Air pollution - 353 entries found
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Building air quality - A guide for building owners and facility managers
This manual prepared jointly by the US EPA and NIOSH provides guidance on preventing, identifying and correcting indoor air quality problems. Contents: factors affecting indoor air quality (IAQ); importance of effective communication; preventing IAQ problems (developing a profile of the building conditions from the perspective of indoor air quality, managing buildings for good IAQ); resolving IAQ problems (diagnosing and mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance). Appendices provide: a general guide to IAQ measurements; basic information on HAVAC system design; indoor moisture and growth of mould and mildew; brief discussions of asbestos and radon concerns.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Air Division (ANR-445 W), 401 M Street West, Washington D.C., 20277-1663; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Clearinghouse for Occupational Safety and Health Information, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1991. 229p. Illus.
Symposium on air pollutants
Five papers presented at an annual meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (Tucson, Arizona, USA 14-18 Sep. 1990): "Air pollution illnesses: overview and challenge" (F.D. Aldrich); "Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex" (B.O. Brooks et al.); "Risk assessment for diesel exhaust and ozone: the data from people and animals" (C.H. Hobbs and J.L. Mauderly); "Air Pollution: the pathobiologic issues" (R.P. Sherwin); "Air pollutants and the respiratory system: toxicity and pharmacologic interventions" (J. Q. Koenig and W.E. Pierson).
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1991, Vol.29, No.3, p.307-400. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Guirguis S.S., Rajhans G.S., Leong D.K.N., Wong L.
A multidisciplinary approach for the administration of indoor air quality questionnaires
A protocol designed to ensure an appropriate strategy for administering an indoor air quality questionnaire is described. The questionnaire includes questions pertaining to health and the working area, and a separate section on questions pertaining to the work environment. The roles of the occupational hygienist and nurse in administering the questionnaires at workplaces are described along with an outline of the data analysis. The questionnaire is included in the appendix.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Spring/Summer 1991, Vol.12, No.2, p.99-112. 3 ref.
Chester A.C., Galland L., McLellan R.K., Stewart D.E., Samuels J.L., Black D.W.
Six letters to the editor commenting on an article by Black D.W. and al. (Environmental illness: a controlled study of 26 subjects with '20th century disease', see CIS 92-347). The letter by McCampbell A. describes an outbreak of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and fatigue reported among staff at a high school in California. In this case, ventilation was found to be inadequate and the hazy and foul smelling air was due in part to poorly maintained air filters and gasoline engine exhaust near the fresh-air intake. Symptoms and clinical characteristics of this outbreak were consistent with a diagnosis of sinusitis. Since sinusitis is well recognised as occurring after exposure to inhaled irritants and causes sypmtoms of environmental illness, the writer considers such exposure a possible cause of the syndrome. The other letters and the reply by Black D.W. discuss the role of psychiatric disease in the occurrence of 'environmental illness'.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 May 1991, Vol.265, No.18, p.2335-2337. Bibl.ref.
Samet J.M., Utell M.J.
The environment and the lung: Changing perspectives
This paper discusses the changing focus across the century of public health concern and research in regard to environmental lung diseases. Broad groups of environmental agents that produce lung disease are considered along with the currently available evidence for several air pollutants selected to be illustrative of the changing emphasis of concern. These include asbestos, radon, environmental tobacco smoke, acidic aerosols, sulfur dioxide and oxidant pollutants, including ozone and nitrogen dioxide. In the persistent concerns about adverse effects of polluted air on the lung, the focus has shifted from avoiding clinical disease among highly exposed individuals to protecting the population from an unacceptable burden of risk.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Aug. 1991, Vol.266, No.5, p.670-675. 57 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Pollution at coke works
Pollution dans les cokeries [in French]
Report of investigations into the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and bezene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in and around coke workers. PAH emission from 7 sources on a coking plant were documented and on old coke oven batteries the 2 major sources were shown to be the coke oven door and the charge hole lids; the level of emissions from modern plants with self-sealing doors was significantly lower than from older plants. The highest concentrations of BTX were found on the by-product plant, although the highest yields in terms of weight per tonne of coke produced were associated with the battery. Details are given of the sampling and analysis methods used.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1991. ix, 53p. Illus. Price: ECU 6.25.
Indoor air quality - Biological contaminants
Report of a Working Group on Indoor Air Quality: Biological Contaminants convened in Rautavaara, Finland, 29 August-2 September 1988. Topics covered: nature and definition of morbidity effects; hazard assessment; environmental measurement, sampling and analysis; sources of microbiological contaminants; environmental and biological factors in the indoor environment; strategies for control of biological contaminants (building design, ventilation, cleaning); conclusions and recommendations. Summaries in French, German and Russian.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1990. v, 67p. 40 ref. Price: CHF 9.00.
Kimura K., Shimakage K., Saitō M.
Estimation and control measures of indoor air pollution by smoking
Kitsuen ni yoru shitsunai kūki osen to sono taisaku [in Japanese]
The quantity of air pollutants generated by smoking in office rooms was estimated and measures to control air pollution were examined. Experimentally, a cigarette generated 15mg of particulate matter, 50mL of CO and 1mL of NO. The concentration of particulate matter generated varied depending on smoking situations and ventilation in the room concerned. In a series of rooms served by the same ventilation system, tobacco smoke generated in a smoking office invaded non-smoking offices through the ventilation system. Tobacco smoke accounted for 4-74% of the particulate matter in the air supplied by the ventilation system. The relative effectiveness of three methods of controlling air pollution due to smoking was demonstrated: complete banning of smoking; separation of smoking sites or time; and limitation on the number of persons smoking at any one time.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Dec. 1990, Vol.66, No.12, p.545-567. Illus. 7 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment comes between those abstracted under CIS 92-250 and 92-563, and includes new or revised chapters on: abbreviations used by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the German Federal Office of the Environment; terms and definitions in vacuum technology; gravimetric determination of respirable and total dust; determination of a quantity to characterise acid gaseous air pollutants; history of the detector tube method; the Chemical Substances Act (Chemikaliengesetz, see CIS 81-588); the Law on the control of atmospheric pollution (Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz, see CIS 92-2); guidelines on the use of continuous emission monitoring equipment.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Leibig-Strasse 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 15. Ergänzungslieferung, Oct. 1990. 155p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit
Act of 14 May 1990 on protection against harmful environmental effects of atmospheric pollution, noise, vibrations and other processes (Federal Law on the control of atmospheric pollution - BIm SchG) [Germany]
Gesetz zum Schutz vor schädlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geräusche, Erschütterungen und ähnliche Vorgänge (Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz - BIm SchG) [in German]
New version of the German law of 15 March 1974 concerning air pollution. Principal provisions of the law: I - Generalities (scope, definitions); II - Construction and operation of installations (subject or not subject to authorisation, emission and intake measurement, safety checks, technical committees on installation safety); III - Condition of installations; composition of materials, products, flammable substances, carburants and lubrificants; IV - Condition and functioning of vehicles; construction and repair of highways and railways; V - Monitoring of air pollution on federal territory; plans for air purification and noise reduction; VI - General provisions: implementation of European Community decisions; Commission on Major Hazards; nomination and duties of delegates; rights and duties of person in charge; final provisions.
Bundesgesetzblatt, 22 May 1990, Part I, p.881-901.
Kongerud J., Grønnesby J.K., Magnus P.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function of aluminium potroom workers
The association of occupational exposure with respiratory disease and lung function was examined in a cross-sectional study of 1805 aluminium potroom workers. Work-related asthmatic symptoms occurred in 15% of the workers with an exposure of 10 years or more and in 8% of the workers who had been employed less than 5 years. In a multiple logistic regression analysis an odds ratio (OR) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 2.1-5.8) for work-related asthmatic symptoms was estimated for long versus short duration of employment. Airflow limitation was also significantly related to years of exposure (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.7-3.9). Current occupational exposure and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms were not significantly associated. The results suggest that exposure to air pollutants in the primary aluminium industry may lead to the development of asthmatic symptoms, as well as to reduced respiratory function.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1990, Vol.16, No.4, p.270-277. 31 ref.
Laser printers and air contaminants - A review
Laserskrivare och luftföroreningar - En översikt [in Swedish]
Laser printers generate ozone and other contaminants; they also emit heat capable of affecting the temperature in a room. The amount of ozone generated varies with printer size and frequency of use. Concentrations around the TLV could arise when a printer is heavily used in a room with inadequate ventilation. Corona discharges, toner particles, vapours from toner particles and dust from paper are other sources of air contaminants. Health risks could develop in a room with poor ventilation. A large printer might even pose a health hazard in rooms with good ventilation. A laser printer subjected to heavy use should be placed in a separate room and preferably be equipped with a local exhaust.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 49p. Illus. 66 ref.
Andersson B., Andersson K., Sundgren M., Sundell J., Mattsson K.O., Zingmark P.A.
Reentrainment of air pollutants in rotary heat exchangers
Återföring av luftföroreningar i roterande värmeväxlare [in Swedish]
Six exchangers, installed in office buildings in the northern part of Sweden, were included in this study. Formaldehyde in the indoor air was used as a monitor pollutant and was sampled at 4 positions around the rotor, before and after passage of the rotor, in both the exhaust and supply air streams. Sampling of homogeneous air in the ducts was performed simultaneously with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated glass fibre filters. The analysis of formaldehyde was made by high performance liquid chromatography. The reentrainment of formaldehyde was 1-9%.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 19p. Illus. 11 ref.
Inquiry into the negative impact on man and the environment of work in the graphic-arts industry
Erhebung über Belastung von Mensch und Umwelt durch Tätigkeiten in der graphischen Industrie [in German]
Results of a nationwide questionnaire survey conducted by consultants on behalf of the Swiss Lithographers' Union. Exposure and pollution data are broken down by operation or professional specialty. For the industry as a whole, the principal problems in decreasing order of importance are: odours in ambient (workplace) air, solvents in ambient air, special solid and liquid wastes, waste in general, dust in ambient air, wastewater, noise and odours in exhaust air. Summary in French.
Schweizer Lithographenbund, Optingenstrasse 5, Postfach, 3000 Bern 25, Switzerland, Dec. 1990. 57p. Illus.
Indoor air quality
Papers presented at the International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, 4-6 Nov. 1987, in Tokyo, Japan. Keynote lectures on passive smoking are followed by presentations grouped under the headings "environmental tobacco smoke measurement", "biological effects associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke", "epidemiology of passive smoking" and "general indoor air pollution".
Springer-Verlag, 17 Tiergartenstrasse, W-6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany, 1990. 529p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DEM 198.00.
Indoor air quality - Organic pollutants
Report of a Working Group on Indoor Air Quality: Organic Pollutants convened in Berlin, Germany, 23-27 August 1987. Topics covered: chemical characterization of indoor organic pollutants; estimation of population exposure distribution; characterization of health effects; sensory effects; sensory effects of mixtures; systemic toxic effects; genotoxicity and carcinogenicity; potential hazards of pesticides, nitrosamines, vinyl chloride, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and organic compounds from building materials and furnishings; maintaining and improving indoor air quality; conclusions and recommendations. Summaries in French, German and Russian.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1989. vi, 70p. 29 ref. Price: CHF 8.00.
Indoor air pollution control
Contents of this manual: problem definition (personal pollution exposures, sick building syndrome, levels of exposure to specific contaminants and possible health effects); source control of inorganic contaminants (asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, radon), organic contaminants (formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, pesticides) and biogenic particles (allergies and asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Legionnaires' diseases, moisture control); ventilation for contaminant control; air cleaning; policy and regulatory considerations; air quality diagnostics; mitigation practice.
Lewis Publishers, Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, Michigan 48118, USA, 1989. xiii, 401p. Illus. Index. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 64.00.
A breath of fresh air: Improving air quality in your office
Training videotape on the identification of contaminants in workplace air, and on possible ways to improve air quality.
Resource Center of the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Public Education and Risk Communication Division, 45 Knightbridge Road, Brookwood II, Piscataway, N.J. 08854, USA, 1989. Videotape (NTSC). Length: 21min.
Discharging to atmosphere from laboratory-scale processes
Contents: introduction (choice of duct materials, dispersal of effluents; proper design of fume cupboards; use of filters, scrubbers and washdowns for reducing harmful effluents; airflow sensors; dampers; multiple systems used for fume extraction; terminals (at the top of discharge stacks); meteorological effects; fume dispersal in the atmosphere.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1989. 59p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: GBP 10.50, USD 23.00, CAD 28.00.
Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
The effect of air cleaners on tobacco smoke - Part II. Long-term test and complementary measurements
Luftrenares effekt på tobaksrök - Del II. Långtidsprov och kompletterande mätningar [in Swedish]
A long-term test was conducted by loading 3 different room air cleaners with smoke from 20, 200, 400, 600 and 800 cigarettes and measuring their ability to remove gases and particles from the contaminated air. The measurements covered particles from 0.01 to 7.5 microns and gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide. The cleaning efficiencies for particles were approximately constant, while the cleaning efficiencies for the gases decreased considerably with increasing smoke load. The report also describes measurements of the ability of the air cleaners to remove acrolein, the pH of the activated charcoal in the air cleaners, the emission of gases and particles from room air cleaners contaminated by cigarette smoke, and from smoke deposition on room surfaces. The first part of this study was published as Arbete och hälsa 1987:28 (CIS 89-1962).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 38p. Illus. 16 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Safety guide to the identification and control of atmospheric contaminants in the workplace. Contents: types of contaminants, with examples, and industries and processes where they may be present (dusts and fibres, fumes, mists, smokes, vapours, gases, biological agents); health hazards; prevention and control measures (elimination or substitution; process modification; engineering controls - ventilation, isolation, segregation, enclosure, dust suppression; servicing and maintenance; environmental and personal hygiene; personal protective equipment; education and training; monitoring).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. 24p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: AUD 5.95.
Rentzsch M., Minks B.
Combined effects of sound, climate and air pollutants on noise induced hearing loss
In a laboratory experiment, 10 subjects were exposed to various sound loads at air temperatures of 24°C and 35°C. As expected, the greatest threshold shifts occurred at maximum sound and climate loads. A field study was also carried out to investigate permanent hearing loss in groups of welders and machinery and plant assembly workers exposed to a combination of noise and carbon monoxide. Welders suffered hearing damage when the noise limit for hearing impairment was scarcely exceeded, while the risk was relatively lower for the assembly workers with comparatively higher noise levels and lower carbon monoxide exposure. Results therefore indicate a relationship between combined noise and carbon monoxide exposure and risk of hearing damage.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Dec. 1989, Vol.1, No.1, p.41-44. Illus. Bibl.
Work in pressurised atmosphere in a contaminated environment
Arbeiten unter Überdruck in kontaminierter Umgebung [in German]
The environment (water, air) of workers working in a pressurised atmosphere may be polluted by gases such as CO and nitrogen oxides, dust and radioactive substances such as radon. These pollutants can also be present in the air supplied to divers. In tunnelling and caisson work, noise and heat exposure can also occur. Safety measures include air cleaning and the wearing of protective equipment.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1989, Vol.101, No.5, p.370, 372-376. Illus.
Paul M., Himmelstein J., Weinstein S., Pransky G., McDougal C., Brogie B., Legendre S.
Ocular infections and the industrial use of microscopes
A cluster of ocular infections occurred in one area of a computer fabrication facility that relied on the use of industrial microscopes. A questionnaire was administered to all employees in this area. Microscope oculars were cultured and compared with control microscopes from a nonindustrial setting. Risk of infection was correlated with the number of hours of microscope use per day and subjective indicators of cleanliness. Bacterial cultures confirmed increased colony counts in industrial oculars compared with control oculars. Hygienic practices were instituted similar to those employed in medical settings. No further outbreaks of conjunctivities have been reported in a 1-year follow-up.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.763-766. 24 ref.
Doyle L., Gallagher K., Health B.S., Patterson W.B.
An outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis spread by microscopes
Among the potential occupational hazards of microscope use is the transmission of infectious agents among employees. A large (145 cases) and costly ($647 000) epidemic of viral conjunctivitis in a microelectronics factory is reported. Spread of the illness appeared to be through sharing of microscopes among employees. Routine handwashing instructions and safety glasses failed to prevent spread of the epidemic. Mandatory screening prior to work and temporary plant shut-down were finally successful. Efforts to control this outbreak and recommendations to prevent similar epidemics in other workplaces are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.758-762. 12 ref.
Karlsson K., Malmberg P.
Characterization of exposure to molds and actinomycetes in agricultural dust by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and the culture method
Air samples from 79 farms with 105 to 1011 microorganisms/m3 were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy (FM) and the culture method. The total concentration of microorganisms (particularly actinomycetes) was underestimated when assessed as colony-forming units (cfu). The average cfu count was one-sixth of the total count according to SEM or FM, and there was considerable individual variability. This finding can be partly explained by the aggregation of spores. Single spores accounted for 2-65% of all spores in 35 samples. There was an average of three spores/particle, and 93 (range 67-100) % of the spores were single or in aggregates of respirable size. Aggregation was more pronounced for actinomycetes and at high spore counts. Actinomycetes and bacteria could not be distinguished by FM. Bacteria (other than actinomycetes) were not detected by SEM, yet the total count of microorganisms was similar for FM and SEM. Most particles were spores from actinomycetes and fungi of the genera Aspergillus or Pencillium.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.353-359. Illus. 21 ref.
Tuominen M., Tuominen R., Ranta K., Ranta H.
Association between acid fumes in the work environment and dental erosion
A sample of 186 workers was drawn from four factories. Among the 157 dentulous (having natural teeth) participants, 76 were working in departments containing acid fumes, and 81 had never worked under such conditions and were used as referents. Of the acid workers 18.4% had one or more teeth with erosion, and the corresponding figure for the referents was 8.6%. With a longer duration of exposure the proportion of subjects with erosion increased. The acid workers had more teeth with erosion than the referents, especially upper anterior teeth. The findings suggest that even today exposure to inorganic acid fumes from the work environment may increase the erosion of teeth, especialy of the upper anterior teeth, which are not continuously protected by saliva and the lips.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.335-338. 16 ref.
Murav'eva S.I., Kaznina N.I., Prohorova E.K.
Reference guide on the environmental monitoring of airborne toxic contaminants
Spravočnik po kontrolju vrednyh veščestv v vozduhe [in Russian]
This reference guide is intended for industrial and research laboratory personnel, sanitary and epidemiological station workers, trade-union safety and health inspectors and for all those concerned with workplace atmosphere monitoring. Covered are: air sampling technique; recovery, separation and identification of sample components; devices for generating test atmospheres (static and dynamic); analytical methods (gas, liquid, ion, thin-layer and paper chromatography, mass spectrometry (alone and coupled to gas chromatography), voltammetry, ionometry, photometry, emission spectrum analysis, atomic absorption analysis); analysis data processing and metrological certification of analytical methods; automatic monitoring equipment; indicating tubes; methods for the determination of individual toxic substances in workplace air and in the atmosphere.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, ul. Stromynka 21, korp. 2, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 320p. Illus. 209 ref. Price: SUR 1.70.
Air pollution in the pharmaceutical industry: Synthesis
Luftforurening i medicinalindustrien: Synteseproduktion [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on the reduction of air pollution associated with synthesis in the pharmaceutical industry: health hazards (organic solvents, dust, gases), chemical safety data sheets, labelling, planning of the workplace (ventilation, hygiene), safe working methods and personal protective equipment. A list of relevant Danish directives is appended.
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1st ed. 1988. 12p. Illus. 8 ref.
Conditions for joint compliance with occupational hygiene and environmental requirements of industrial ventilation systems
Ipari szellőzőberendezések iránt támasztott munkavédelmi és környezetvédelmi követelmények együttes kielégitésének feltételei [in Hungarian]
Mathematical treatment of the problem of simultaneous compliance with environmental and occupational limitations on atmospheric contaminants. The Hungarian MAC and 24hr TWA values are given for 18 harmful substances and substance groups. Complex formulae are developed, to be used in the evaluation of the appropriateness of specific ventilation systems for given workplaces.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1988, Vol.34, No.4-6, p.118-125. Illus. 6 ref.
Dmitriev V.I., Ovčinnikov B.G.
Ecological safety of the burning of organochlorine wastes
Ėkologičeskaja bezopasnost' ognevogo obezvreživanija hlororganičeskih othodov [in Russian]
Tests on the pilot-plant scale showed that concentrations of toxic pollutants in the combustion products are low when chlorine-containing organic wastes are burned under correct conditions. Residual pollutants in the exhaust gas (chlorine, hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides, phosgene) can be removed in scrubbers with dilute alkali.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1988, No.3, p.17-19. 12 ref.
Brief R.S., Bernath T.
Indoor pollution: Guidelines for prevention and control of microbiological respiratory hazards associated with air conditioning and ventilation systems
The incidence and survival circumstances of the causative agents of these microbial allergies and infections are reviewed. Recommendations for equipment design and maintenance, protocols for inspection, chemical treatment, and personal protective equipment to prevent and control the diseases are discussed.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.5-10. 39 ref.
Health conditions of employees in air conditioned rooms
Zum Gesundheitszustand der Beschäftigten in künstlich belüfteten Räumen [in German]
In air conditioned workplaces (mainly offices) with no filter downstream of the humidifier, high numbers of bacteria and fungi, e.g. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, Neurospora sitophila and Penicillium sp., were found. Extensive medical examinations of 714 mostly female employees yielded no evidence of any allergic respiratory disorders. The examinations included pulmonary function tests, allergy tests and serological reaction tests.
Die BG, Feb. 1988, No.2, p.90-93. Illus. 15 ref.
Toxic inorganic compounds in industrial atmospheric emissions - reference book
Vrednye neorganičeskie soedinenija v promyšlennyh vybrosah v atmosferu: Spravočnik [in Russian]
This reference book is designed for chemical and process engineers, gas cleaning and dust collecting device designers and operators, in-plant environmental protection service specialists, sanitary and epidemiological station physicians, nature conservation lecturers at higher and technical schools. It contains concise information on the substances' physical and chemical properties, human and animal toxicity, environmental effects, MACs for atmospheric pollutants in the USSR and abroad, and limit levels of atmospheric emissions.
Izdatel'stvo Himija. Leningradskoe otdelenie, Nevskij pr. 28, 191186 Leningrad, USSR, 1987. 192p. 231 ref. Price: SUR 0.65.
Air pollution in manufacturing and the handling of fertilisers
Luftforurening ved fremstilling og håndtering af kunstgødning [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on the handling and manufacturing of fertilisers: health hazards associated with dust and gases in this type of work, occupational exposure limits, replacement of hazardous substances, personal protective equipment, plant safety organisation and methods for reduction of dust and gases. A checklist and a list of relevant Danish directives are appended.
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vesterbrogade 69, 1620 København V, Denmark, 1st ed. 1987. 12p. Illus. 9 ref.
Puhov S.N., Nikitina I.A., Kondakova M.V., Strel'cov S.V., Zapol'skij Ju.M., Koročkin S.V.
Specific rates of emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere during the production of rubber shoe soles
Udel'nye vybrosy vrednyh veščestv v atmosferu pri proizvodstve reziny dlja niza obuvi [in Russian]
Specific emission rates were calculated on the basis of material balances for each of the 6 operations in sole manufacture; the results are presented in a table. The largest quantity of gaseous pollutants are emitted during vulcanisation (85-95% of the total emissions for the process). Of the 4 types of sole produced, coloured porous rubber gave the largest amounts of gas, black solid rubber the smallest. The average composition of the gaseous emissions was: 1.2% aldehydes, 28% aromatic hydrocarbons (of which 2% styrene), 1.5% amines, 7% naphthenes, 8% normal and iso-paraffins (3-7 carbons), 7.5% normal and iso-olefins, 16% for 8-14-carbon paraffins, 12% for 8-14-carbon olefins, and 20.3% unidentified. An equation was derived for predicting the quantity of emissions from the amounts of natural rubber, blowing agent, regenerated rubber and mineral filler used in the process.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Sep. 1987, No.9, p.18-19.
Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
The effect of air cleaners on tobacco smoke
Luftrenares effekt på tobaksrök [in Swedish]
Report on a study concerning the ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke. 31 air cleaners were tested. 12 used electrostatic precipitation, 6 an electret-fibre filter, 6 a fibre filter and 7 an ioniser. Activated charcoal (for 9), impregnated aluminium (for 3) and an ionising lamp or electron generator (for 3) were employed for gas cleaning. Measurements covered particle sizes from 0.01 to 7.5 microns and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionisers was measured. The results are presented as equivalent airflows.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 76p. Illus. 51 ref.
Sjögren B., Carstensen J., Hörte L.G., Plato N.
Occupation and death due to pulmonary emphysema
Dödlighet i emfysem bland yrkesarbetande män [in Swedish]
This study is a linkage of the 1960 National Census of Sweden and the Causes of Death Register from 1961-1970 in order to investigate the correlation between occupation and death due to pulmonary emphysema. The study only comprised men born 1901-1920, and smoking habits in different occupational groups were taken into account. Self-employed persons and supervisors in farming, forestry and market gardening had the highest incidence of deaths due to pulmonary emphysema. This excess risk is significant, even after the performed number of comparisons is taken into account. A significant correlation was found between estimated exposure to air pollutants and mortality due to emphysema in men born 1911-1920.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 27p. 38 ref.
Koleva M., Penkov A., Nikolova Ž., Cankova T., Karadžova N.
Hygiene and psycho-social characteristics of the work of laboratory workers at research institutes
Higiena i psiho-socialna harakteristika na truda na laboratorni rabotnici v naučni instituti [in Bulgarian]
The study covered toxicological, chemical, clinical, histomorphological, phytochemical, microbiological, and other laboratories. Microbial pollution of air and the concentrations of chemical compounds were measured. Microbiological data showed a seasonal dependence. Alcohols were found in the air, as well as nitrogen oxides and organic solvents at concentrations considerably above their MACs. The psycho-social study, carried out by a questionnaire method, showed that mental fatigue was more common than physical fatigue. Complaints of all kinds of fatigue were more common among the technicians (all women) than among the more highly trained specialists (men and women). Specialist women reported fatigue more often than specialist men. Better control of airborne contaminants and better organisation of work are recommended.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.5, p.44-48. Illus. 2 ref.
Yang Z., Luo Y., Zhang L., Zhao Z.
Industrial fluoride pollution in the metallurgical industry in China
The hazard of airborne fluoride pollution in 63 plants in the metallurgical industry in China was studied. Fluoride injuries in plant workers were more severe in the electrolysis works in aluminium plants and iron smelters. The incidence of fluorosis among workers was 3.2%, and the symptoms were systemic. For diagnosis, both the effects of airborne fluoride pollution and fluoride content in water must be considered, because some workers come from areas where fluoride content in water is high and fluorosis is endemic. Anti-air-pollution devices are needed to reduce the hazard of industrial fluoride pollution.
Fluoride, July 1987, Vol.20, No.3, p.118-125. 18 ref.
Attwood P., Brouwer R., Ruigewaard P., Versloot P., De Witt R., Heederik D., Boleij J.S.M.
A study of the relationship between airborne contaminants and environmental factors in Dutch swine confinement buildings
A total of 171 swine confinement buildings were studied to determine the concentrations of airborne total dust and dust with an average diameter ≤8.5µm, total and gram-negative bacteria, bacterial endotoxin and ammonia. The concentrations of these airborne contaminants then were correlated statistically to environmental factors such as feeding practices, number of animals and ventilation parameters. Airborne dust, endotoxin, bacteria and ammonia are commonly at levels where health effects have been observed in other studies. Correlation of these airborne contaminants with environmental factors showed that while ventilation is an important criterion there are farming practices that significantly contribute to the levels of airborne contaminants currently found. Pearson correlations indicate a number of important criteria that the industrial hygienist should measure when faced with problems in agricultural confinement buildings.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1987, Vol.48, No.8, p.745-751. 29 ref.
Microscopes and ocular infections
Microbial assays of industrial microscope eyepieces were conducted and pathogenic staphylococcus aureus was identified among the microorganisms. It appears that direct contact with microscope eyepieces provides a potentially significant route of transmission of bacterial and viral infections. A questionnaire was distributed to a first and second shift manufacturing operation to assess the incidence of ocular infections. There was a statistically significant incidence of sites and conjunctivitis that was 8.3 times that of a control group. An ultraviolet disinfection process was evaluated; it was rapid and emission-free and there were no residual chemical biocides.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1987, Vol.48, No.5, p.425-431. 33 ref.
Direct reading instruments for airborne contaminants in the work environment
This draft document results from an expert meeting at the WHO and subsequent consultations. It is in limited circulation; an official version will be published later. Direct-reading instruments are those that perform qualitative and quantitative analysis for a specific chemical, group of chemicals or particles and whose result is directly indicated on a meter, recorder or other display medium associated with the sampling and sensor portions of the measuring system. The report covers: the strategy for occupational hygiene evaluations, guidelines for the selection and use of direct-reading instruments and descriptions of selected direct-reading instruments. Types of airborne contaminants, participants in the expert meeting, WHO Collaborating Centres for Occupational Health, examples of hidden hazards, some calibration procedures and manufacturers of direct-reading instruments in different countries are listed in appendices.
Office of Occupational Health, World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 93p. Bibl.
Environmental pollution in mining - Open-cast - Air - Act-1981 - its impact
Survey of environmental effects of open-cast mines in India. Characteristics of certain gases encountered in such mines: carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, acrolein. Measures for the supply of clean air in open pits. Maintenance of equipment. Comfortable working conditions. Assessment of environmental impact. List of applicable environmental laws in India. A questionnaire to be used for the assessment of air pollution is included.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Apr.-June 1986, Vol.17, No.1, p.9-19.
Wallace L., Pellizzari E., Hartwell T., Zelon H., Sparacino C., Perritt R., Whitmore R.
Concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds in the air and drinking water of 350 residents of New Jersey compared with concentrations in their exhaled breath
Twenty volatile organic compounds were measured in the personal air and drinking water of 350 New Jersey (USA) residents in the fall of 1981. Two consecutive 12-hour integrated personal air samples and 2 tap water samples were collected from each participant. At the end of the 24-hour monitoring period, each participant supplied a sample of exhaled breath. Simultaneous outdoor samples were collected in 100 residential locations in 2 cities. Eleven compounds were present much of the time in air, but only 4 (the trihalomethanes) in water; wide ranges of exposures (3-4 orders of magnitude) were noted for most compounds. Ten of 11 compounds displayed significant correlations between air exposures and breath concentrations; the 11th (chloroform) was correlated with drinking water exposures. It was concluded that breath measurements are a feasible, cost-effective, and highly sensitive way to determine environmental and occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.603-608. 16 ref.
Ternovskij E.N., Teverovskij I.A.
Maximum allowable radioactive and chemical emission to the atmosphere
Dopustimye vybrosy radioaktivnyh i himičeskih veščestv v atmosferu [in Russian]
This guide contains: theoretical background of calculation of the maximum allowable emission (MAE): determination of the MAE, requirements for the MAC of harmful substances in the atmosphere, dissemination of pollutants in the atmosphere; methods of calculation of the MAE (general instructions on the establishment of emission standards, initial data and the sequence of operations for determing the MAE for high sources, coefficient of meteorological dilution; background concentration and MAEs of radioactive and chemical substances in the atmosphere and in the air of industrial sites; determination of dimensions of safety zones; protective measures); examples of calculation of the MAE (for nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, uranium ore processing, sources of chemical emission).
Ėnergoatomizdat, šluzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1985, 216p. Illus. 124 ref. Price: Rbl.2.80.
Health and Safety Executive
Industrial Air Pollution: Health and Safety 1984
This report summarises the HM Industrial Air Pollution Inspectorate's activities during 1984 and it surveys the main developments and problems of the industries controlled by the Inspectorate (chemical, metal, fuel, mineral industries etc.). Some special topics receive additional attention (effectiveness of inspections, control of emission of lead, chemical incineration, nitrogen oxide emission from fuel burning, the continuous monitoring of dust emission). Data on results of inspections in 1983 and 1984 are given in the appendixes.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1985. 39p. Price: GBP 5.00.
Majczakowa W., Badach H., Soczewińska-Klepacka Z., Mołocznik A.
Evaluation of conditions of work with a granular pesticide - Dursban 5G
Ocena warunków pracy podczas stosowania pestycydu w formie granulowanej - Dursbanu 5G [in Polish]
Pollution of workplace air with chlorpyrifos during sowing of sugar beets together with the granular phosphoroorganic insecticide Dursban 5G was measured. Hazards resulting from the introduction of this method of sowing were evaluated (pollution of skin and clothes). No pathological signs nor radical decreases of blood cholinesterase activity were observed in the exposed workers.
Medycyna Wiejska, 1985, Vol.20, No.4, p.269-278. 21 ref.
Protection of the atmosphere in chemical and petrochemical enterprises
Ohrana vozdušnoj sredy na himičeskih i neftehimičeskih predprijatijah [in Russian]
This manual provides information on the requirements for technological equipment and the working environment, aerodynamics, methods for determining harmful substances and maximum allowable emissions, prediction of air pollution, emission purification, preventive technical measures and automatic monitoring.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 160p. Illus. 79 ref. Price: Rbl.0.60.
Dmitriev M.T., Kuleš T.A., Rastjannikov E.G.
Study of the toxic substances formed in the oxo process
Izučenie toksičnyh veščestv, obrazujuščihsja v processe oksosinteza [in Russian]
In the oxo process, olefins are reacted with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to yield alcohols; aldehydes are intermediate reaction products. Various volatile by-products may also be formed, so that workplace air can be contaminated by a wide range of substances. To identify and quantitate these contaminants, air was sampled by being drawn through a glass tube packed with Tenax sorbent. The material collected was desorbed onto a glass capillary gas-chromatography column coated with SE30. The gas chromatograph was coupled to a mass spectrometer. 165 organic compounds were identified. They included saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, halogenated hydrocarbons, nitriles, thiocyanates, sulfides, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.51-54. 12 ref.
Labour protection in shipbuilding
Ohrana truda v sudostroenii [in Russian]
This manual intended for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in the shipbuilding industry: fundamentals of labour legislation, assessment of occupational safety, safety engineering and occupational hygiene (working conditions, harmful and hazardous factors, workplace air, ventilation, lighting, electrical safety), fire protection (flammability of substances, prevention of fires, fire-fighting work), social and economic aspects of labour protection (economic consequences of unfavourable working conditions, economic efficiency of labour protection).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, ul.Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985, 223p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
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