Radon - 195 entries found
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Belli S., Comba P., Germani D., Grignoli M., Lagorio S., Paganoni R., Ronchin M.
Mortality study among lead-zinc miners of Val Seriana (Italy)
Studio di mortalitŕ dei minatori di piombo-zinco della Val Seriana [in Italian]
The mortality experience of 1,392 lead-zinc-silver miners (Gorno, Northern Italy) employed during the period 1950-1980 and followed up to the end of 1986 was examined. Two separate estimates of the radon exposure level are available: 0.60 and 0.36WL (working levels) respectively. The silica exposure level was not assessed. Vital status was ascertained for 95.6% of the cohort members and their mortality was compared with expected deaths based on national rates. Significant excess mortality from oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, respiratory tuberculosis, respiratory diseases and deaths from external causes was found among underground miners. Surface workers show significantly increased mortality from liver and bile duct cancer, hepatic cirrhosis, respiratory tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Based on the 16.4 excess lung cancer cases among underground miners and their cumulative radon exposure, an attributable risk estimate ranging from 9.78 and 16.31 cases per million person-years and WLM (Working Level Month) was calculated.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.467-478. Illus. 17 ref.
Indoor air quality and you
La qualité de l'air ŕ l'intérieur et vous [in French]
The following aspects of indoor air quality are briefly covered: guidelines for indoor air quality, air and air pollutants, air quality in the home, water vapour, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and other aldehydes, ozone, biological agents, particulate matter, lead, fibrous materials, consumer products, tobacco smoke, and radon.
Health and Welfare Canada, Health Protection Branch, Environmental Health Directorate, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada, 1989. 17p.
Freudenthal R.I., Freudenthal S.L.
What you need to know to live with chemicals
This book describes, for the non-scientist, relevant facts concerning the nature and use of chemicals and their effect on the environment. Topics covered: introduction to the structure of chemicals and their uses; how the body detoxifies chemicals; risks and benefits from the use of nuclear power; hazards of acid rain, pesticides, toxic natural chemicals, radon and contaminated water; overview of toxicity testing and safety assessment; outline of relevant regulations; waste disposal and recycling; the "greenhouse effect"; balancing the ecosystem.
Hill and Garnett Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 180, Greens Farms, CT 06436, USA, 1989. viii, 182p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Domański T., Kluszczyński D., Chruścielewski W.
Authorized limits of radon daughter products in Polish underground metal-ore mines in the light of experience
The paper presents the results of measurements of individual exposures of miners to radioactive radon daughter products in metal-ore mines in Poland. Results concern the 3-year period between 1985-87, during which the observed annual average concentrations were stable. The values: 1 WLM, 2.5 WLM, 3.5 WLM (Working Level Month) were considered and commended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and approved by the WHO, ILO and IAEA. Though the value of 3.5 WLM is presently adopted and officially authorised in Poland as the Authorised Limit of annual individual miners' exposure, the results presented in this paper lead to the conclusion that the value of 2.5 WLM could be adopted instead of the current one. This means that the present limit could be decreased by about 30% and without causing any social, technological and economic problems in Polish metal-ore mines.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.2, No.1, p.76-86. Illus. 15 ref.
Radon in buildings
Les émanations de radon dans les immeubles [in French]
This publication provides basic information related to the possible hazards of radon and its decay products in buildings, and how they can be minimised. It was prepared as a source of information for health and safety committees and others interested in the possible health hazards posed by radon in buildings.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Feb. 1989. 12p. 10 ref.
Australian Radiation Protection Society
Radiation protection practice
Proceedings of the seventh International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association held in Sydney, Australia, 10-17 April 1988. Papers are presented under the following headings: radiation risks in perspective; instrumentation (dosimetry, environmental monitoring); accelerator safety; biology (metabolism, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects); natural radiation (radon exposure in dwellings and in mining); non-ionising radiation (optical range, video display terminals, electromagnetic fields, bioeffects, surveys and safety); nuclear fuel cycle (operational exposures); environmental transfers and modelling; medical radiation exposure; regulatory developments; radiation accidents (accident scenarios, medical treatment, emergency procedures, Chernobyl); management of radioactive materials (transportation, recycling, disposal); operational safety; contamination from weapons tests; training, education and communication.
Pergamon Press (Australia) Pty Ltd, 19a Boundary Street, Rushcutters Bay, NSW 2011, Australia, 1988. 3 vols. 1668p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Kluszczyński D., Żórawski A., Olszewski J.
Radiation exposure of miners and systems of radiation protection in Polish nonuranium mines
This article presents an original solution to the problem of radiation protection in Polish mines where miners are exposed to the radioactive gas radon and radioactive aerosols. The system refers to hygienic evaluation of the workplace and the individual exposure as well as to technical prevention, the aim of which is to minimise exposure. Hygienic supervision uses a dosimetric technique with track detectors. Principles of the system have been worked out in metal-ore mines where they have been applied for 10 years, markedly decreasing miners' exposure. The results of preliminary tests in coal mines are also presented.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.1, No.1, p.88-97. Illus. 25 ref.
Lam W.K., Tsin T.W., Ng T.P.
Radon hazard from caisson and tunnel construction in Hong Kong
A possible occupational risk of caisson and tunnel excavation in Hong Kong results from the inhalation of natural radon daughters. In this study radon daughter concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 71.4WL were recorded in caissons of various dimensions and from 0.03 to 0.95WL in tunnels over 1km in length under construction (ICRP exposure limit being 0.4WL). There was clear indication of increased radon daughter accumulation in confined and unventilated areas and in unventilated caissons an exponential increase of radon daughter concentrations with the ratio of depth to cross-sectional area was observed (r = 0.9). The study revealed a potential radiation hazard facing underground construction workers and this is being examined by an ongoing epidemiological cohort study: meanwhile environmental control should be improved.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.317-323. Illus. 13 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Exposure to radon; the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 [United Kingdom] - Approved Code of Practice Part 3
This is the third part of the Code of Practice (effective 4 Apr. 1988) which was approved under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985. The information in this part is additional to that given in Part I and should be read in conjunction with the latter and with the Regulations. Part 3 applies when there is exposure of persons to the short-lived daughters of radon 222 above an energy concentration in air of 6.24 x 10-7Jm-3 (0.03WL). Contents: restriction of exposure; dose limits; controlled areas; radiation protection advisers; radiation protection supervisors; dosimetry; area monitoring. In the appendix: table of equivalents.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 8p. Price: GBP 2.00.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Man-made mineral fibres and radon
Conclusions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 16-23 June 1987. Overall evaluation indicates that: glasswool, rockwool, slagwool and ceramic fibres are possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC Classification Group 2B). Glass filaments are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3); radon and its decay products are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. Vol.43. 300p. Bibl. Price: CHF 65.00.
Radon progeny in underground mines
The recommended exposure limits (REL) in this NIOSH Criteria Document are as follows: exposure to radon progeny in underground mines shall not exceed 1 WLM (Work Level Month) per year, and the average workshift concentration shall not exceed 1/12 of 1WL (or 0.083 WL). The REL of 1 WLM per year is an upper limit for cumulative exposure, and every effort shall be made to reduce exposure to the lowest levels possible.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1987. 215p. Illus. Bibl.
Radon and its decay products: Occurrence, properties and health effects
The topics of the 41 papers in this symposium (13-18 April 1986, New York, USA) included: overview of radon (Rn) and its decay products; soil as a source of indoor Rn; Rn in houses due to potable water; measurements in residential buildings; assessing exposure in the USA; Rn-222 in Norwegian dwellings; Rn in Swedish homes; Rn in Finland; in United Kingdom homes; population doses in Ireland; in living environments in Japan; effects of aerosol polydispersity on calculations; comparison of instruments for air measurements; determination in fumarolic gases; assessment of exhalation measurements using the closed-can method; underground measurements; chemical properties of Rn; effect of Rn on electrical properties of indoor air; effect of filtration and exposure to electric fields on Rn in air; plate-out on large surfaces; behaviour of Rn daughters in the domestic environment; measuring polonium; development of a mobility analyser; aerosols; health effects of Rn and its daughters (bronchial dosimetry, lung cancer, dose-response relations, peripheral blood chromosomes); mitigation methods (modified designs, remedial methods, activated charcoal); a layman's guide to the problem.
American Chemical Society, Book and Journals Division, 1155 16th Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, Jan. 1987. 609p. Illus. Indexes. 16 ref. Price: USD 107.95.
Exposure to radon daughters in workplaces
A short survey of the problem of exposure to radon daughters (short-lived decay products of the naturally occurring radioactive gas, radon-222) inside buildings in the United Kingdom (particularly, below ground level). Measurement methods and units of measurement. Results of a study of 70 workplaces showed that 15 had radon daughter concentrations in excess of 0.03WL (=Working Level), compared with 0.4WL considered as the exposure limit by the US Public Health Service. Possible control measures are discussed.
Safety Practitioner, Feb. 1987, Vol.5, No.2, p.16-18. Illus. 8 ref.
Medical and hygienic health problems in an iron ore mine with special reference to respiratory illness
Papers reviewed covered: the prevalence of chronic bronchitis among underground workers; long-term effects on lung function; silicosis, its causes, and needs for control measures; mortality from lung cancer and its causes in the mine.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 58p. Illus. 131 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Results of the second CEC intercomparison of active and passive dosimeters for the measurement of radon and radon decay products
Seventeen laboratories participated in the intercomparison of passive dosimeters and 13 in that of active measurement techniques. Most of the exposures were carried out in a 43m3 environmental chamber for 3 days. Different exposure conditions were provided on each day. The radon decay product measurements showed a significant improvement over those of the 1982 comparison. The overall spread was 29% about the mean and the standard deviation 10%.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Bâtiment Jean Monnet, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1986. 60p. Price: BF.250.00.
Bergarbete [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective 1 July 1987) applying to underground and opencast workings (including tunnel driving) cover: general rules (geological considerations; choice of methods and equipment from the safety and health point of view; workers' qualifications; contact in the event of work in isolation; personal protection; lighting; traffic rules; manriding; safe clearances; regular checks and tuning of diesel engines with a view to reducing carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases; design of motorised equipment; ducts for air, gases and liquids, power cables); supervision of radon exposure; escape routes, rescue, and fire safety; drilling; loading and transport of minerals; roof trimming and roof support; inspection and maintenance of underground workings. Detailed advice and commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 22 Dec. 1986. 23p.
Solli H.M., Andersen A., Stranden E., Langĺrd S.
Cancer incidence among workers exposed to radon and thoron daughters at a niobium mine
Mortality study concerning 318 male employees who worked at a Norwegian mine between 1951 and 1965. The accumulated doses to the workers from radon and thoron daughters were estimated to be up to 300 working levels months. During the follow-up period (1953-1981), 24 new cases of cancer were observed (22.8 expected) including 12 cases of lung cancer (3 expected). Associations between the occurrence of lung cancer, alpha radiation and smoking were established.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1985, Vol.11, No.1, p.7-13. 22 ref.
Commission of the European Communities, Euratom
Progress Report - Radiation protection programme 1980-1984
Rapport d'activité - Programme Radioprotection 1980-1984 [in French]
The results of the fifth multiannual research programme into radiation protection are presented in these 2 volumes. The main subject areas of the approx. 300 projects cover: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; short-term and long-term somatic effects of ionising radiation; genetic effects of ionising radiation; evaluation of radiation hazards. The 1980-1984 programme emphasised urgent problems such as neutron dosimetry and evaluation of the quality factor, long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment, risks of exposure to tritium, carcinogenesis, risks from indoor exposure to radon, optimisation of radiation protection including non-nuclear cycle activities and in medicine. Most of the reports are in English, the rest in French or German.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 5 rue de Commerce, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1985. 2 Vols. 2270p. Illus. Bibl. Price: BF.4000; US$64.00.
Summerlin J., Prichard H.M.
Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries
Evaluation of the hazards associated with gamma emitting long-lived daughters of radon-222 (Pb-210, Bi 210, and Po-210) that are deposited on the inner surfaces of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) concentration process equipment. Radon-222 is a common contaminant in natural gas. Breathing zone measurements made during the clean-up of a pump impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the maximum permissible concentration for 60h could be delivered in <30min. The potential radiological health problem related to LPG equipment maintenance and repair and the appropriate preventive measures are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.202-205. Illus. 11 ref.
Exposures from the uranium series with emphasis on radon and its daughters - Recommendations of the NCRP
Contents of this report evaluating the potential of exposure of the US population to radionuclides: natural background radiation and exposure levels; soil content and transport, external radiation; inhalation; drinking water; dietary intake and body content; dose summary; recommendations. Appended: regulations, measurements for assesing exposure, derivation of soil guides (uranium, radium and lead-210).
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814, USA, 15 Mar. 1984, 131p. Illus. 137p. Index.
Edlin D.W., Crawford N.P., Dodgson J.
Radon and thoron daughter working levels in British coalmines
Shift-average radon and thoron daughter working levels at 11 British coal mines were in the range 0.6-31.4mWL (milli-working levels) for radon and 0.5-9.4mWL for thoron daughters. These values are much lower than the 300mWL limit applied in uranium mines. The activity level correlated with the ventilation distance from the pit bottom to the sampling site. The results suggest that activity levels in British coal mines are unlikely to exceed the probable action limit for radon and thoron daughters defined in a Euratom directive (30-40mWL).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1984, Vol.28, No.3, p.315-320. Illus. 10 ref.
A walk-in radon/thoron test facility
Description of a large (26m3) chamber designed for testing and calibrating radon and thoron radiation measuring instruments and techniques, for studying plate-out of radon and thoron daughters on surfaces, and for a variety of dynamic simulation studies relevant to worker exposure to radiation in uranium mines and mills. The environmental conditions can be varied over a wide range of values and parameters: radon and thoron concentrations (<0.18 to >37Bq/L); radon and thoron daughter working levels (0.02 to several WL); aerosol concentration (<103 to 106/cm3); temperature (15 to 30°C); relative humidity (5 to 98%).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1984, Vol.45, No.8, p.525-532. Illus. 12 ref.
Evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures to radon and radon daughters in the United States
Contents: source of radon in the atmosphere; dosimetry of inhaled uranium mine aerosols; dosimetry of inhaled radon daughters in environmental atmosphere; variability of radon daughter dose conversion factors with model parameters; adequacy of the working level as an exposure unit; lung cancer; studies of radon daughter inhalation using experimental animals; calculated lung cancer risk; evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA, May 1984. 204p. Illus. Bibl.
Lung cancer and radon daughter exposure in mines and dwellings
This M.D. thesis is based on the 5 studies: lung cancer and smoking in a group of iron ore miners; quantitative aspects of radon daughter exposure and lung cancer in underground miners; effects of low-dose radiation - a correlation study; lung cancer and residency - a case-referent study on the possible impact of exposure to radon and its daughters in dwellings; radon in homes - a possible cause of lung cancer. Two case-referent studies are reported involving miners with occupational exposure to radon and radon daughters. Radiation appears to be important for the initiation of lung cancer, and smoking appears to act as a promoter. In mines, exposure to radon and its daughters is associated with a substantial risk for lung cancer complicated by smoking.
Department of Occupational Medicine, Linköping University, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden, 1983. 149p. Illus. Bibl.
Rom W.N., Lee J.
Energy alternatives: What are their possible health effects?
Aspects reviewed are: the nuclear fission cycle (radon daughter exposure, lung cancer, relative risks of various components of the cycle); the coal cycle (mortality of coal miners, pneumoconiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, bronchitis, emphysema, power plants, gasification, liquefaction); the oil-shale cycle, tar sands and geothermal cycles; nuclear fusion; solar energy.
Environmental Science and Technology, Mar. 1983, Vol.17, No.3, p.132A-144A. Illus. 129 ref.
Strong J.C., Green N., Brown K., O'Riordan M.C.
Minor sources of miner exposure
Radon daughters are the major source of radiation exposure in many mines; 3 other less important but significant sources are considered here: thoron daughters, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rock. Data on these 3 sources in 14 non-coal mines in Britain are tabulated. The total dose from these sources is probably about 2mSv/year; it may in some cases reach 5mSv/year, but even this level is well below the dose allowed by present informal radiation exposure standards.
Radiological Protection Bulletin, July 1983, No.53, p.12-14. 6 ref.
This document provides information on the sources, behaviour in the environment, transfer to man, dosimetry and radiation effects of the radionuclides: tritium; carbon-14; krypton-85; strontium-90; iodine; caesium-137; radon; plutonium.
World Health Organization, 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1983, 237p. Illus. 383 ref. Price: SF.18.00.
Stranden E., Berteig L.
A study on the radiological characteristics of Norwegian non-uranium mine atmospheres
Radon (Rn) and thoron (220Rn) daughter exposure data collected over a 10 year period show that the distribution of the effective dose equivalent (EDE) for all Norwegian miners complies generally with the ICRP recommendations. 23% of the miners working in 2 of the mines surveyed receive about 70% of the collective EDE. Thoron daughter exposure represents <10% of the EDE. Factors affecting radon and thoron daughter concentrations in mine atmospheres are: temperature and atmospheric pressure changes, type of mining operation and levels of dust and diesel exhaust fumes.
Health Physics, Dec. 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.922-928. Illus. 8 ref.
Assessment of radium-226 in two cases of radium luminizers using whole-body counting
The activity of radium luminisers and the corresponding dose delivered were asessed, using a whole-body counter, in 2 technicians from Kuwait working in dial painting. Because of elapsed time, radium values were obtained from the measured content of bismuth-214. Background levels were established by assessing levels of caesium-137 and potassium in unexposed persons of similar body build from the same area. Radium-226 activity had decreased but the activity of its products increased resulting in an increase of assessed dose. The dose estimated was calculated after 50 years, representing the expected life span.
Health Physics, Oct. 1982, Vol.43, No.4, p.567-572. Illus. 12 ref.
Leach V.A., Lokan K.H., Martin L.J.
A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine
External radiation levels, radon emanation rates, and radon daughter levels were measured in a high-grade uranium deposit and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, associated with thermal inversions. Mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated at 0.65 working level months for workers employed at the pit for the entire 4 1/2 months of the investigation. Mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure was 2.3mSV (230rem). Exposure for other workers was much lower. Data on long-lived radionuclides in dust and particle size distribution are given.
Health Physics, Sep. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.363-375. Illus. 29 ref.
Shaw D.M., Franklin J.C.
A continuous area monitoring and alarm system
The detector, microprocessing unit and software of the system, developed by the US Bureau of Mines, are described. Radon detectors are installed at strategic points of uranium mines, and a central alarm receiver is situated at the surface. The unit also monitors the mine ventilation equipment.
Engineering and Mining Journal, May 1982, Vol.183, No.5, p.84-90. Illus. 2 ref.
Wallace L.A., Ott W.R.
Personal monitors: A state-of-the-art survey
Essential characteristics, advantages, and problems associated with personal monitors for selected air pollutants are discussed and compared with fixed-station monitoring. Studies on monitoring of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particulates, vinyl chloride, formaldehyde, pesticides and PCB, polynuclear aromatics, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and radon are reviewed. Research needs are set out. Personal monitors are generally superior to fixed-station monitors for estimating personal exposure, at least for selected air pollutants. Tney make it possible to collect data on pollutant concentrations indoors, outdoors and in various modes of transportation.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 1982, Vol.32, No.6, p.601-610. Illus. 69 ref.
Pekárek V., Lazar C., Rychlík J.
Radon and radon daughters in the air of ore mines in Northern Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Incidence of occupational lung cancer in exposed miners
Radon a jeho dceřiné produkty v ovzduší rudných dolů severočeského kraje a výskyt profesionálni rakoviny plic u exponovaných horníků [in Czech]
Description of hygiene conditions in non-uranium ore mines of Northern Bohemia as regards exposure to radon and its short-lived daughter products. Radon concentration was very high in the years preceding the introduction of artificial ventilation. Up to 1980, 45 cases of occupational lung cancer were recorded in mines in relation to radon exposure. Most of the sick were smokers. In spite of reduced exposure levels at present, several cases of cancer were noted in previously exposed miners.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1982, Vol.34, No.8, p.270-272. Illus. 4 ref.
Ševc J., Plaček V., Vernerová P.
Lung tumours and radiation exposure by inhalation
Zhoubný novotvar plic a inhalační radiační expozice [in Czech]
Recall of results of epidemiological studies undertaken in polymetallic and uranium mines in Sweden, USA, Canada, South Africa and Czechoslovakia. Summary of a Czechoslovak study confirming previous data on the relations between the incidence of lung tumours and cumulative exposure to radon daughters, age at the beginning of exposure, cigarette smoking and time distribution of exposure. A previous theory linking a particular type of lung tumour with radiation exposure was not confirmed. Incidence of tumours in other organs was no higher in exposed persons than in the population generally. The results of these epidemiological studies were used in Czechoslovakia to establish new exposure limits and to improve protective measures.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1982, Vol.34, No.8, p.266-269. Illus. 25 ref.
Stranden E., Berteig L.
Radon daughter equilibrium and unattached fraction in mine atmospheres
There are large variations in the equilibrium factor (F) in mine atmospheres and the assumption of a universal value of F could introduce large errors in dose assessments. Individual radon daughter ratios can be assessed by measurements of F by the Kusnetz methods and using the correlations presented in this paper and by Domanski. The main influencing factor on the unattached faction of the radon daughters is dust concentration. In most working conditions in mines the value of the unattached fraction of the potential α-energy is <0.05. By using the Kusnetz method to analyse the screen and back-up filter, the unattached fraction of the individual daughters can be assessed from the correlations given.
Health Physics, Apr. 1982, Vol.42, No.4, p.479-487. Illus. 11 ref.
Borak T.B., Franco E.D.
An evaluation of working level measurements using a generalized Kusnetz method
A systematic procedure for evaluating inherent error and precision is presented for methods which determine Working Level (WL) from a single measurement of alpha activity. Optimised conversion factors are given for typical conditions encountered in uranium mines. Symmetries involving sampling and counting intervals are described. The evaluation scheme is then used to examine uncertainties in measurements of very small values of WL anticipated in buildings and houses.
Health Physics, Apr. 1982, Vol.42, No.4, p.459-467. Illus. 24 ref.
Radon daughter exposure to uranium miners
Two models, based on a comparison of the 60 working level months (WLM) per full working lifetime average exposure of US uranium miners with the lowest exposure for which excess lung cancers has been reported, 120-240WLM, and average environmental exposures of 16WLM, were used to estimate effects of present exposure levels on miners. In the first case the estimated loss of life expectancy was 45 days, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer was 1.1 and the SMR for all causes between 18 and 65 years was 1.013. In the second case, the estimates were 10 days, 1.03 and 1.002 respectively. Miner health risks are comparable to those of other radiation workers, and the SMR for diseases other than cancer and the job-related accident mortality risks are higher than risks of lung cancer due to radon daughter exposure.
Health Physics, Apr. 1982, Vol.42, No.4, p.449-457. Illus. 19 ref.
Cross F.T., Palmer R.F., Filipy R.E., Dagle G.E., Stuart B.O.
Carcinogenic effects of radon daughters, uranium ore dust and cigarette smoke in beagle dogs
The development of pulmonary lesions was studied following chronic inhalation exposures to radon at 105 ± 20nCi/l, radon daughters at 605 ± 169 WL, uranium ore dust at 12.9 ± 6.7mg/m3 and cigarette smoke. There were 4 groups of dogs: Group 1 was chronically exposed to radon and radon daughters as well as to uranium ore dust, group 2 received the same chronic exposure plus cigarette smoke, group 3 was exposed to cigarette smoke only, and group 4 (controls) had no exposure at all. The animals of first 2 groups died within 4 to 5 years. The animals of group 3 and the controls were in apparently good health after the 4-5-year period. The beagle dog appears to be a useful animal for modelling pulmonary lesions produced by uranium mine air contaminants. Tumours were produced at levels not much greater than some exposures reported for uranium miners.
Health Physics, Jan. 1982, Vol.42, No.1, p.33-52. Illus. 33 ref.
Strong K.P., Levins D.M.
Effect of moisture content on radon emanation from uranium ore and tailings
Samples of crushed Australian uranium ore and tailings were placed in ingrowth chambers and the emanation coefficient and radon flux were determined for dry, moist and water-saturated conditions. A sharp rise in emanation coefficient occurred as the moisture content increased from 0 to 2% water by weight. Emanation coefficients from water-saturated tailings were about 4 times those from dry materials. The highest radon flux came from columns filled with moist tailings. Water-saturated tailings gave the lowest flux because of the lower diffusion coefficient of radon through water. Conclusions for wet dust control methods.
Health Physics, Jan. 1982, Vol.42, No.1, p.27-32. Illus. 16 ref.
Dolgyrev E.I., Kajdanovskij G.N., Lihtareva T.M., Porozov N.V.
Apparatus and method for whole-body measurement of 210Pb in man
Apparaturno-metodičeskii kompleks dlja naturnyh izmerenij soderžanija 210Pb v tele čeloveka [in Russian]
Body burden of 210Pb is a quantitative indicator of exposure of the respiratory tract to daughters of radon; radon is a frequent contaminant of mine air. The 46.7-keV gamma radiation of 210Pb in a subject's skeleton is measured in a thick-walled iron chamber additionally shielded with layers of lead, copper and plastic. Two sodium iodide detectors are placed on opposite sides of the subject's head. The contribution of scattered 40K and 137Cs radiation to the counting rate in the main channel of the counter is determined by comparing the rates of counting in the 30-55keV main channel and a 100-150keV secondary channel. The apparatus is calibrated with a series of 210Pb sources of known activity and an anthropomorphic phantom. The minimum amount of 210Pb detectable is 0.35nCi. This is equivalent to a monthly inhalation of radon and its daughters with an aggregate alpha-particle energy of 130,000meV/l air.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1981, No.9, p.56-57. 1 ref.
Radiation hazards in mining. Control measurement and medical aspects
The 163 presentations made at this conference, 4-9 Oct. 1981, Golden, Colorado, USA, are reproduced. Topics covered: statements of principles; regulation; tissue dosimetry of radon daughters and related radionuclides; radiation in non-uranium mines; exposure, risk and standard interrelationships; engineering controls; mine and mill waste disposal and handling; biomedical investigations; mine systems applications; uranium and non-uranium miner protection; legislation; instrumentation for radon daughter measurement; epidemiology; health concerns and surveillance; measurement of radon daughters; training; exposure assessment; radionuclide detection; dosimeter applications; radon daughters from non-uranium sources; carcinogenesis; statistics and objectives of radon daughter monitoring; lung cancer epidemiology; methods of measuring radon daughters and radionuclides; mine and mill environments; biological monitoring; control of underground atmospheres; radionuclide pathways; engineering aspects of uranium milling and mining; other investigations and concerns.
Society of Mining Engineers, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, New York, NY, 1981. 1105p. Illus.
Radon daughters in metal mines
Folgeprodukte des Radons im Erz- und Spatbergbau [in German]
Review of how radon daughters originate, characteristics of their diffusion on rock surfaces and their radiation toxicity; literature survey of the effects of radon daughters on the human body. Emphasis on measurement of radon concentrations, recent values measured in mines, and TLVs for the prevention of lung cancer. Health engineering measures to reduce exposure (surface coating of mineworkings, improved ventilation, dust control, use of respirators).
Neue Bergbautechnik, 1981, Vol.11, No.3, p.191-194. Illus. 29 ref.
Wagnerová M., Wagner V., Skokanová K., Heribanová A., Říha M.
Levels of immunoglobulins, lysozymes, alpha-2-macroglobulin and transferrin in miners exposed to the daughter products of 222Rn in shale mines
Hladiny imunoglobulinů, lyzozymů, alfa 2-makroglobulinu a transferinu u horníků vystavených dceřiným produktům 222Rn v lupkových dolech [in Czech]
Results of the examination of 38 miners working in shale mines and exposed to the daughter products of 222Rn, in order to determine the levels of immunoglobulins, lysozymes, transferrin and alpha-2-macroglobulin in the serum and the levels of IgA and lysozymes in the saliva. All the values were higher than those in the controls, with the exception of salivary lysozymes where the level was significantly lower. The levels of IgG and IgA increased with increasing duration of exposure. This relation was the converse for IgM, lysozymes and alpha-2-macroglobulin.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1981, Vol.33, No.9, p.346-351. Illus. 20 ref.
The error in working-level hour. Calculations when the α-energy from the radon daughters is not discriminated
Simple counting of total α emission and the assignment of a pre-determined energy to the α-particle, whose value is derived from statistical studies of typically found daughter ratios, allow acceptable accuracies in working-level hour (WLH) measurements. Using this approach, the complexity of the dosimeter can be reduced because α counting is used rather than α-particle discrimination. An α detector with moderate resolution can be used by the dosimeter resulting in cost savings. This method is an accurate and practical way to measure an individual's cumulative exposure to radon daughters.
Health Physics, Sep. 1981, Vol.41, No.3, p.477-481. Illus. 4 ref.
Radon doses in mines and homes
The risk of the development of lung cancer as a result of exposure to radon daughters is discussed in terms of background epidemiology, dosimetry, regional lung dose, occupational and domestic exposure, and the relation between dose and risk. Recommendations for limitation of exposure are presented.
Radiological Protection Bulletin, Sep. 1981, No.42, p.6-13. Illus. 19 ref.
Coté P., Townsend M.G.
Mixtures of radon and thoron daughters in underground atmospheres
Two simple methods, with short counting times and adequate precision, were developed to determine the working levels (WL) of radon (Rn) and thoron (Tn) daughters in mine atmospheres where mixtures are present. The WL (Tn) measured by α-spectroscopy and the Kusnetz method were about half those of WL (Rn) in a Canadian uranium mine. A diffusion model accounted for these relative concentrations. The most widely used Kusnetz technique was extended to measurement of WL of Rn and Tn in air containing their mixtures. A 3-channel α-spectroscopy procedure was also developed. Errors in WL (Rn) were calculated for standard counting procedures when α-decay was attributed to Rn alone. These errors were small for counting times ≤30min. The precision of β-counting methods was also examined.
Health Physics, Jan. 1981, Vol.40, No.1, p.5-17. 26 ref. Illus.
Domanski T., Chruscielewski W., Hofman M.
Monitoring the exposure to radon decay products in mine air using passive track detectors
In a 2-year test period, the concentration of radon and its decay products was monitored in 2 zinc-lead and 1 copper mine using cellulose triacetate film passive track detectors (PTD) in the form of environmental cassettes hung on work posts in mines and as helmet cassettes. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using conventional air sampling methods. The average potential enegy concentration of radon disintegration products was similar using the 3 methods of measurement. Agreement was very good in the copper mine measurements. Appropriately calibrated PTD can be used to replace air sampling methods and helmet cassettes are better than environmental cassettes.
Health Physics, Feb. 1981, Vol.40, No.2, p.211-217. Illus. 6 ref.
Kawaji M., Pai H.L., Phillips C.R.
Use of gross filter activities in a continuous working level monitor
Conversion factors for a gross activity continuous working level (WL) meter were derived for steady state in the air and on the filter and these factors were used to covert gross α, gross β or gross α+β counts directly to WL. The ratio of gross α-activity to WL was approximately constant with respect to the equilibrium state of radon daughter products in air. Excellent agreement was found when the performance of the continuous WL meter and the accuracy of the conversion factor were experimentally evaluated by comparison with grab sampling data from an automated modified Tsivoglou instrument.
Health Physics, Apr. 1981, Vol.40, No.4, p.543-548. Illus. 4 ref.
Horáček J., Ševcová M., Ševc J.
Histological types of basal cell skin epitheliomas in persons exposed to alpha rays
Histologické typy kožních bazaliomů u osob v riziku zevního záření alfa [in Czech]
Histological analysis of 26 epitheliomas from persons exposed to α-radiation from radon daughter products in uranium mines, and 132 control epitheliomas, showed a greater frequency of solid, invasive forms in the exposed group.
Československá dermatologie, Aug. 1979, Vol.54, No.4, p.199-203. 7 ref.
Annual research and development report, 1978.
Description of 78 research projects (see also CIS 78-1300); some with partial support of the Commission of the European Communities. Subjects covered include: deposition and clearance of radioactive materials from the lungs; metabolism, effects of and removal of incorporated radionuclides; radioactivity in the environment; radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes; biological effects of microwaves; national registry for radiation workers; calculations of radiation dose and risk; inhalation of radon and daughters; personal monitoring.
NRPB/R&D3, National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 ORQ. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, June 1979. 249p. Illus. 4 ref. Price:Ł6.00.
Holub R.F., Droullard R.F., Ho W.L., Hopke P.K., Parsley R., Stukel J.J.
The reduction of airborne radon daughter concentration by plateout on an air mixing fan.
The effects of condensation nuclei, humidity and turbulence on the rapid deposition (plateout) of radon daughter activity on the chamber walls were studied in an environment chamber. Under low humidity conditions the presence of a small fan reduced the working level by 41%. The activity actually became attached to the fan blades. A relative humidity above 80% totally inhibited the effect. The mechanism of the effect is discussed.
Health Physics, Apr. 1979, Vol.36, No.4, p.497-504. Illus. 17 ref.
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