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Radon - 195 entries found

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  • Radon

1995

CIS 96-1866 Finkelstein M.M.
Silicosis, radon, and lung cancer risk in Ontario miners
Uranium miners are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. This is generally attributable to exposure to radon. However, miners are also exposed to silica, classified by IARC as a possible human carcinogen. In a study of lung cancer risk in 328 miners with silicosis, which included a small number of uranium miners (23 subjects), it was found that the radon risk factor decreased when lung cancer risk was adjusted for the presence of silicosis. Smoking is also an important risk factor, but it was not feasible to include smoking in the statistical models. The results for the radon risk factors are, however, uncertain because of the small number of uranium miners included in the sample. Additional studies of this factor are considered warranted.
Health Physics, Sept. 1995, Vol.69, No.3, p.396-399. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 96-1014 Gundy S., Bank J., Bojtor I., Köteles G.J.
The occurrence of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of radon-exposed underground ore miners
Frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were investigated in peripheral blood samples taken from underground uranium miners exposed to various levels of radon and from unexposed controls. Six exposure groups were identified according to the level of exposure. While no general tendency was observed in change of SCE frequencies with increasing radon exposure, significant differences were found between certain groups of miners. The findings are discussed with respect to the opportunity for biological monitoring of radon exposed persons.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.78-86. 13 ref.

CIS 96-655 Brooks S., Gochfeld M., Herzstein J., Schenker M., Jackson R.
Environmental medicine
Contents of this manual: principles and basic science of environmental medicine (environmental hazards, risk and exposure assessment, toxicology, carcinogenesis); clinical environmental medicine (diagnosis, vision, hearing, dermatoses, respiratory disorders, liver and kidney toxicity, nervous system, immunologic disorders); susceptible populations (susceptibility, multiple chemical sensitivity, exposure of children); specific environmental exposure sources (air, water and soil pollution, asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, fire and pyrolysis products, radiation, vibration, heat stress, high-altitude and space medicine, chemical and biological agents, hazardous waste); preventive approaches (health surveillance, biomarkers, chemical disaster preparedness, health risk communication).
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St.Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1995. xix, 780p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 69.00.

CIS 96-993 van Netten C., Brands R.B., Morley D.R., Sabels B.E.
Development of a long-term personal radon monitor
A personal radon monitor based on track etch technology and housed in a watch casing was developed and field tested. The monitors were worn continuously for two months by 49 subjects. Standard REM AT-100 radon monitors were placed in the homes of each subject and local background radon levels were used to estimate exposure for time spent away from home. A good correlation was obtained between the standard and watch monitors. The watch monitors were well received by participants and are potentially useful for domestic and occupational settings.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1107-1110. Illus. 15 ref.

1994

CIS 97-987
Kriteriegruppen för fysikaliska riskfaktorer
Radon in the working environment: Position report
Radon i arbetsmiljön: Lägesrapport [in Swedish]
Attention has been devoted for several decades to health risks associated with exposure to radon in various environments. Further indications of such risks have recently appeared for the rather modest exposure in dwellings. These data, together with the development of international recommendations and a new Swedish action programme, prompted the Criteria Group for Physical Risk Factors at the National Institute of Occupational Health to issue this position report. The Criteria Group came to the following conclusions: actions taken to reduce the radon level in work environments should be given a high priority; the action programme of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) for dwellings and certain work premises provides a basis for this work; an effective programme includes a thorough survey of different workplaces, especially within areas at risk for geological reasons, and specific proposals for remedial measures; education and information are also important parts of such a programme; a reevaluation of exposure limits for mines should be undertaken, on the basis of the recommendations issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and forthcoming directives from the European Union (EU). In an annex: ICRP recommendations in English
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 28p. 10 ref.

CIS 96-1007 Cohen B.L.
Dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis in the low-dose region
The present knowledge of the effects of low-level radiation gained in in-vitro and epidemiological studies is reviewed. Included are the studies of the effects of radon in homes. The in-vitro studies provide evidence that low-level radiation greatly enhances the efficiency of DNA repair. The epidemiological studies of people exposed to low levels of radiation have shown that cancer incidence is not higher than in the general population. The linear, no-threshold, dose-response relationship used to predict cancer incidence caused by exposure to high radiation doses does not apply for exposure to low doses of radiation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.2, p.71-75. 39 ref.

CIS 96-641 Langård S.
Prevention of lung cancer through the use of knowledge on asbestos and other work-related causes - Norwegian experiences
This review attempts to estimate the contribution of different known work-related causes of lung cancer among Norwegian men in order to predict the potential of prevention of work-related cases. The presented estimates are based on data from epidemiological studies made in Norway, but may be of significance for other countries with a similar work-force structure. Over the past decade asbestos-related lung cancer appears to have contributed about two-thirds of the lung cancers that have been related to work exposure in Norway. Compounds of nickel and chromium have also contributed, although to a lesser extent, along with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, radon daughters, seafaring work, and other, less significant specific and non-specific determinants of lung cancer. Prevention would be fostered by synergic actions.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, Vol.20, Special issue, p.100-107. Illus. 59 ref.

CIS 95-1769 Fu H., Gu X., Jin X., Yu S., Wu K., Guidotti T.L.
Lung cancer among tin miners in Southeast China: Silica exposure, silicosis and cigarette smoking
Incidence of lung cancer was studied among miners in Dachang tin mine (China), known to have relatively high levels of suspended dust (silica and other potential carcinogens) and low radon levels. Among the risk factors for excess mortality from lung cancer, only the years spent drilling underground and the cumulative smoking index (product of daily cigarette consumption and number of years smoking) were independent contributors to risk; no interaction between the two was observed. The presence of silicosis did not contribute to predicting the risk independently of the years spent underground.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.26, No.3, p.373-381. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1737 Simonato L., Moulin J.J., Javelaud B., Ferro G., Wild P., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
A retrospective mortality study of workers exposed to arsenic in a gold mine and refinery in France
In a mortality study among employees of a French gold mining and refining company, a twofold excess of lung cancer was found among both miners and smelters, mainly concentrated among workers who had experienced exposure to past levels of arsenic, radon and silica. The consistency of the results in the mine and the refinery are suggestive of a carcinogenic risk from both soluble and insoluble arsenic, although the potential role of other factors cannot be dismissed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.625-633. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1767 Carta P., Cocco P., Picchiri G.
Lung cancer mortality and airways obstruction among metal miners exposed to silica and low levels of radon daughters
A study of miners in two Sardinian metal mines showed an increased mortality for nonmalignant chronic respiratory diseases in both mines. Among underground miners from mine A (low silica and high radon levels), there was a slight excess of lung cancer mortality which increased with duration of underground employment; highest lung cancer mortality was observed in underground miners with an obstructive ventilatory impairment. Deaths from lung cancer in mine B (higher silica and lower radon levels) were less than expected. Results suggest a slight association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to radon daughters. Impaired pulmonary function may be an independent predictor of lung cancer and an important risk factor.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.25, No.4, p.489-506. 92 ref.

CIS 94-2082 Wake D., Brown R.C.
Removal of radon daughter aerosols from mine air by filtration
Respirator filters and filtering facepieces were tested for penetration of radon daughter aerosols; tests were carried out in a fluorspar mine and in the laboratory. Respirators with a filtration efficiency high enough for them to be considered suitable for use against toxic dusts generally reduced radon daughter levels by 90% or more, although nuisance dust masks were ineffective. Comparison between on-site tests and tests with a standard aerosol showed that respirators that satisfy an existing standard could be expected to give reasonable protection against radon daughters.
Mining Engineer, June 1994, Vol.153, No.393, p.362-364. Illus. 9 ref.

1993

CIS 07-444
International Commission on Radiological Protection
Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection 1990
Recommandations 1990 de la Commission internationale de protection radiologique [in French]
Contents of these 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection: base units used in radiological protection; biological aspects of radiological protection; conceptual framework of radiological protection; protection systems for current and future practices; protection system during interventions; application of the Commission recommendations.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, United Kingdom, 1993. ix, 211p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-254 Freixa Blanxart A.
Air quality: Indoor low concentration gases
Calidad del aire: gases presentes a bajas concentraciones en ambientes cerrados [in Spanish]
Topics: buildings; ozone; nitrogen dioxide; formaldehyde; carbon monoxide; methanethiol; sulfur dioxide; hydrogen sulfide; chemical products; data sheet; determination in air; gases; microclimate; Spain; toxic effects; ventilation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. 7 ref.

CIS 96-667 Chau N., Benamghar L., Pham Q.T., Teculescu D., Rebstock E., Mur J.M.
Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France) - Relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality
An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. In this study the cohort included 1,178 workers selected at random from all the 5,300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow-up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980 and 1985. The study confirmed the excess of lung and of stomach cancer. It is considered that the risk of lung cancer in the Lorraine iron miners was mainly due to dust, diesel engine exhaust fumes and explosives although the role of low exposure to radon daughters could not be totally excluded.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.50, No.11, p.1017-1031. 96 ref.

CIS 95-1679 Victorin K., Valentin J., Wahlberg K.
Risk comparisons between limit values for ionizing radiation, PAH, and benzene in Sweden
The background of regulatory limit values for carcinogens is discussed and exemplified with the ambient and occupational air pollutants benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene, BaP), ionizing radiation and radon. The estimated cancer risks at different limit values are compared, as is the estimated number of cancer cases annually due to existing pollutant levels. Although the individual lifetime cancer risks are much higher at the occupational limit values for benzene and BaP than what is recommended for the general public, the estimated number of cancer cases annually is lower at existing pollutant levels. The individual cancer risk at the occupational limit for ionizing radiation is comparable to the occupational cancer risk with BaP, but higher than the one for benzene. The estimated number of cancer cases annually due to radiation is low and comparable to the estimated number due to the chemical air pollutants discussed.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Dec. 1993, Vol.18, No.3, p.381-391. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1345 Hirsch A., Goldberg M., Martin J.-P., Masse R.
Prevention of respiratory diseases
Contents of this university-level manual: epidemiology of occupational respiratory hazards; occupational factors of lung cancer, upper respiratory tract cancers and sinonasal cancers; epidemiology of pleural cancer; occupational asthma; occupational exposure and chronic nonspecific lung disease; genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and environmental risk factors; measurement of occupational exposure and prevention; environmental sources of respiratory diseases (radon, multipollutant airborne particulates, air-conditioned buildings, airborne allergens, indoor and outdoor air pollution); biological markers; tobacco and respiratory diseases (environmental tobacco smoke, tobacco as a respiratory carcinogen).
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1993. xxvi, 693p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: USD 199.00.

CIS 95-312 Domański T., Kluszczyński D., Chruścielewski W., Olszewski J.
Computer-aided methods for evaluating cancer risk in miners due to radiation exposure
Methods for the assessment of miners' exposure to naturally occurring radon and radon daughters in mine air are reviewed along with the impact of methodology on assessment of radiation hazard. Principles of computer-aided methods for the interpretation of dosimetry data to determine the expected risk of cancer are presented and results for workers in coal mines, metal ore mines and chemical raw material mines in Poland are given.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.4, p.369-381. 13 ref.

CIS 95-257 Willeke K., Baron P.A.
Aerosol measurement - Principles, techniques and applications
Part I of this manual presents the fundamentals of aerosol measurement (sampling and transport of aerosols, general measurement methods, factors affecting aerosol measurement quality, methods of size distribution data analysis). Part II provides details of instrumental techniques and Part III describes applications (industrial hygiene, measurement of asbestos and other fibres, mine aerosol measurement, ambient air sampling, fugitive dust emissions, indoor aerosols and aerosol exposure, clean-room measurements, radioactive aerosols).
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1993. xviii, 876p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Available from: International Thomson Publishing Services Ltd., Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire SP10 5BE, United Kingdom. Price: GBP 82.50.

CIS 95-190
Health and Safety Executive, HM Inspectorate of Mines
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Board 1993 report to the Health and Safety Commission
This report provides a summary of research reviewed by the Safety in Mines Research Advisory Board in 1993 in the areas of: fire and explosion; haulage and transport; detection, control and monitoring of gases and vapours in the mine environment; human factors and ergonomics; occupational medicine.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. 18p.

CIS 94-1605 Kabir H., Bilgi C.
Ontario gold miners with lung cancer - Occupational exposure assessment in establishing work relatedness
Determination of the work-relatedness of the compensation claims of Ontario gold miners who had primary lung cancer could not be based upon any strict occupational criteria. However, a relationship between exposure to silica, arsenic, and radon progeny was derived from results of the epidemiological studies. A retrospective occupational exposure assessment of silica dust, arsenic and radon decay products was made in 11 individual cases presented in this paper. The exposure parameters provided persuasive evidence when the data were consistent with the key epidemiological findings, e.g. the miner's age at first exposure, length of dusty exposure, and latency.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1203-1207. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1257
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment
Researching health risks
The Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress analyzed the nature and organization of federally funded research on health risk assessment in terms of the resources and priorities of the agencies concerned (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, among others), the linkage of research to decision-making and the limits of research-based information in making social policy. Assessment of the risks associated with radon exposure was taken as a case study. Promising areas for future research and factors of importance for successful assessment were identified. Risk assessment activities outside the USA were surveyed.
US Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328, USA, Nov. 1993. viii, 228p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 13.00 (+25% for international orders).

CIS 94-1385 Ziegler J.F., Zabel T.H., Curtis H.W.
Video display terminals and radon
Recent reports indicate that video display terminals (VDTs) can collect radon daughters from the air. This occurs especially when they are turned off and may have negative electric fields which attract positively charged radioactive dust. Various techniques were evaluated for removing the gettered radioactivity while the video display terminal is both off and on. An evaluation was also made of what happens when the video display terminal is switched, thereby reversing the electric field near the screen. In addition, possible inhalation effects experienced by a video display terminal operator during field reversal were studied; it was found that although some radioactivity may be released during the cycle, room air currents redistribute it into the room with no detectable levels being inhaled by users.
Health Physics, Sep. 1993, Vol.65, No.3, p.252-264. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1383 Underhill D.W.
Basic theory for the diffusive sampling of radon
From the closed-form solution of the Fickian equation describing the uptake of radon by a diffusive sampler, the following are calculated: (1) the optimal estimate of the time-weighted average radon concentration; (2) the effect of the geometry of the diffusive sampler on performance; (3) the maximum sampling time consistent with a predetermined maximum error in the estimated time-weighted average concentration of radon; and (4) the effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of the sampler. It is shown that the maximum sampling error can be greatly reduced by dividing the adsorbent bed into two layers placed in series and by using a weighted average of the uptakes on the two layers.
Health Physics, July 1993, Vol.65, No.1, p.17-24. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 94-1379 Laurer G.R., Gang Q.T., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Kan C.S., Xiang Y.S., Jian C.Z., Yi H., De G.W., Blot W.J.
Skeletal 210Pb levels and lung cancer among radon-exposed tin miners in Southern China
A preliminary case-control study of 19 lung cancer cases over 55 years of age and 141 age-matched controls was carried out among underground tin miners exposed to 222Rn and its decay products. Radon exposure was estimated through measurement of 210Pb activity levels in the skull, and in working level months. There was a smooth gradient of lung cancer risk with categories of skeletal 210Pb level at time of last radon exposure; relative risks of 1.0, 2.9, 3.2, and 4.7 for categories <51.8, 51.8-77.7, 77.8-107.3, and >107.3Bq (<1,400, 1,400-2,099, 2,100-2,899, and >2,899pCi), respectively. Relative risks were unaffected by adjustment for exposure to arsenic in the mine or by adjustment for working level months. Risks also increased with cumulative working level month exposure, but the gradient of risk lessened after adjustment for exposure to arsenic. 210Pb, at the time of last radon exposure (p=0.13) and at the current 210Pb level (p=0.01), was not highly correlated with the working level month estimate.
Health Physics, Mar. 1993, Vol.64, No.3, p.253-259. 23 ref.

CIS 94-1377 Xiang-Zhen X., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Li-Fen Y., Sheng L.Q., Lan Y., Jian-Zhang W., Blot W.J.
A cohort study in Southern China of tin miners exposed to radon and radon decay products
The report is an historical cohort study of exposure to radioactive radon gas among Chinese tin miners. The cohort consists of 17,143 workers with 175,143 person-years of observation and 981 lung cancer events. The excess relative risk increased linearly with exposure, rising 0.6% per working level month (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4-0.8). Adjustment for exposure to arsenic dust, a known lung carcinogen, reduced the effect of radon exposure to 0.2% per working level month (95% CI = 0.1-0.2). The excess relative risk/working level month declined significantly with attained age and with radon exposure rate as measured by the cumulative working level month divided by duration of exposure. Lung cancer risk did not vary consistently with age at first radon exposure. A joint analysis of radon exposure and smoking status rejected both an additive and multiplicative association; the relationship was consistent with an intermediate association.
Health Physics, Feb. 1993, Vol.64, No.2, p.120-131. 35 ref.

CIS 93-1643 Seifert B., van de Wiel H.J., Dodet B., O'Neill I.K.
National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)
Environmental carcinogens. Methods of analysis and exposure measurement. Volume 12 - Indoor air
This volume reviews the scientific background to the problem of analysis and exposure measurement of environmental carcinogens and the approaches available for analysing the agents covered. Introductory chapters cover: the effects of indoor air pollution on human health; sources of pollution in indoor air; indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogenss; indoor air controls; bioassay of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants; sampling and analytical procedures; exposure assessments from field studies. Methods and protocols for indoor air pollutants are described for radon and radon-daughters, asbestos, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, environmental tobacco smoke, respirable particles, carbon monoxide and pesticides.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1993. xiii, 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1008 Tomášek L., Darby S.C., Swerdlow A.J., Plaček V., Kunz E.
Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer among uranium miners in West Bohemia
Report on a site-specific cancer mortality study of 4,320 uranium miners in Western Bohemia (Czech Republic), who have been followed up for an average of 25 years, and among whom a 4-fold radon-related excess of lung cancer had already been established. For all cancers other than lung cancer the number of deaths was slightly greater than expected from national rates, but the increase was not statistically significant (O/E 1.11, 95% CI=0.98-1.24). There was no relationship between mortality on one hand, and duration of employment underground and cumulative radon (Rn) exposure on the other. There was a significant increase (unrelated to cumulative Rn exposure) in non-lung cancer mortality among men who started mining work aged under 25. Of the 28 site-specific cancers examined, significant increases were found for cancers of the liver (O/E=1.67) and gallbladder and extrahepatic bileducts (O/E=2.26, related to cumulative Rn exposure). There were no significant increases in overall mortality from multiple myeloma (O/E=1.08) and leukaemia (O/E=0.91), but mortality from these causes increased with cumulative Rn exposure and increased employment duration, respectively. Further research is needed to confirm any association between Rn exposure and cancers other than lung cancer.
Lancet, 10 Apr. 1993, Vol.341, No.8850, p.919-923. 30 ref.

1992

CIS 94-1022 Leinster P., Mitchell E.
Commission of the European Communities
A review of indoor air quality and its impact on the health and well-being of office workers
A review of the literature concerning problems related to indoor air quality and other factors which affect the indoor environment in offices is presented. Topics covered: symptoms associated with problem buildings; psychological aspects; perceptions and sensory effects; common features of buildings with problems; scale of the problem; costs; evaluation criteria; building investigation protocols; airborne contaminants; physical factors; other considerations (odour, lighting, noise and vibration; ions, electrostatic charge); building design and services; activities within the European Communities and the USA.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1992. ix, 109p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 12.00.

CIS 94-366
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
Radiation protection slide sets
Three slide sets, based on the NRPB At-a-Glance series of broadsheets (see CIS 94-365), aimed at providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. The sets are: (1) Radiation doses - Maps and magnitudes; (2) Radon (characteristics of the gas, how it accumulates in buildings, nature and level of the risk, prevention); (3) Medical radiation (production and use of X-rays in diagnosis, protection of staff and patients, use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy, use of magnetic resonance imaging). A copy of the relevant broadsheet is included with each slide set.
Finance and Accounts Office, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 3 slide sets (each of 20 slides with captions). Price (per set): GBP 25.00 + VAT (UK); GBP 25.00 (Europe); GBP 35.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 94-365
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
At-a-Glance Series
A series of nine broadsheets (illustrated posters), providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. The broadsheets are: (1) Radiation doses - Maps and magnitudes; (2) Radon; (3) Radiation protection; (4) Transport of radioactive materials; (5) Non-ionizing radiations; (6) Nuclear emergencies; (7) Medical radiation; (8) Partners in protection (the role of industry, various levels of government, professional bodies and interest groups in radiation protection); (9) The NRPB at a glance. Three slide sets on the same topic are also available (see CIS 94-366).
Publication Office, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 1992. 9 broadsheets (posters). Illus. Price: GBP 0.15 per broadsheet.

CIS 93-1991 Leslie G.B., Lunau F.W.
Indoor air pollution. Problems and priorities
Contents of this manual: introduction to indoor air pollution problems; the perception of indoor air quality; legionella; bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms; the oxides of nitrogen; mineral fibres; radon; formaldehyde; hazards from solvents, pesticides and PCBs; vegetable dusts and lung disease; danders, etc. from domestic and laboratory animals; environmental tobacco smoke; industrial environments; extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation; contributions from outdoor pollutants; ventilation for control of airborne pollutants. Each chapter covers exposure levels, sources of pollution and routes of uptake, health effects, control measures and regulatory guidelines.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1992. xi, 329p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 45.00; USD 84.95.

CIS 93-694 Holdsworth B., Sealey A.F.
Healthy buildings - A design primer for a living environment
A book written primarily for architects and people designing working and living environments. It discusses the problem of sick buildings, and emphasises the need for designing buildings for the needs of the people living and working in them, always keeping the local climate in mind. Chapters deal with: health as a design element; climate and human life; factors of influence (external: radiation, wind, outside temperature, precipitation and humidity, air composition and pollution, soil composition, radon, toxic and biological waste, noise and vibration, vegetation; internal: moisture, heating, ventilation, hypersensitivity to chemicals (tight building syndrome), legionnaires' disease, dust and microorganisms, other indoor pollutants (units: 1 olf = air pollution from one standard person; decipol: 1 decipol = 1 olf ventilated by 10L/sec of unpolluted air), indoor air quality, healthy HVAC systems design, displaced ventilation, electromagnetic radiation, internal electric services in buildings, visual appetisers and vegetation); international case studies of healthy buildings; healthy building codes; healthy and unhealthy building materials.
Longman Group UK Limited, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, United Kingdom, 1992. 148p. Illus. 103 ref. Index.

CIS 93-132 Fishbein L.
Exposure from occupational versus other sources
This overview highlights a general comparison of exposure to indoor and outdoor levels of 12 volatile organic compounds and the exposure of workers and the general public to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, phthalate esters, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, radon and electromagnetic fields.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.5-16. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 92-2033 Kluszczyński D.
Transformation of field monitoring results into miners' annual exposures to radon progeny
This paper presents a method for estimating the radiation hazard affecting miners, using the values of radon daughter concentration in the work environment. Measurements carried out in metal ore mines showed that seasonal changes in radon daughter concentration were the principal factor to be taken into consideration in the estimation of the hazard. These measurements also confirm the correctness of the method.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.1, p.77-86. Illus. 8 ref.

1991

CIS 94-872 Amandus H., Costello J.
Silicosis and lung cancer in U.S. metal miners
The association between silicosis and lung cancer mortality was estimated in 9,912 (369 silicotics and 9,543 nonsilicotics) white male metal miners. These miners were examined by the U.S. Public Health Service during 1959-1961 and were followed through 1975. The ores that were mined consisted of copper, lead-zinc, iron, mercury, lead silver, gold and gold-silver, tungsten, and molybdenum. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR, U.S. white male rates) for lung cancer was 1.73 (95% CI: 0.94-2.90) in silicotics and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98-1.42) in nonsilicotics. When lung cancer mortality between silicotics and nonsilicotics was compared, the age-adjusted rate ratio (95% CI) was 1.56 (0.91-2.68), and the age- and smoking adjusted rate ratio was 1.96 (0.98-3.67). Corresponding figures for miners who were employed in mines with low levels of radon exposure were 1.90 (0.98-3.67) and 2.59 (1.44-4.68), respectively. These findings indicate that lung cancer mortality risk was increased in silicotics, and this probably did not result from chance or bias. However, confounding from radon exposure could not be ruled out.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1991, Vol.46, No.2, p.82-89. 31 ref.

CIS 92-1997 Kellard B.
Hazardous substances - Carcinogens guide
This guide is designed for safety officers, occupational hygienists and laboratory workers and aims to provide authoritative reference information on workplace carcinogens. All substances which come within the scope of the British COSHH Regulations (see CIS 89-1092) are included. For each of the 61 substances listed, the following information is provided: chemical identity; properties; uses; carcinogenicity in humans and animals. An introduction includes details of the legislation related to occupational cancer and an overview of the identification and classification of carcinogens.
Croner Publications Ltd., Croner House, London Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT2 6SR, United Kingdom, 1991. viii, 301p. 30 ref. Indexes. Price: GBP 42.10.

CIS 92-1904 Samet J.M.
Diseases of uranium miners and other underground miners exposed to radon
In the United States, most underground uranium mines had shut down by the late 1980's but occupational exposure to radon daughters remains a concern for many other categories of underground miners and underground workers. Worldwide, uranium mining continues in Canada, South Africa, other African countries, and Australia. The paper outlines the relationship between exposure to radon daughters and dose to target cells in the respiratory tract. It summarises epidemiological studies of radon and lung cancer in miners and reviews three of the most recent risk models used to estimate the excess lifetime risk of lung cancer associated with radon daughter exposure. The paper concludes by outlining negative health effects other than lung cancer, including cancer at other sites, non-malignant respiratory disease, renal disease and reproductive outcomes.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.6, No.4, p.629-639. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 92-1613 Grot R.A., Hodgson A.T., Daisey J.M., Persily A.
Indoor air quality evaluation of a new office building
An evaluation of the thermal and environmental performance of a new U.S. government office building was performed as part of a research effort to develop methods for evaluating buildings using advanced technology during the pre-occupancy and early occupancy stages. A diagnostic centre was installed capable of monitoring several parameters, including air filtration and ventilation rates and the levels of indoor contaminants. The contaminants were measured as frequently as every 10 minutes at several locations; they include: carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; respirable particulates; formaldehyde; radon; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are at least 37 VOCs in the interior air. Although the levels of these compounds are below established limits, they are also compounds for which no extensive research has been done to establish irritant levels.
ASHRAE Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.16-18, 20, 23-25. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-423 Building air quality - A guide for building owners and facility managers
This manual prepared jointly by the US EPA and NIOSH provides guidance on preventing, identifying and correcting indoor air quality problems. Contents: factors affecting indoor air quality (IAQ); importance of effective communication; preventing IAQ problems (developing a profile of the building conditions from the perspective of indoor air quality, managing buildings for good IAQ); resolving IAQ problems (diagnosing and mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance). Appendices provide: a general guide to IAQ measurements; basic information on HAVAC system design; indoor moisture and growth of mould and mildew; brief discussions of asbestos and radon concerns.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Air Division (ANR-445 W), 401 M Street West, Washington D.C., 20277-1663; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Clearinghouse for Occupational Safety and Health Information, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1991. 229p. Illus.

CIS 92-631 Eheman C., Carson B., Rifenburg J., Hoffman D.
Occupational exposure to radon daughters in Mammoth Cave National Park
Exposure records for Mammoth Cave National Park employees were reviewed in order to: (1) better characterise the population of employees who work in caves; (2) compare the exposure patterns of cave workers with those of underground miners; (3) determine whether or not new National Park Service guidelines were needed to ensure that cave workers are not exposed to levels higher than those permitted for underground miners.
Health Physics, June 1991, Vol.60, No.6, p.831-835. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 92-630 Johnston G.
An evaluation of radiation and dust hazards at a mineral sand processing plant
This 3-part article discusses the results of a 2-year study on radiation and dust hazards in a mineral sand processing plant involving: (1) evaluation of external γ radiation levels and determination of isotopic composition of the different sand products; (2) evaluation of radiation carried in long-lived radioactive dust (LLRD) particles; (3) evaluation of Rn gas concentrations within the working environment of the plant.
Health Physics, June 1991, Vol.60, No.6, p.781-787. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-201 Samet J.M., Utell M.J.
The environment and the lung: Changing perspectives
This paper discusses the changing focus across the century of public health concern and research in regard to environmental lung diseases. Broad groups of environmental agents that produce lung disease are considered along with the currently available evidence for several air pollutants selected to be illustrative of the changing emphasis of concern. These include asbestos, radon, environmental tobacco smoke, acidic aerosols, sulfur dioxide and oxidant pollutants, including ozone and nitrogen dioxide. In the persistent concerns about adverse effects of polluted air on the lung, the focus has shifted from avoiding clinical disease among highly exposed individuals to protecting the population from an unacceptable burden of risk.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Aug. 1991, Vol.266, No.5, p.670-675. 57 ref.

1990

CIS 92-1846 Hughes D., Moseley T.J.
Commission of the European Communities
Ionising radiations: Introductory overviews - I. Types and effects; II. Origins and control
Contents of these training videotapes: (I) - History of man-made radiations; types of ionising radiation; effects of radiation on DNA; somatic and hereditary effects; units used for measuring effects; the Chernobyl disaster; stochastic and non-stochastic effects; comparative risks; dose limits. (II) - Beneficial and harmful results of radiation; units used for measurement; man-made sources; problems of reprocessing in the nuclear power industry; fall-out problems after an accident (Chernobyl); medical exposure (X-rays, nuclear medicine); problems of altitude (cosmic rays); radiation from food and drink; ground radioactivity; radon gas; survey of legislation in the UK.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1990. 2 videocassettes (22min. + 27min.). Price: GBP 24.95 each (GBP 44.95 for the two on one tape) + VAT + postage.

CIS 92-1307 Environmental hazards in your school: A resource handbook
The specific environmental hazards discussed in-depth in this booklet are asbestos, indoor air quality, radon, lead in drinking water and other contaminants in school-operated water systems. Adverse effects of the hazards are outlined along with methods of risk reduction, assistance available and relevant legislation. Other concerns briefly discussed include underground storage tanks, recycling efforts, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. A list of contacts is also provided.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Oct. 1990. 69p. Illus.

CIS 92-635 Domański T.
Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines
This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems are described: the Air Sampling System, the Environmental Control System, the Individual Dosimetry System, the Stream Monitoring System and the Exhaust Monitoring System. The following parameters of the working environments of miners were determined: average expected concentration, average observed concentration, average expected exposure cumulation rate, average observed exposure cumulation rate, and average effective exposure cumulation rate. Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, acccording to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.4, p.375-390. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 91-1695 Current issues in radiation safety: A seminar
This publication contains the proceedings of a seminar on radiation safety. The following topics are covered: introduction to both ionising and non-ionising radiation; an update on the safety issues concerning video display terminals (VDTs); a review of the relation between powerlines and cancer; radon gas; the hazards and benefits of nuclear power; radiation safety in uranium mines. Questions from the floor are included together with the speakers' responses.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 82p. Illus.

CIS 91-1626
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for radon
Several epidemiological studies of long-term exposure to radon have reported significant increases in early mortality due to cancer and noncancer diseases. Lung cancer, respiratory diseases, kidney disease and genotoxic effects have been reported among uranium miners following long-term exposure to radon and radon daughters. An increased lung cancer mortality rate has also been reported among nonuranium hard rock miners exposed to radon in groundwater. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. xi, 160p. Illus. ca. 270 ref.

CIS 91-891 Goyer N.
Chemical contaminants in office buildings
Air quality measurements were made in 17 buildings in Quebec. Contaminants measured included airborne dust, nicotine, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and radon. The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as an air quality indicator of other airborne contaminants was also evaluted. Chemical contaminant levels were found to be low, but the presence of these chemicals in indoor air is of concern because of their possible synergistic effects. Airborne concentrations of dust, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were found to be higher than the values recommended for nonindustrial air. Carbon dioxide can be used as an air quality indicator for contaminants related to occupant activity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1990, Vol.51, No.12, p.615-619. Illus. 22 ref.

1989

CIS 93-1665 Godish T.
Indoor air pollution control
Contents of this manual: problem definition (personal pollution exposures, sick building syndrome, levels of exposure to specific contaminants and possible health effects); source control of inorganic contaminants (asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, radon), organic contaminants (formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, pesticides) and biogenic particles (allergies and asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Legionnaires' diseases, moisture control); ventilation for contaminant control; air cleaning; policy and regulatory considerations; air quality diagnostics; mitigation practice.
Lewis Publishers, Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, Michigan 48118, USA, 1989. xiii, 401p. Illus. Index. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 64.00.

CIS 92-1001 Roscoe R.J., Steenland K., Halperin W.E., Beaumont J.J., Waxweiler R.J.
Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters
In a follow-up study (1950-1984) of 516 nonsmoking uranium miners, 14 deaths from lung cancer were observed compared with 1.1 expected in a reference group of nonsmoking nonminers, yielding an overall standardised mortality ratio of 12.7. Working level months (WLM) of exposure to radon daughters were estimated and it was concluded that there is a 12-fold mortality risk of lung cancer for nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters at a median level of 296 WLM, when compared with nonsmoking nonminers. Results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent cancer-causing factor that should be strictly controlled.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 4 Aug. 1989, Vol.262, No.5, p.629-633. 23 ref.

CIS 92-160 Belli S., Comba P., Germani D., Grignoli M., Lagorio S., Paganoni R., Ronchin M.
Mortality study among lead-zinc miners of Val Seriana (Italy)
Studio di mortalitā dei minatori di piombo-zinco della Val Seriana [in Italian]
The mortality experience of 1,392 lead-zinc-silver miners (Gorno, Northern Italy) employed during the period 1950-1980 and followed up to the end of 1986 was examined. Two separate estimates of the radon exposure level are available: 0.60 and 0.36WL (working levels) respectively. The silica exposure level was not assessed. Vital status was ascertained for 95.6% of the cohort members and their mortality was compared with expected deaths based on national rates. Significant excess mortality from oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, respiratory tuberculosis, respiratory diseases and deaths from external causes was found among underground miners. Surface workers show significantly increased mortality from liver and bile duct cancer, hepatic cirrhosis, respiratory tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Based on the 16.4 excess lung cancer cases among underground miners and their cumulative radon exposure, an attributable risk estimate ranging from 9.78 and 16.31 cases per million person-years and WLM (Working Level Month) was calculated.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.467-478. Illus. 17 ref.

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