technical measures to eliminate BRI/BRC.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.499-508. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
How to deal with sick building syndrome. Guidance for employers, building owners and building managers
Part 1 of this guide describes the symptoms of sick building syndrome (dry and itchy skin, nose or throat; headaches; lethargy; irritability; stuffy or runny nose) and factors associated with the syndrome (building and office design, building services and maintenance, indoor environment, air quality and job factors). Means of investigation of the problem are also described. Part 2 describes how to create a good work environment (improving air quality, control of temperature, humidity, lighting and noise, correct office equipment and furnishings, good building maintenance procedures and work organization).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. iii, 32p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Do I work in a sick building?
This booklet describes health complaints associated with indoor air quality (IAQ) and provides guidance on common sources of IAQ problems (airborne chemicals, bacteria, dust, air temperature, humidity); the importance of ventilation, investigation of complaints, air testing and measures for reducing the likelihood of IAQ problems and for controlling indoor air contaminants are underlined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA, no date. 12p. Illus.
Bachmann M.O., Turck W.A.V., Myers J.E.
Sick building symptoms in office workers: a follow-up study one year after changing buildings
Sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms were investigated in 167 clerical workers before and one year after moving from a naturally ventilated building to an artificially ventilated building. Before the move, the commonest complaints were eye symptoms, dry skin, tiredness, headaches and back and neck pain; prevalences of most symptoms were significantly higher among women and increased with time spent at VDUs. After changing buildings, the prevalences of eye, skin and fatigue symptoms increased significantly. While the study implicates building factors in the development of SBS symptoms, female sex and VDU work appear to be at least as important risk factors.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.45, No.1, p.11-15. 12 ref.
Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Indoor air quality: Pollen grains and fungi spores evaluation
Calidad de aire interior: evaluación de la presencia de polen y esporas fúngicas [in Spanish]
This information note describes a method for the determination of fungus in indoor air, as well as for the identification of fungus spores and pollen grains by light microscopy observation. Contents: introduction; allergy in the sick building syndrome; active collection methods (impaction and filtration sampling); reagents and products for analysis; equipment and material; analytical technique; calculations; evaluation. A glossary is included. Reference to information note on the determination of bacteria and fungus in air (NTP 299-1993) (CIS 95-1524).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. 17 ref.
Innenraumluftbelastungen [in German]
A concept for evaluating the working conditions in offices is presented. The following information is included in the assessment: characteristics of the building such as ventilation, design and maintenance of the air conditioning system, office equipment (e.g. carpeting, furniture and office machines), harmful substances emitted in the offices such as formaldehyde, the design of the workplaces, lighting, noise and microclimate, psychological factors such as time pressure and intensity of work as well as the results of medical examinations.
Sicher ist Sicher, Nov. 1994, Vol.45, No.11, p.574, 576-578. Illus. 21 ref.
Stenberg B., Eriksson N., Höög J., Sundell J., Wall S.
The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) in office workers: A case-referent study of personal, psychosocial and building-related risk indicators
The Office Illness Project in Northern Sweden, comprising both a screening questionnaire study of 4943 office workers and a case-referent study of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) in 464 subjects was recently completed. The case-referent study presented in this paper used data from the questionnaire supplemented with information from a clinical examination, a survey of psychosocial factors at work and building data from inspection and measurements taken at the work sites. Personal factors such as atopy and photosensitive skin, psychosocial conditions and physical exposure factors influencing indoor air quality (IAQ), such as outdoor air flow rates and the presence of photocopiers were related to an increased prevalence of the reported SBS symptoms. The rate response relationship between actually measured ventilation rates and the prevalence of perceived SBS symptoms presents strong evidence for the association between IAQ factors and health.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1994, Vol.23, No.6, p.1190-1197. Illus. 38 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Medical aspects of modern office work
Arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte der modernen Büroarbeit [in German]
Proceedings of a workshop in Germany, held on 10 September 1994. The subjects covered were: visual strain by work on computers, electromagnetic fields, harmful substances, noise, lighting and climate in the office, the problems of sedentary work, subjectively perceived stress caused by work on computers, the causes and symptoms of the sick building syndrome, the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases, tasks and workload in the modern office.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1994. 142p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 27.00.
Berenguer Subils M.J., Guardino Solá X., Hernández Calleja A., Martí Solé M.C., Nogareda Cuixart C., Solé Gómez M.D.
Sick building syndrome: Evaluation methodology
El síndrome del edificio enfermo: metodología de evaluación [in Spanish]
After presenting some basic concepts of sick building syndrome (definitions, symptoms and risk factors), this book focusses on how to evaluate and control risks when dealing with this situation. Main aspects analyzed are: artificial lighting; noise and vibration; air temperature; humidity; ventilation; ergonomic and psychosocial factors; thermal comfort; chemical and biological hazards. Fourteen case studies as well as 5 annexes are included. The annexes deal with: (a) chemical and biological contaminants; (b) questionnaires; (c) measurement of indoor air quality; (d) organizations and publications on indoor air quality; (e) reference values.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 149p. Illus. 66 ref.
Squinazi F., Lanfranconi I., Giard A.M.
Comfort and health in air-conditioned buildings: Proposal for a self-administered questionnaire survey to be used by the occupational physician
Confort et santé dans les bâtiments climatisés. Proposition d'un auto-questionnaire à utiliser par le médecin du travail [in French]
As more and more time is spent inside air-conditioned buildings, workers expect the quality of inside air to be as good as or better than outside air. Such buildings tend increasingly to be hermetically sealed, i.e. their windows cannot be opened and forced ventilation systems are in use. A number of infectious and allergic conditions have become relatively common in such indoor environments in recent years, often under the name of sick building syndrome. The self-administered questionnaire survey presented here was developed in order to obtain information on the incidence of these conditions.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.60, p.341-352. 36 ref.
Indoor air quality: A proactive approach
Textbook for a course offered in conjunction with an Industrial Safety and Health Conference in Spokane, Washington, on 16 Nov. 1994.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, SC-34 Seattle Washington 98195, USA, 1994. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. ###
Maina G., Sonnino A., Cerina G., Moretto N., Rubino G.F.
Study of indoor air quality in offices
Etude de la qualité de l'air sur une population de personnes travaillant dans des bureaux [in French]
Evaluation of microclimate, chemical and biological agents as well as parameters such as work organization and psychological factors contribute to the assessment of the air quality in offices. This study, carried out on 1,900 clerks working in 445 offices, investigated the reliability of the personal assessment of air quality by means of a specifically graduated ruler. The quality of interpersonal relationships, the tasks performed and psychological aspects exert a relevant influence on the personal assessment of both the working environment and the subjective symptoms of discomfort reported.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.449-453. Illus. 9 ref.
Smoragiewicz W., Bouchard G., Cossette B., Boutard A.
Inhibition of mould growth by the application of propionic acid and sodium propionate
Contrôle des moisissures par l'action de l'acide propionique et du propionate de sodium [in French]
The efficiency of propionic acid and sodium propionate was tested on various species of pathogenic moulds originating in dust samples taken in buildings where cases of "office building syndrome" had been reported. A 3% solution of propionic acid was sufficient to prevent mould growth (from spores) for 60% of the species and to inhibit mould growth for 70% of the species (spores and mycelium). In the case of propionate, at the same concentration, 60% of the species were inhibited but only if the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3; 7% of solutions are 100% efficient. The effects of propionic acid were tested on Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Stachybotrys atra and Trichoderma viride. The action of sodium propionate with adjusted pH was tested only on Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma viride. These moulds were shown to offer the most resistance to the action of the two fungicides.
Travail et santé, Dec.1994, Vol.10, No.4, p.S25-S27. Illus. 11 ref.
The sick building syndrome in a hospital - Search for causes in a surgical intensive care unit
Das Sick Building Syndrom im Krankenhaus - Ursachensuche auf einer chirurgischen Krankenstation [in German]
After the renovation of a hospital, the staff of the surgical intensive care unit complained of symptoms associated with "sick building syndrome". They included irritations of the skin and mucous tissue of the nose and eyes as well as headaches. Extensive investigations, including air analysis and a questionnaire survey and medical examination of the staff, revealed that it was mostly female staff members with daily contact to 4 kinds of cleaning agents who were affected.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Feb. 1994, Vol.29, No.2, p.61-66, 69. Illus. 20 ref.
Wolkoff P., Nielsen P.A.
Indoor climate labeling of building materials - Chemical emission testing, modeling, and indoor revelant odor thresholds
Topics: building materials; carpets; Denmark; labelling; legislation; mathematical models; odour threshold; organic compounds; paints; sampling and analysis; sealants; sick building syndrome; volatile substances.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, 1993. 81p. Illus. approx. 120 ref. Price: DKK 175.00.
Computer health hazards
A very comprehensive annotated bibliography of the (primarily English-language) scientific and popular literature on the health effects of visual display terminal (VDT) use. Vol.1 covers the field up to middle 1990, while Vol.2 covers it from late 1990 to 1992. Items are classified by broad subject area: emissions (radiation sources, VDTs); health hazards (cancer, cardiovascular, dermatological, immunological, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, repetitive strain injury, stress, vision); legal aspects (including litigation); legislative and regulatory aspects (US federal and State, international, professional societies); workers' compensation; monitoring; noise; prevention; safety; sick building syndrome; glossary. In annex: excerpts from relevant articles and reports.
Hughes Press, 2400 Virginia Ave. NW, Box C501, Washington DC 20037, USA, 1990, 1993. 2 vols. (vii, 67 + xv, 132p.). Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: USD 25.00 per vol.
Smoragiewicz W., Cossette B., Boutard A., Krzystyniak K.
Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings
The presence of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust samples from the air conditioning systems of four office buildings in Montreal, Canada, was determined. The buildings were known to cause sick building syndrome among their occupants. Analyses of the dust samples by thin-layer chromatography yielded four kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins. The results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This method appeared to be more sensitive while positive colour reaction on thin-layer chromatography plates using 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine proved less costly and less time-consuming. It was found suitable for qualitative detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust extracts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.2, p.113-117. 25 ref.
Hirsch A., Goldberg M., Martin J.-P., Masse R.
Prevention of respiratory diseases
Contents of this university-level manual: epidemiology of occupational respiratory hazards; occupational factors of lung cancer, upper respiratory tract cancers and sinonasal cancers; epidemiology of pleural cancer; occupational asthma; occupational exposure and chronic nonspecific lung disease; genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and environmental risk factors; measurement of occupational exposure and prevention; environmental sources of respiratory diseases (radon, multipollutant airborne particulates, air-conditioned buildings, airborne allergens, indoor and outdoor air pollution); biological markers; tobacco and respiratory diseases (environmental tobacco smoke, tobacco as a respiratory carcinogen).
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1993. xxvi, 693p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: USD 199.00.
Climate and air quality in the workplace
This revised directive describes the physical factors that determine indoor air quality (previous ed. under CIS 94-691). Main subjects covered: effects of the indoor environment on health, well-being and work capacity; air quality; selection of construction materials; ventilation; energy conservation, heat recovery and recirculated air; indoor thermal environments; adjustment of air flow rates, measurement and documentation; specifications. A brief survey of relevant Norwegian legislation is included. Replaces previous edition (CIS 94-691).
Directorate of Labour Inspection, PO Box 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Nov. 1993. 44p. 27 ref. Index. Available from: Tiden Norsk Forlag A/S, PO Box 8813 Youngstoret, 0028 Oslo, Norway.
Ventilation and air quality [Sweden]
Ventilation och luftkvalitet [in Swedish]
Directive on indoor air quality and mechanical ventilation systems. Entry into force: 1 January 1994. Contents: definitions: air quality, air from the outside, supply air, exhaust air and maintenance and control. The directive does not deal with process ventilation. Updated guidelines on application of the directive and comments are included.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 2 Aug. 1993. 24p. Illus.
Symptoms, causes and prophylaxis of sick building syndrome
Symptome, Ursachen und Prophylaxe des Sick-Buildings-Syndroms [in German]
Health problems linked to the sick building syndrome (SBS) are mostly unspecific and often can only be evaluated through subjective parameters. This article on problems of persons working in air-conditioned buildings undertakes to differentiate the physical, hygiene and technical problems in relation to SBS. Representative questionnaires were developed and measurement campaigns in selected buildings were undertaken. Prophylactic and sanitary measures are presented which include the appropriate choice and the maintenance of the system and of the filter used in the air-conditioning system. Summaries in English and German.
Sichere Arbeit, 1993, No.3, p.12-21. Illus. 41 ref.
Offices and administration
Kontor og administration [in Danish]
Volume No.12 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. It covers the sectors that are dominated by office and administration work, e.g. public services, banks, real estate, building management, travel agencies and consultants. The major work environmental problems in these sectors are musculoskeletal diseases, skin diseases and indoor climate. In social services mental stress is a major problem. In laboratories there are chemical hazards.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 66p. 24 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Hagberg M., Hofmann F., Stössel U., Westlander G.
Occupational health for health care workers
This university-level textbook presents a state of the art review of occupational health problems among health care workers. Contents: general aspects; working conditions and health hazards of health care workers; infectious diseases and hygiene; epidemiology and prevention of viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases; chemical hazards as an occupational risk for health care workers; epidemiology and prevention of musculoskeletal accidents and diseases; dermatoses; psychological aspects of work in the health care professions.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-str. 3, 86899 Landsberg, Germany, 1993. xvii, 420p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Your patients and their work: An introduction to occupational health for family doctors
This book provides help for family practitioners in Britain in the assessment of the occupational aspects of health in the course of their practice. The main types of problem which are seen are identified and advice given on how to handle them. Contents: role of family doctors, occupational health services and enforcement agencies; fitness for work, medical examinations and reports; some clinical conditions with implications for work (pregnancy, diabetes, back pain, etc); occupational illnesses and their recognition; benefits and compensation for occupational illness; health education; ethics in occupational health practice; training in occupational medicine for doctors.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. viii, 60p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Lebowitz M.D., Walkinshaw D.S.
A selection of papers from INDOOR AIR '90 concerning health effects associated with indoor air contaminants
Selected papers are presented from the Fifth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate held in Toronto, Canada, 29 July - 3 August 1990. Papers include: study of the effect of air humidification on symptoms and perception of indoor air quality in office workers; sick building syndrome in a new air-conditioned building; studies of the effects on humans of exposure to a volatile organic mixture; sensitivity of the eyes to airborne irritants; effects of particulate matter exposure and medication use on asthmatics; multipollutant exposures and health responses to particulate matter; the health significance of environmental odour pollution.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1992, Vol.47, No.1, p.6-91. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Leinster P., Mitchell E.
Commission of the European Communities
A review of indoor air quality and its impact on the health and well-being of office workers
A review of the literature concerning problems related to indoor air quality and other factors which affect the indoor environment in offices is presented. Topics covered: symptoms associated with problem buildings; psychological aspects; perceptions and sensory effects; common features of buildings with problems; scale of the problem; costs; evaluation criteria; building investigation protocols; airborne contaminants; physical factors; other considerations (odour, lighting, noise and vibration; ions, electrostatic charge); building design and services; activities within the European Communities and the USA.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1992. ix, 109p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 12.00.
Middaugh D.A., Pinney S.M., Linz D.H.
Sick building syndrome - Medical evaluation of two work forces
Sick building syndrome, characterized by upper respiratory irritative and central nervous system symptoms, is poorly understood. Building ventilation problems are frequent, although causative agent(s) are unknown. Few studies have addressed clinical characterization of symptomatic building occupants. Employees from two sites underwent standardized evaluation including medical history, physical examination and screening neurological and neuropsychological testing while acutely symptomatic. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals were evaluated when one of the sites was evacuated. Baseline evaluation results for this group were available for comparison. Symptoms of both work forces mirrored those reported in the literature. General medical examination abnormalities were few and minor, while neurological and neuropsychological examinations documented mental status, cerebellar, and neurobehavioural deficits. There were statistically significant changes from baseline. Abnormalities were self-limited. Controlled evaluations of symptomatic sick building occupants should be performed to verify these findings.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.34, No.12, p.1197-1203. 16 ref.
Leslie G.B., Lunau F.W.
Indoor air pollution. Problems and priorities
Contents of this manual: introduction to indoor air pollution problems; the perception of indoor air quality; legionella; bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms; the oxides of nitrogen; mineral fibres; radon; formaldehyde; hazards from solvents, pesticides and PCBs; vegetable dusts and lung disease; danders, etc. from domestic and laboratory animals; environmental tobacco smoke; industrial environments; extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation; contributions from outdoor pollutants; ventilation for control of airborne pollutants. Each chapter covers exposure levels, sources of pollution and routes of uptake, health effects, control measures and regulatory guidelines.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1992. xi, 329p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 45.00; USD 84.95.
Tucker W.G., Leaderer B.P., Molhave L., Cain W.S.
Sources of indoor contaminants - Characterizing emissions and health impacts
Proceedings of a conference held in New Haven (CT, USA), 22-24 October 1990. Papers include: lessons from field studies (personal and indoor exposures to environmental pollutants; sick building syndrome; risk assessment of acute health and comfort effects of indoor air pollution); chemical and physical characterisation (characterising material sources and sinks; combustion sources; modelling indoor concentrations and exposure; sampling and analytical issues; material and product evaluation); assessing irritation (sensory irritation and its relation to indoor air pollution; eye, nose and respiratory tract irritation); assessing odour and neurobehavioural responses.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 30 Apr. 1992, Vol.641, x, 327p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
The Victorian Congress of Employer Associations
Occupational health and safety handbook
This manual is divided into five parts: Part 1 - General information (government authorities; costs and benefits of OHS; understanding Acts, Regulations, Codes and Awards); Part 2 - Requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (duties of employers and employees; procedures for dealing with OHS issues; OHS representatives and committees; role of inspectors; for text of the Act, see CIS 88-1751); Part 3 - Specific OHS issues (reporting and recording of accidents and injuries; fire hazards; machine guarding; manual handling; occupational over-use syndrome; noise; asbestos; chemicals; hot working conditions; smoking in the workplace; personal protective equipment; first aid; general facilities; walk-through surveys; OHS training; sick building syndrome and Legionnaires' disease); Part 4 - Related issues (industrial waste, air and water pollution; alcohol in the workplace; AIDS in the workplace; opposition policy on OHS; Part 5 - Directory of OSH products and services.
Information Australia, A.C.N. 006 042 173, 45 Flinders Lane, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia, 2nd edition, 1992. xv, 268p. Illus.
Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments
Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.216-220. 29 ref.
Holdsworth B., Sealey A.F.
Healthy buildings - A design primer for a living environment
A book written primarily for architects and people designing working and living environments. It discusses the problem of sick buildings, and emphasises the need for designing buildings for the needs of the people living and working in them, always keeping the local climate in mind. Chapters deal with: health as a design element; climate and human life; factors of influence (external: radiation, wind, outside temperature, precipitation and humidity, air composition and pollution, soil composition, radon, toxic and biological waste, noise and vibration, vegetation; internal: moisture, heating, ventilation, hypersensitivity to chemicals (tight building syndrome), legionnaires' disease, dust and microorganisms, other indoor pollutants (units: 1 olf = air pollution from one standard person; decipol: 1 decipol = 1 olf ventilated by 10L/sec of unpolluted air), indoor air quality, healthy HVAC systems design, displaced ventilation, electromagnetic radiation, internal electric services in buildings, visual appetisers and vegetation); international case studies of healthy buildings; healthy building codes; healthy and unhealthy building materials.
Longman Group UK Limited, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, United Kingdom, 1992. 148p. Illus. 103 ref. Index.
Hodgson M.J., Hess C.A.
Doctors, lawyers and building-associated diseases
The decision on the severity and medical validity of complaints arising from "sick building syndrome" lies in the medical and scientific domain. However, compensation and disability are determined by lawyers, referees, and the courts. This article examines causation issues as dealt with by the biomedical sciences, along with the criteria for assessing causality. These criteria have developed from review of epidemiological data and from clinical cases. Legal definitions of causation are summarised, and several classic approaches to causation in law and medicine are described. Finally, published cases of diseases related to buildings are reviewed.
ASHRAE Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.25-31. 6 ref.
Basic information on workplace safety and health in the United States, including a state-by-state analysis and profile
This report published by the National Safe Workplace Institute (USA) provides information on key issues of occupational safety and health in the US. The first part contains statistical tables on occupational injuries, accidents and diseases, demographics and worker preferences, enforcement and regulation, federal spending on job health and workers' compensation. Part two includes an analytical overview of state performance and state-by-state analysis and profile of how each state is ranked in the areas of prevention, enforcement and workers' compensation. The third part depicts general information and concepts that will be of interest to occupational safety and health specialists.
National Safe Workplace Institute (NSWI), 122 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1450, Chicago IL 60603, USA, 1992. xi, 78p. Tables. Price: USD 30.00 (payment is accepted only in US dollars).
Fluorescent lighting and health
Effects of fluorescent lighting on the skin, eyes, stress, the pineal gland and sick building syndrome are considered along with the effects of glare and flicker. It is concluded that the risk of skin cancer from normal use of fluorescent lamps is extremely small and symptoms of erythema, photoconjunctivitis or photokeratitis are unlikely. Factors such as glare and flicker are known to cause discomfort to some people, but the causes of these effects need to be better understood. It is suggested that the absence of windows and lack of visual variety in interior design may exert a greater influence on complaints about lighting than any radiation from fluorescent lamps.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1992, Vol.24, No.2, p.55-61. 40 ref.
Cossette B., Smoragiewicz W., Boutard A., Bouchard G.
The detection of trichothecene mycotoxins
La détection des mycotoxines trichothécènes [in French]
In order to evaluate the degree of air contamination by fungi in office towers, the presence of mycotoxins in indoor environments was assessed, in particular that of trichothecenes, which are among the most toxic mycotoxins known (table 2). The samples analysed came from ceiling tiles, dust filters, carpets from buildings suspected to cause sick building syndrome. The fourteen fungus strains investigated produced different types of trichothecenes such as T-2 toxin, roridine, scirpentriol, etc. Rather than relying on high-performance liquid chromatography, a simpler method for the extraction of trichothecenes, combined with thin-layer chromatography, may be sufficent for the detection of trichothecenes in samples from workplaces thought to be contaminated.
Travail et santé, Spring 1992, Vol.8, No.1, p.S-2 to S-6. Illus. 20 ref.
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