Air pollution - 353 entries found
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Labour protection in shipbuilding
Ohrana truda v sudostroenii [in Russian]
This manual intended for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in the shipbuilding industry: fundamentals of labour legislation, assessment of occupational safety, safety engineering and occupational hygiene (working conditions, harmful and hazardous factors, workplace air, ventilation, lighting, electrical safety), fire protection (flammability of substances, prevention of fires, fire-fighting work), social and economic aspects of labour protection (economic consequences of unfavourable working conditions, economic efficiency of labour protection).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, ul.Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985, 223p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
Waller R.E., Hampton L., Lawther P.J.
A further study of air pollution in diesel bus garages
Concentrations of smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen) were measured in diesel-bus garages in London (United Kingdom), and compared with observations in the same garages 23 years previously. Though the background concentrations of smoke and PAHs were significantly reduced compared to the earlier observations (mostly due to anti-pollution laws), the benzo(a)pyrene content of the air inside the garages (due to exhaust fumes from the buses) has remained basically the same.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.42, No.12, p.824-830. Illus. 6 ref.
Malmberg P., Ahling G., Altrén T., Höglund S., Palmgren U.
Diseases caused by inhalation of microbial dust in farmwork - Medical, microbiological and technical aspects. Proposed countermeasures
Sjukdomar orsakade av inandat mikrobiellt damm i lantbruksmiljö - Medicinsk, mikrobiologisk och jordbruksteknisk inventering. Förslag till motĺtgärder [in Swedish]
Air inhaled during the handling of mouldy material may contain more than 109 microorganisms/m3 and cause alveolitis. Preventive measures include information about the hazards of inhaling mould dust and about correct preservation techniques. Simple supplementary preservation methods should be developed as well as better methods to store woodchips, sawdust and straw, to monitor moisture and temperature of stored material and to reduce exposure to dust. Research is needed on harmful components of microbial dust and on safe exposure levels. The significance of mycotoxins and endotoxins should be studied further. More technical experts are needed to co-operate with physicians in the rehabilitation of patients with alveolitis.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 42p. Illus. 25 ref. Bibl.
Principles and recommendations for the sampling and analysis of substances included in the list of limit values
Principer och rekommendationer för provtagning och analysis av ämnen upptagna pĺ listan över hygieniska gränsvärden [in Swedish]
This paper describes the principles of the most important methods of analysis of air polution in the work environment. The 1st part of the paper contains a description of sampling strategy and statistical analysis of observed values in connection with quantitative determinations of air pollutants. The next part is about direct reading methods of analysis of gaseous substances and methods of sampling and analysis. Also included is a description of volume measurements of air samples, sampling through direct collection and enrichment methods, and the transport and storage of samples. Analyses of samples with the most important methods of analysis of gas samples and dust samples are also described. In the last part there is a list of substances with threshold limit values and for each substance the recommended method and references to the literature.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 85p. 50 ref.
Gălăbova V., Karadžova N., Razbojnikova F.
Determination of molybdenum aerosol in workplace air
Opredeljane na molibdenovi aerozoli văv văzducha na rabotnata sreda [in Bulgarian]
A rapid method of quantitative determination of molybdenum in workplace air was developed. The method is based on the reaction of hexavalent molybdenum cation with rhodanate anion in the presence of a reducing agent. The concentration of molybdenum is determined from the intensity of the colour of the resulting molybdenum pentarhodanate. A sensitivity of 0.1µg is obtained by this method. The studies carried out with this method during the process of welding with electrodes containing 2.5% molybdenum in their coating showed that the concentration of molybdenum aerosols in the air investigated was under the MAC.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, Nov. 1984, Vol.27, No.5, p.417-422. 19 ref.
Pfäffli P., Vainiotalo S.
Air contaminants in the processing of plastics. Polyolefins, polyvinyl chloride, styrene thermoplastics
Ilman epäpuhtaudet muovien työstössä. Polyolefiinit, polyvinyylikloridi, styreenikestomuovit [in Finnish]
The major plastics of commercial interest are polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene with various modifications. The machining of plastics gives rise to impurities in the workplace air. The concentrations of the individual compounds usually stay well below their respective hygienic limit values. Nevertheless, the sum concentration of the contaminants can be substantial and may even exceed the limit values set for mixtures of compounds. The most important contaminants are aerosols (fumes). Higher machining temperatures effected higher levels of contaminants than did lower temperatures. Extensive hot surfaces (as in the machining of large items and films) emitted greater amounts of oxidised compounds (aldehydes and organic acids) than was the case during the production of small pieces. The additives in the plastics appeared to vapourise and decompose more readily than the polymers themselves.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1984. 72p. Illus. Appendices. 32 ref. Price: Fm.40.00.
Nikitin V.S., Plotnikova L.V., Maksimkina N.G., Samsonov V.T.
Establishing maximum allowable emissions from low-lying industrial sources
Ustanovlenie predel'no dopustimyh vybrosov ot nizkih promyšlennyh istočnikov [in Russian]
Description of a mathematical approach to standard-setting developed by the research institute of the USSR trade union federation. The method takes account of background levels of pollutants. Specific treatment of low-lying sources of emissions (10-20m above the surface) is especially important, because 90% of the sources in industrial zones fall in this category, and the distribution pattern of the emitted pollutants is different from that of high sources.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, 1984, No.2, p.16-18. Illus. 10 ref.
Louhelainen K., Kangas J., Sorainen E., Husman K., Kalliokoski P.
Farmers' working environment
Viljelijän työympäristö [in Finnish]
Occupational health hazards were measured on 20 farms (cattle, hogs, poultry, grain) in 1980-1982. The ability of occupational health nurses and local agricultural advisers to evaluate health hazards in farm buildings was assessed. The physical factors measured were noise, whole-body vibration, lighting, temperature, humidity and ventilation. Nurses, agricultural advisers and occupational physicians generally made inspection trips without measuring equipment, which meant that they could make qualitative evaluations of dust and illumination levels, but had difficulty evaluating noise, temperature, relative humidity and air velocity; they could not measure atmospheric contaminants (ammonia, methane, formic acid, carbon dioxide) at all.
Työterveyslaitos, Helsinki, Finland, 1983. 58p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: Fm.30.00.
Bacterial and mycotic flora in the work environment of a foundry
Bakteriální a mykotická flóra v pracovním prostředí slévárny [in Czech]
In grey iron and steel foundries, an average of 93,950 microorganisms was found in 1m3 of air. Mesophilic bacteria predominated over micromycetes and actinomycetes. Microbial contamination ranged from 23,480 organisms/m3 on casting floors to 361,130 per m3 in cellars where moulding mixtures were prepared. 11 species of mesophilic bacteria and 40 species of fungi and yeasts were identified. Microbial contamination came from foundry raw materials and water, and was aggravated by insufficient ventilation. Dust (containing free Si02) that had settled on metal structures at breathing zone level contained the most varied species (8 types of mesophilic bacteria and 61 types of micromycetes). The microorganisms included saprophytic, facultatively pathogenic and toxigenic species.
Československá hygiena, 1983, Vol.28, No.2, p.83-98. 35 ref.
Use of antimicrobials in cutting fluids
Emploi des germicides dans les huiles de coupe [in French]
This paper, presented at a meeting of the Regional Technical Committee for Metalworking (Nord-Picardie, France), warns against the careless use of antimicrobial agents and describes effective measures for controlling bacterial growth in cutting-fluid tanks. Aspects covered: use of antimicrobials in cutting fluids; mechanism of bacterial contamination and degradation of water-based cutting fluids; role of disinfectants; chemical properties of disinfectants; use of disinfectants. Proposed preventive measures: filtration, controlled aeration of tank, centrifugation, agitation, purging of piping, keeping the equipment and working area clean.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie Nord-Picardie, Allée Vauban, 59661 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France, 1983. 15p.
Constance J.D., Faulkner L.L., Menkes S.B.
Controlling in-plant airborne contaminants: Systems design and calculations
This textbook is designed to assist the practicing engineer in the evaluation and design of systems for the control of the industrial in-plant environment. Chapters cover: theory in practice (basic chemistry and physics, behaviour of gases and vapours, mixtures of gases and vapours, fuels and combustion products); identifying sources of air contaminants; plant layout and classification of hazardous areas; natural, mechanical and exhaust ventilation; makeup air systems; dust control; pressure ventilation; clearing the air in laboratories; moisture control in process buildings; noise control; industrial heat and its control.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1983. Vol.21. 341p. Illus. 48 ref. Bibl. Index.
Terayama K., Ohno H., Hirata F., Kawarabayashi T.
Bacterial contamination of indoor air: dispersal of bacteria in the air from man in the room
The bacterial contamination of air in a model room was experimentally determined before and after the room was occupied by 4 subjects. Results were analysed to show: the bacterial content in the air-tight environment of a model laboratory; the relation between the number of airborne bacteria and the frequency of air changes; the effect of physical work on the dispersal of bacteria from man into room air.
Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineering, Apr. 1983, Vol.57, No.4, p.333-337. Illus. 17 ref.
Possibility of biological indicators as measures of community exposure to organic air contaminants
Possibilités d'utilisation d'indicateurs biologiques pour mesurer l'exposition de la population aux contaminants atmosphériques organiques [in French]
Review of the literature published between 1960 and 1983 on the use of biological monitors (blood, urine, milk, adipose tissue, breath, saliva, nail clippings and hair) to measure body uptake of organic pollutants. Trace elements and organic residues detected, their concentrations and the analytical techniques employed are given for each matrix material. It appears that the use of biological indicators to assess community exposure to airborne contaminants is limited by the complexity of the absorption and metabolic paths followed by each contaminant and the difficulty of distinguishing the contaminant from its matrix.
Public Affairs Directorate, Department of National Health and Welfare, Brooke Claxton Bldg., Ottawa, K1A OK9, Ontario, Canada, 1983. 37p. 158 ref.
Measurement of bacteria concentration in wastewater treatment plants
Mätningar av bakteriekoncentration i avloppsreningsverk [in Swedish]
Conditions and results of measurements conducted in several treatment plants to gather background data on which to base health standards. Contents: bacteriological sampling (equipment, methods, composition of sampling solution); results (low concentrations of bacteria in mechanical purification facilities and around the rotary drums of biological purification plants; very high concentrations near open-air biochemical purification ponds; reduction of these high concentrations by installing roofs and exhaust ventilation systems).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 21p. Illus.
Barnett J.L., Richard M.L., Rose V.E.
A tracer method for quantifying contamination of building supply air: reentrainment of laboratory hood exhaust
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) used as a "tracer" gas is released in each laboratory fume hood, then detected and measured in the building general fresh-air supply ventilation system. SF6 is quantified with a Miran-1A infrared analyser. Detection limit is in the 13ppb range. Calculations for quantifying reentrainment are presented and discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.580-582. 4 ref.
Laboratory biosafety manual
Manuel de sécurité biologique en laboratoire [in French]
Laboratory biosafety manual [in Spanish]
This manual represents a synthesis of the advice formulated by a group of experts and has been written in order to be entirely suitable for international application. It is intended for laboratory safety officers. The guidelines in Part 1 may be used as a source document from which laboratory manuals applicable to local circumstances can be derived. These guidelines concern laboratory operation, design and equipment: code of practice, laboratory design, facilities and equipment, health and medical surveillance, training, handling of specimens, waste disposal, emergency procedures, animal facilities; chemical, electrical, fire and radiation safety. Part 2 deals with the procedures for safe laboratory practice and part 3 with the selection and use of essential biosafety equipment.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1983. 123p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: SF.14.00.
Toxicologic evaluation of a series of pollutants in indoor air
Toksikologisk vurdering af en rćkke forureningsstoffer i indeluften [in Danish]
Toxicological evaluation in the form of data sheets of 65 chemicals identified as pollutants in indoor non-industrial occupational environments, intended to facilitate a safety and health evaluation of emissions from building materials. The chemicals are arranged in 11 groups: alkanes, benzene and alkylbenzenes, styrene and phenylalkenes, terpenes, cyclohexanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters and halogenated hydrocarbons. A summary table of the reviewed substances gives information on the Danish TLVs, the classification of each chemical, its threshold limit odour, irritation of the mucous membranes, mutagenicity, promoter characteristics, carcinogenicity and information collected from Chemical Abstracts and TOXLINE.
Arbejdstilsynet, Direktoratet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 Křbenhavn, Denmark, 2nd ed., 1982. 102p. 264 ref.
Lenhart S.W., Olenchock S.A., Cole E.C.
Viable sampling for airborne bacteria in a poultry processing plant
Air was sampled for viable bacteria in the shackling room of a poultry processing plant. Large numbers of bacteria were isolated from the workers' breathing zone, and gram-negative organisms were characterised. The probable source of airborne gram-negative bacteria and their endotoxins was identified as the birds' faeces. A potential health risk exists for workers due to inhalation of viable bacteria.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Oct.-Nov. 1982, Vol.10, Nos.4-5, p.613-619. 26 ref.
Dioxyde d'azote [in French]
Report on the effects of exposure to NO2. Mechanisms of toxicity, short and long-term studies, epidemiological evaluations and recommendations for air quality objectives are presented.
Public Affairs Directorate, Department of National Health and Welfare, Brooke Claxton Bldg., Ottawa K1A OK9, Ontario, Canada, 1982. 31p. 37 ref.
Industrial air pollution - Health and Safety 1981
This report of the HM Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate in the United Kingdom for 1981 reviews the Inspectorate's work under 6 headings: general matters (operational statistics, complaints, infractions, notices and prosecutions, research); registered works (amines, ceramic, chemical incineration, electricity, gas and coke, iron and steel, lead works); unregistered works (non-radioactive matters, airborne radioactive emissions); commentary on the Inspectorate's series of publications on "best practicable means"; emissions from cement works - Cooperative studies; pollution by sulphur dioxide. A special section deals with the work of the HM Industrial Pollution Inspectorate for Scotland.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1982. 34p. Illus. 13 ref. Price:Ł4.00.
Walters R.B., Phalen R.F., Mannix R.C., Smart G.L.
An aerosol and gas aging line suitable for use in inhalation toxicology research
A gas/aerosol aging line has been designed, tested and successfully used for acute whole-body exposure of rats to atmospheres simulating urban-type mixed oxidant and sulfur plumes after 30min of aging. The line is a nearly-square stainless steel duct with periodic 100-mest stainless steel screens to promote plug flow. The line was tested for uniformity of aging, aerosol losses, and ease of atmosphere control. A close approximation to plug flow could be achieved with excellent atmosphere control. Aerosol losses in the particle size range 0.22-2.0µm were <30% except at aging times ≥ 96min, when significant sedimentation losses occurred for larger particles.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.218-222. Illus. 11 ref.
Olenchock S.A., Lenhart S.W., Mull J.C.
Occupational exposure to airborne endotoxins during poultry processing
The mean respirable dust levels at the entrance and exit of a live chicken shackling line were 1.13±0.12 and 0,72±0.06mg/m3, respectively, or approximately 6% of the total dust, and endotoxins constituted 43.3±2.8µg/g of respirable dust. Airborne endotoxins were present in the total dust at mean levels of 918.4±159.0ng/m3 and 634.0±96.9ng/m3 at the room entrance and exit respectively with respirable levels of 44.3±7.8 and 33.6±2.2ng/m3. Medical studies are recommended to evaluate the potential for respiratory diseases in workers in this environment.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.9, No.2, p.339-349. 24 ref.
Nitta H., Yokoyama Y., Miura K., Aoki S., Maeda K.
Studies on personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide in urban office workers
Indoor and outdoor levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the homes and offices of subjects were measured simultaneously using a small passive sampler for 24-hour periods in autumn and winter seasons. Personal samples were also obtained, and subjects kept diaries of activities including the time spent indoors at home and at the office, the time spent commuting and in other places. The NO2 exposure level predicted from a time-weighted activity model agreed with the results obtained by personal sampling.
Journal of the Japan Society of Air Pollution, Nov. 1981, Vol. 16, No.5, p.277-284. Illus. 9 ref.
Broncho-pulmonary disease and environment
Pathologie broncho-pulmonaire et environnement [in French]
This issue is devoted almost entirely to broncho-pulmonary disease and the environment: study of epidemiological and experimental data on cancer of the respiratory tract due to environmental factors; lung disease in rural milieu; chronic lung disease in industry; pneumoconiosis and pulmonary thesaurosis; lung diseases and disorders due to humidification and air conditioning; protection of operating theatres from bacteria.
Vie médicale, Apr. 1982, Vol.63, No.11, p.741-782. 45 ref.
Antimicrobial agents for water-based metalworking fluids
After a review of the microbial problem (anaerobic sulphate-reducing and aerobic bacteria, fungi), in metalworking fluids, the toxicity of biocides (especially alkylamine-formaldehyde condensate biocides), added to control the microbial populations in the fluids, is discussed together with the selection and the use of biocides. Biocides are by definition poisons, the concentrated biocides tend to be highly alkaline and corrosive. But there is continuous exposure to the liquid and aerosol state only after dilution in the metalworking fluid. Approved biocides and their toxicological profiles are listed. Alternative methods for microbial control (heating, radiation) have shortcomings. Although there is no evidence suggesting that exposure to the microorganisms in the metalworking fluid is a hazard, continual exposure should be prevented.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.247-254. 31 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Smoke and smell from coremaking and mould pouring
Data sheet on methods for controlling smoke and smell emissions during foundry operations such as coremaking and shell moulding. Gases emitted are dimethylamine, triethylamine and SO2.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Crommelin R.D., Boekesteijn P., Stellingwerf J., Van Beukering F.C.
Variations in the atmospheric dust and fluoride concentration, air temperature and air speed in a factory shop
Schwankungen der Staub- und Fluoridkonzentrationen, Lufttemperaturen und Luftgeschwindigkeiten in einer Fabrikhalle [in German]
Report of research on the distribution of harmful substances in the air of the ore agglomeration and pelletising shop of an iron works. Data collection at a large number of points over the total surface area of the shop gives a picture of the distribution of the parameters being studied. Methods and measurement results are given for the following parameters: dust level, fluoride concentration, air temperature, air speed. Statistical evaluation of the necessary number of samplings at each measurement point.
Staub, Dec. 1980, Vol.40, No.12, p.510-515. Illus. 6 ref.
Electricity Council Research Centre
This book summarises current knowledge about the biological effects of the thermal environment and air quality in home and office. It is concerned with conditions of comfort or slight discomfort and will be of interest to building service enginers, environmental engineers, ergonomists, building scientists, architects, environmental physiologists and psychologists and occupational hygienists. Contents: physics of heat loss of the body; measurement of the thermal environment and instrumentation; physiology of thermoregulation; thermal sensation; comfort indices; field surveys; practical aspects of discomfort; ventilation and air quality; heat stress and cold stress; temperature and performance; design requirements for a comfortable environment.
Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Ripple Road, Barking, Essex, United Kingdom, 1980. 443p. Illus. 584 ref. Price: Ł26.00.
Limitation of pollutant emissions and air quality - Statutory limits in force in 1980 in the main industrialised countries
Limitation des émissions de polluants et qualité de l'air - Valeurs réglementaires en vigueur en 1980 dans les principaux pays industrialisés. [in French]
More than 200 threshold limit values for the main atmospheric pollutants taken from some 100 statutory texts are listed. Volume I: indexes by pollutant, country, TLV list; Volume II: index by pollutant, source of pollution and country; TLV list, list of regulations and other information sources, by country. The chief substances considered are: hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid; ammonia, benzene, beryllium, cadmium, chlorine, chromium, ethylene, fluorine and comounds, total hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, manganese, mercury, carbon monoxide, oxidants, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, phenols, lead, airborne and settled particulates.
Institut français de l'énergie, 3 rue Henri-Heine, 75016 Paris, France, 1980. 2 vol. (53 and 138p). 137 ref.
Lajčíková A., Vojtěchovská H.
Bacterial contamination of air conditioned workplaces
Klimatizované pracoviště z hlediska bakteriálního znečistění [in Czech]
3-monthly sampling for microbial contamination in air-conditioned mechanical engineering workshops by aeroscope and other methods gave negative results. Nose and throat swabs of personnel did not reveal any pathogenic staphylococci; streptococci A were found in only 3 cases, with no pathological manifestation. No excessive contamination due to air conditioning was recorded.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1980, Vol.32, No.3, p.93-95. 24 ref.
Microbial hazards at the workplace and in the environment - Microbial counting and assessment
Die Gefahren durch Mikroorganismen am Arbeitsplatz und in der Umwelt - Erfassung und Bewertung von Luftkeimzahlen [in German]
Methods of determining microorganisms in air are reviewed: sedimentation, impaction on a solid or liquid medium, filtration, thermal or electrostatic precipitation. The characteristics of the collectors are listed and results under various conditions are compared. Conclusions are drawn on the use of this apparatus in the event of untoward aerosol formation and on evaluation of the results.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Dec. 1979, Vol.29, No.12, p.309-315. Illus. 14 ref.
Dravnieks A., O'Neill H.J.
Annoyance potentials of air pollution odours.
This article sets out objective criteria which can be used to compare the annoyance potentials of different odours: frequency and duration, intensity, threshold, hedonic tone (pleasantness/unpleasantness), quality. A hedonic scale is proposed for 28 odours, and a composite plot of industrial odours is presented which serves as a measure of the unpleasantness of a new sample compared with others having the same intensity. The effects of exposure to odours are briefly dealt with.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1979, Vol.40, No.2, p.85-95. Illus. 24 ref.
International symposium on the control of air pollution in the working environment.
Proceedings of the Arbetarskyddsfonden (Swedish Work Environment Fund) /ILO symposium held in Stockholm, 6-8 Sep. 1977. Divided into 3 parts, the main themes discussed were: I. research methods and organisation of research on specific occupational hazards due to dust, fibres, fumes, mists, vapours, and gases; identification, measurement and assessment of airborne contaminants; II. solvents; welding; III. methods and means to prevent contaminants from becoming airborne and to prevent their dispersion, and means of protection; organisation and administrative measures applicable in various industries and processes. Papers are reprinted in the original language (mainly English), with summaries in English, French, German and Swedish.
Work Environment Fund (Arbetarskyddsfonden), Wenner-Gren Center, Sveavägen 166, II tr, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 3 volumes: 468, 258 and 405p. Illus. 383 ref.
Industrial ventilation and atmospheric pollution control
Promyšlennaja ventiljacija i zaščita vozdušnoj sredy [in Russian]
Series of articles on: calculation of zone ventilation of workplaces; calculation of coefficient of non-isothermal conditions for studies of air heating; studies and calculation of draughts; design of rectangular air inlets; temperature distribution in multi-bay air-conditioned halls; ventilation of such halls in the event of heavy heat production; efficacy of rim-exhaust systems with provision of make-up air; efficacy of natural ventilation of an industrial complex; model study of natural ventilation of factories; pollutant concentration distribution around industrial buildings; cleaning of gas emissions; exhaust ventilation device for machine-tools; measurement and calculation of air flow in circular or rectangular ducting; influence of surface roughness of ventilation ducts.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, Moskva, USSR, 1978. 204p. Illus. 131 ref. Price: Rbl.1.00.
Lehnigk K., Thiele E.
Overview of occupational exposure to microbial agents in the air of animal housing quarters
Übersicht zur berufsbedingten Exposition für Werktätige der Tierproduktion gegenüber mikrobiellen Noxen in der Stalluft [in German]
The veterinary and occupational medical literature, above all of Eastern European origin, on microbiological agents in the air of poultry, swine and cattle housing quarters is collected and evaluated from the occupational hygiene viewpoint. It has not yet been established in what measure microorganisms represent a hazard for animal husbandry workers. Aspects considered: air pollution of animal housing quarters by microorganisms, factors influencing the microbial content, determination of bacterial counts, findings for various types of animal quarters, types of organism, use of nutrient antibiotics and bacterial resistance, respiratory tract diseases. The main areas of occupational hygiene and medical research in this field are outlined.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1978, Vol. 24, No.5, p.331-335. 95 ref.
Maurer H., Will G.
Technical control of pollution in the iron and steel industry - Research progress report, 30 June 1977.
Lutte technique contre les pollutions en sidérurgie - Etat des travaux de recherche au 30 juin 1977. [in French]
This progress report, published in the CEC "Industrial Health and Safety" series, is the third drawn up since the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) commenced its research activities in this field (CIS 962-1970 and 1477-1973, Bdz Soz Xni (056)). It covers work during 1972-1977, and contains summaries of the various projects, divided under 4 main chapters: testing, improvement and development of equipment and processes for determining and measuring air pollution (12 projects summarised); measurement of air pollution at workplace and in the immediate vicinity of steelworks (systematic determination of different air pollutants from coking plant in an iron and steel works complex; controlling dust extraction from charging emissions where preheated coal mixes are used, etc. (13 projects)); investigation and development of processes for trapping and precipitating or reducing, air pollution (purification or toxic fumes produced during slag granulation; dust removal from CO-containing waste gases from oxygen blowing converters by means of electric filters, etc. (9 projects)); and investigation and development of processes for utilisation or non-polluting removal of residues and wastes from iron and steel works (4 projects).
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs, Luxembourg. EUR 5977-1978, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Boîte postale 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1978. 89p. Price: Ł3.40.
The Social Audit pollution handbook - How to assess environmental and workplace pollution.
Published under the sponsorship of Social Audit Ltd., an independent, non-profitmaking organisation concerned with improving government and corporate responsiveness to the public generally, this handbook is written for the lay person, including workers and their representatives. The chapters cover toxic hazards (testing toxic substances, permissible levels, information sources and their use); air pollution (legislation, pollution control authorities, air quality objectives, monitoring); water pollution (law and standards, authorities, objectives, monitoring). Appendices list and explain sources of information on trade-name products, ordering U.S. publications, names and addresses of U.K. authorities, measurement conversion factors.
Social Audit Ltd., 9 Poland Street, London. Published by Macmillan Press Ltd., 4 Little Essex Street, London WC2R 3LF, United Kingdom, 1978. 210p. Illus. 227 ref. Price: Ł3.95.
Pollution by motor vehicle exhaust gases in the open air and their effects on human health
La pollution par les gaz d'échappement automobiles en atmosphčre ouverte et ses effets sur la santé humaine. [in French]
MD thesis. Background information on the composition of motor vehicle exhaust gases (CO, NOx, hydrocarbons, oxidising agents, aldehydes, lead) and variations in their atmospheric concentrations due to various factors (traffic peaks, motor speeds, etc.) is followed by a study of their concentrations in open or semi-enclosed locations (highways, motorways, city streets, tunnels). Analysis of the effects of these gases on human health is based essentially on the results of laboratory experiments and epidemiological surveys, especially of persons occupationally exposed: traffic police, toll gate or tunnel employees, road repair workers, professional and taxi drivers. The results of the toxicological investigation are compared with the maximum tolerance concentrations proposed for each pollutant, and measures are suggested to reduce this pollution. This is followed by a review of French and foreign legislation and considerations on the possibility of having CO and lead poisoning in outdoor workplaces added to the list of occupational diseases giving entitlement to statutory compensation, ending with speculations on future trends in the improvement of existing internal combustion engines and the possible development of a new type of motor causing less pollution.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1978. 73p. 104 ref.
Scherrer M., Zeller C., Zweifel J.
Occupational profiles of patients with lung cancer compared with those with chronic bronchial obstruction, bronchial asthma or sarcoidosis in the Bern region
Verteilung der Berufe (Berufsmuster) unter Kranken mit Lungenkrebs im Vergleich zu jenen mit chronischer bronchialer Obstruktion, Asthma bronchiale oder Sarkoidose in der Region Bern [in German]
Results of computer analysis of the histories of 4,802 subjects with respiratory disease examined in 1974-1977. Selection criteria were: arduousness of physical work and occupational exposure to respiratory hazards and climatic factors; chronic bronchial obstruction; asthma; histologically confirmed lung cancer; sarcoidosis. The part played by cigar and pipe smoking in lung cancer development was established in an earlier study. Results: in office workers, sarcoidosis and asthma above all were found, while lung cancer was rare; in metallurgical, chemical and plastics industry workers, there was no abnormal incidence of lung cancer related to air pollution levels; lung cancer was more frequent in workers in the open air (building industry, agriculture), probably as a result of air pollution due to mechanisation.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 19 Nov. 1977, Vol.107, No.46, p.1656-1661. Illus. 24 ref.
Hesbert A., Darrigrand M.C., Lemonnier M., Cavelier C.
Study of microbial pollution of cutting fluids - Efficacy of a number of disinfectants on contaminating organisms
Etude de la pollution microbienne des fluides d'usinage - Efficacité d'une série de désinfectants sur les germes contaminants. [in French]
Oil emulsions used as cutting fluids are particularly liable to massive microbial contamination, undesirable for technical and health reasons (oil acne, dermatosis hazard). The authors identified the contaminating bacteria (pseudomonadaceae, enterobateriaceae, etc.) and evaluated the action of 13 commercial disinfectants on them (effects on growth rate of a mixed culture of micro-organisms). With tests of this kind, efficient bactericidal products compatible with the chemical properties of a cutting fluid can be selected. However, some disinfectants (phenols and their derivatives, etc.) may cause skin irritation or sensitisation; hence the importance of not exceeding the required amount of disinfectant.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1977, Vol.38, No.6, p.569-579. Illus. 16 ref.
Wardrop V.E., Blyth W., Grant I.W.B.
Farmer's lung in a group of Scottish dairy farms.
The microbiology of the air of byres and bruising sheds and of hay, grain and dust from bruising machines was studied at 12 dairy farms, 7 of which had one known case of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and 5 farms no known cases. Concentrations of mesophilic organisms and of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi were similar but concentrations of thermophilic actinomycetes and bacteria, especially M. faeni, were higher on FLD farms. Results of serological studies are given.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.186-195. Illus. 25 ref.
How to remove pollutants and toxic materials from air and water.
This handbook, based on data in US patents, provides practical information on methods and means of controlling pollutants from industrial processes. Pollutants are covered in 292 sections arranged in alphabetical order; each section presents the processes available to remove and occasionally recover the substances from air, water and waste materials. Examples of some applications are given.
Noyes Data Corporation, Noyes Building, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1977. 621p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$48.00.
Delsey J., Joumard R., Vidon R.
Carbon monoxide pollution inside a moving car
Pollution par le monoxyde de carbone ŕ l'intérieur d'une voiture en circulation. [in French]
Study of parameters which may influence CO levels to which professional drivers (taxi drivers, sales representatives, etc.) and commuters, who are obliged to drive in urban areas, may be exposed inside their vehicle, and of toxicological aspects of repeated exposure of this kind. At different times in a given 24h period (night, off-peak or peak traffic hours) overall CO exposure may vary in a ratio of 1:6 between off-peak and peak traffic times, and 1:60 between night hours and peak traffic period. Concentrations inside the vehicle were equal to or higher than those measured on the roadside. Driving during the peak period causes carboxyhaemoglobin levels of 1.7% (minimum) and 2.4% or over if the driver was previously exposed to CO pollution; at these levels sensorimotor imbalance may result if exposure is repetitive.
Pollution atmosphérique, Oct.-Dec. 1976, Vol.18, No.72, p.313-319. 6 ref.
Raven P.B., Gliner J.A., Sutton J.C.
Dynamic lung function changes following long-term work in polluted environments.
Results of spirometric tests in 10 young and 10 middle-aged men exposed for 4h to a) filtered air; b) 50ppm of CO in filtered air; c) 0.24ppm peroxyacetylnitrate in filtered air; and d) 50ppm of CO and 0.24ppm of peroxyacetylnitrate in filtered air, at 2 temperature levels, while performing submaximal work: the FVC of the younger subjects was reduced by peroxyacetylnitrate in filtered air combined with thermal stress; older subjects showed no significant changes. Exercise alone changed the FEV1.0/FVC% in all subjects. Oxidant-type pollutants appear to act on the dependent regions of the lung, while exercise appeared to stimulate the lung during forceful expiration.
Environmental Research, Aug. 1976, Vol.12, No.1, p..18-25. 24 ref.
Bar-Shalom Y., Segall A., Budenaers D.
Decision and estimation procedures for air contaminants.
The problem is discussed of enforcing average exposure standards for air pollutants in industrial environments. A statistical test was devised to decide whether the average concentration of a contaminant exceeds a certain threshold. The test is based on a number of samples of the contaminant, assumed to be log-normally distributed. A simple graphic procedure makes the test practical for field use. The estimation of the average level of contaminant was also discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1976, Vol.37, No.8, p.469-473. 15 ref.
Air pollution in the working environment and occupational disease
Pollution de l'air en milieu industriel et maladies professionnelles. [in French]
A great many occupational diseases are due to workplace air pollution. The absorption and localisation of gases and vapours depend on factors which are briefly described: deposition of particles is related to their physical properties, the shape of the respiratory airways, and lung ventilation parameters. Various defence mechanisms also play a role. Illustrative examples are given of occupational diseases caused by solvents, carbon monoxide, metals, dusts (silica, asbestos, hard metals), allergens and carcinogens. The importance of prevention is emphasised.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, Mar.-June 1976, Vol.21, No.2-3, p.85-89. 13 ref.
Report IV (1), International Labour Conference, 63rd Session, 1977.
Working environment: Atmospheric pollution, noise and vibration.
Le milieu de travail: pollution atmosphérique, bruit et vibrations. [in French]
This booklet summarises the report of the Committee which, at the 61st Session of the International Labour Conference (Geneva, June 1976) examined this question with a view to the adoption of an international instrument. The conclusions of the Conference for the second discussion of this question at its 63rd Session (Geneva, June 1977), the record of the discussion, at the 61st Session of the conference, on the committee's report and proposed conclusions are reproduced. Proposed texts of an international Convention (definitions; national laws and regulations to combat workplace pollution; technical prevention, personal protective equipment, worker training and information, etc.; application) and of a Recommendation. A Resolution adopted by the Conference is appended, calling for appropriate studies by the ILO, within the International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions (PIACT), for elaborating international labour standards concerning occupational hazards of micro-climatic conditions, non-ionising radiation, transportation, handling and use of potentially harmful substances, work causing stress and dehumanising work.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1976. 62p. Price: SF.15.00.
Vapor-phase organic pollutants - Volatile hydrocarbons and oxidation products.
This report, mainly on environmental pollution, contains chapters on metabolism and biological effects of vapour-phase organic compounds in mammals and an epidemiologic appraisal of human effects. An appendix covers toxicity data on occupational exposure to selected substances in addition to sampling and analytical techniques.
National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418, USA, 1976. 411p. Illus. 1,364 ref.
Lévy A., Jourdan R.
Contamination by microorganisms in hospitals
Contaminations intra-hospitaličres par microorganismes. [in French]
This book approaches the problem of contamination in hospitals from the dual aspects of epidemiology and prophylaxis. The authors analyse the problem and make suggestions for an optimum rational organisation of methods to prevent infection in hospitals, based on centralised planning, training in hygiene and reassessment of certain architectural concepts. Contents: specific epidemiological aspects of infection in hospitals; contamination sources; transmission and paths of entry of microorganisms; nature of microorganisms; control of infection transmitted within hospitals (sterilisation of equipment, disinfection, decontamination of fluids); services where prophylaxis can be effective (medical services, admissions and diagnosis units, general services, etc.); optimal conditions for efficacious prophylaxis (architectural design of hospitals, hospital hygiene service, recurrent staff training, etc.). Alphabetical subject index.
Editions Masson, 120 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 1975. 227p. Illus. 474 ref.
Twardowski W., Ostrowska M.A., Matuszak M., Geppert M.
Attempt at a mathematical description of the relations between certain physical parameters characterising the atmosphere of production premises
Próba matematycznego opisania zależności pomiędzy niektórymi parametrami fizycznymi charakteryzującymi środowisko powietrzne w promieszczeniach produkcyjnych [in Polish]
Description of 2 mathematical models used to determine the distribution of air pollutants, an indispensable parameter for the design of an appropriate ventilation system. The first model, in the form of a complex polynomial based on spatial network theory, takes account of the interaction between the different emission sources. The second, a system of differential equations resulting in an algorithm, expresses the influence of the air movement due to the ventilation on the distribution of dust concentration in a closed space. The results obtained by applying these models confirm the possibility of a mathematical representation of the phenomena that are involved in the propagation of pollutants in the air of production workplaces.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1975, Vol.25, No.86, p.179-195. Illus. 11 ref.
Air cleaning - Facts, data and processes for industries
Luftreinhaltung - Fakten, Daten und Verfahren für die Industrie [in German]
The main facts on the collection and separation of air pollutants in various branches of industry (metallurgy, foundries, chemicals, ceramics, mining, energy, construction, agriculture) are summarised and assessed. Comprehensive numerical data are given on the toxic and non-toxic air pollutants (dust, gases and vapours) emitted in technological processes, with a view to design of efficient ventilation, collection and air-cleaning installations. Dust-collection and gas-cleaning processes are described, and the determination of pollutant concentrations is briefly dealt with.
Verlag Technik, Oranienburger Strasse 13-14, x 102 , 1975. 140p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: M.12.00.
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