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Air pollution - 353 entries found

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CIS 95-1809 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 95-1442. It includes: descriptions of European Standards DIN EN 689 on determination of exposure and DIN EN 482 on the performance of methods for determining concentrations in air; definitions of "to be exposed" (ausgesetzt sein) and "action level" (Auslöseschwelle); updated lists of exposure levels (TRK, MAK, BAT) and of recognized carcinogens; new or updated Technical Rules for Dangerous Substances (TRGS) 300 (safety techniques), 513 and 522 (fumigation with ethylene oxide and/or formaldehyde), 519 (demolition, cleanup or maintenance involving asbestos) and 520 (hazardous waste dumps).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 34. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 1995. 280p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1746 Tepper J.S., Moser V.C., Costa D.L., Mason M.A., Roache N., Guo Z., Dyer R.S.
Toxicological and chemical evaluation of emissions from carpet samples
This study investigated findings that the off-gassing of certain carpets caused sensory and pulmonary irritation, changes in neurobehavioural signs and death in exposed mice. Detailed study of three treatment groups of mice, two of them exposed to preheated carpet emissions (from two different carpets) and the third exposed to preheated air samples. No toxic effects were observed in any of the test groups, though detailed chemical and microbial evaluation of the carpets and carpet emissions showed many different potentially harmful chemicals and microbiological flora. Clinical and histopathological changes were observed in all the groups of exposed mice when compared with non-exposed, unrestrained mice, suggesting that the exposure procedure itself caused significant effects unrelated to carpet emissions. Based on this assessment, no health risk can be attributed to the two carpets tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1995, Vol.56, No.2, p.158-170. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1442 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This instalment follows that abstracted under CIS 95-1055. It includes: a list of the analytical methods of the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), ordered according to the name of the chemical compound to which each is applicable; a statement by the German Federal government of outstanding problems in indoor air quality and approaches to their solution; the text of the Federal Exposure Control Law (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz) and of some derived regulations, with commentaries.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 33. Ergänzungslieferung, May 1995. 234p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1055 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 95-681. It includes definitions of units and concepts in air quality determination, an overview of correction of air analysis data for temperature, pressure and humidity according to standard ISO 8756, a 120-page extract (in English) of the US Environmental Protection Agency's "Building Air Quality: a Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers", a checklist (also in English) for workplace assessment prepared by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, the full texts of European Union Directive 94/9/EC on the harmonization of legislation covering explosion-proof equipment and protection systems and Decision 93/465/EEC on technical guidelines for harmonization of the process of conformity testing and the attribution of the CE mark.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 32. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 1995. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-874 Do I work in a sick building?
This booklet describes health complaints associated with indoor air quality (IAQ) and provides guidance on common sources of IAQ problems (airborne chemicals, bacteria, dust, air temperature, humidity); the importance of ventilation, investigation of complaints, air testing and measures for reducing the likelihood of IAQ problems and for controlling indoor air contaminants are underlined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA, no date. 12p. Illus.


CIS 98-1686 Berenguer Subils M.J.
Odours: A factor of indoor air quality and comfort
Olores: un factor de calidad y confort en ambientes interiores [in Spanish]
Topics: buildings; data sheet; determination in air; health hazards; odour pollution; odour threshold; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. 8 ref.

CIS 97-1583 Campanella L., Benvenuti F.
Methodologies for detecting environmental chemical pollution: The formulation of biological tests
Metodologie di rilevazione dell'inquinamento chimico nell'aria ambiente: messa a punto di test biologici [in Italian]
An in vitro experimental technique for the detection of chemical pollution was investigated. The technique is based on measurement of the consumption of oxygen and/or the production of carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Tests on Saccaromyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) showed that the addition of a toxic substance produced a clear variation in respiratory response after a relatively short time. Results of tests on selected metals and organic substances are presented.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.VI, No.2, p.35-43. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-1426
Department of the Environment, Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
This report discusses the main sources of ozone in the atmosphere, methods of measuring its concentration in the troposphere, and its known health effects (irritation of the eyes and nose, airway inflammation leading to short term respiratory symptoms, decrements in lung function). The Panel's recommendation for an air quality standard for ozone in the United Kingdom is 50ppb as a running 8-hour average.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. 23p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 96-928
Department of the Environment, Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
This booklet briefly discusses the sources of exposure to benzene, methods of monitoring atmospheric concentrations, and evidence for its harmful effects on health, with particular attention paid to leukaemia. The recommended Air Quality Standard for benzene in the United Kingdom is 5ppb as a running annual average.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 20p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 96-294 Patrick D.R.
Toxic air pollution handbook
Contents of this manual: introduction to sources of air pollutants and legal requirements for their control; health assessment (evaluation of toxicological data, risk assessment and management of inhaled toxic air pollutants, cancer risk assessment); exposure assessment (source sampling and analysis, emissions estimation, air dispersion and deposition models, atmospheric transformation and removal of air toxics, human intake, population and activity analysis, ecological risk assessment); regulatory strategies (legal considerations, ambient concentration limits, technology standards, risk assessment and management, cost-benefit approaches); control methods; special sources of toxic air pollutants; risk communication.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1994. xx, 588p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.

CIS 95-2277 Lavoie J., Lazure L.
Guide to the prevention of microbial proliferation in ventilation systems
Guide de prévention contre la prolifération microbienne dans les systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this safety guide aimed at designers of ventilation systems and at all those potentially affected by the biological contamination of such systems: microorganisms in general (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, antigens); air treatment systems (air conditioning system components and processes); biological contaminants of system components; inspection procedures (visual methods and biological sampling); maintenance and cleaning; preventive measures and legislation applicable to various components of ventilation systems. In annex: diagrammatic presentation of biological contamination of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; sample estimate form for the cleaning of ventilation ducts; sample check-list for the inspection of ventilation systems.
IRSST - Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail au Québec, Direction des communications, 505, Blvd. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 1994. 1 loose-leaf binder. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 25.00.

CIS 95-1258 Indoor air quality: A proactive approach
Textbook for a course offered in conjunction with an Industrial Safety and Health Conference in Spokane, Washington, on 16 Nov. 1994.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, SC-34 Seattle Washington 98195, USA, 1994. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. ###

CIS 95-1396 Yost M.G., Gadgil A.J., Drescher A.C., Zhou Y., Simonds M.A., Levine S.P., Nazaroff W.W., Saisan P.A.
Imaging indoor tracer-gas concentrations with computed tomography: Experimental results with a remote sensing FTIR system
To show that computer tomography (CT) is a useful tool for investigating pollutant concentration in a real room setting, a remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was mounted on a moving base and a passive tracer was released from a point source into the room under constant ventilation conditions. The experiments produced two data sets, one consisting of 36 beam-path-averaged values and the other consisting of 44 point values from the FID array. Good qualitative agreement between reconstruction and point sample data was obtained. Problems of temporal resolution, size and geometry can be overcome with better instrumentation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.395-402. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 95-1392 Simonds M., Xiao H., Levine S.P.
Optical remote sensing for air pollutants - Review
Advantages and disadvantages of specific optical remote sensing techniques are discussed in this review, which focuses on the techniques most useful to industrial hygienists. The review attempts to provide an understanding of the development of remote sensing techniques, and briefly explains typical applications.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1994, Vol.55, No.10, p.953-965. Illus. 122 ref.

CIS 95-1026 Peltier A., Elcabache J.M., Guillemin C., Aguillon J.P., Le Quang X.
Pollution in jewellery manufacturing workshops
Pollution dans les ateliers de fabrication de bijoux [in French]
This survey, which was carried out in twelve workshops making precious and fancy jewellery, revealed that the same hazards are present in both industrial-scale and artisanal workshops. There appeared to be no cases of average risk levels: the concentrations measured were either extremely low in comparison with exposure limit values, or well in excess of such values on rare occasions. The metals that gave most cause for concern were cadmium, lead and beryllium. The use of asbestos seems to be disappearing from this activity. On the other hand, polishing or coating materials containing high concentrations of crystalline silica of which the user has not been informed are in constant use. Safety data sheets and proper labelling are essential in these workshops, especially for products containing crystalline silica. Such a requirement could be introduced in the context of future regulations to prevent silicosis.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.157, Note No.1971-157-94, p.411-422. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 95-938 Maina G., Sonnino A., Cerina G., Moretto N., Rubino G.F.
Study of indoor air quality in offices
Etude de la qualité de l'air sur une population de personnes travaillant dans des bureaux [in French]
Evaluation of microclimate, chemical and biological agents as well as parameters such as work organization and psychological factors contribute to the assessment of the air quality in offices. This study, carried out on 1,900 clerks working in 445 offices, investigated the reliability of the personal assessment of air quality by means of a specifically graduated ruler. The quality of interpersonal relationships, the tasks performed and psychological aspects exert a relevant influence on the personal assessment of both the working environment and the subjective symptoms of discomfort reported.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.449-453. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-681 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 94-2020. It includes the full text of new or amended versions of the Chemicals Law (Chemikaliengesetz), Ordinance on Prohibition of Chemicals (Chemikalien-Verbotsverordnung), Ordinance on Dangerous Substances (Gefahrstoff-Verordnung) and the Ordinances on Exposure Control (Verordnungen zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz). Also included are a Decision of the European Union (93/C 138/01) on a common environmental policy and a Directive (92/72/EEC) on air pollution by ozone.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 31. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 1994. 270p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-690
Earthwatch Global Environment Monitoring System
GEMS/AIR Methodology Review Handbook Series - Volume 3. Measurement of suspended particulate matter in ambient air
Contents of this handbook: definitions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) (basic concepts, ISO particle size conventions); SPM phenomenology (size partitioning, chemical composition, pollution episodes); SPM measurement methods (monitoring objectives, sampling systems, analysis systems, ISO standards); quality assurance; additional recommendations for particulate measurement.
World Health Organization (WHO), Urban Environmental Health, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. vi, 52p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-689
Earthwatch Global Environment Monitoring System
GEMS/AIR Methodology Review Handbook Series - Volume 2: Primary standard calibration methods and network intercalibrations for air quality monitoring
Part 1 of this handbook covers primary standard calibration methods: techniques for the preparation of primary standards; establishment of national gas standards laboratories; quality control. Part 2 covers air monitoring network intercalibrations: network intercalibration techniques; operational implications of performing network intercalibrations and site audits; applicability of intercalibration techniques to sampler-based monitoring networks.
World Health Organization (WHO), Prevention of Environmental Pollution (PEP), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. iii, 40p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 95-688
Earthwatch Global Environment Monitoring System
GEMS/AIR Methodology Review Handbook Series - Volume 1. Quality assurance in urban air quality monitoring
This handbook describes the main elements of a quality assurance programme for air quality monitoring. Contents: setting monitoring objectives; the role of quality assurance in data harmonization; priority urban air pollutants; air monitoring methodologies; quality assurance/control (QA/QC) methodologies (objectives and organization of QA/QC programmes, network design and management, site and equipment selection, site infrastructure and routine operation, maintenance and calibration of equipment, data review and validation); data use and exchange.
World Health Organization (WHO), Urban Environmental Health, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. iii, 40p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-624 James J.T., Limero T.F., Leano H.J., Boyd J.F., Covington P.A.
Volatile organic contaminants found in the habitable environment of the space shuttle: STS-26 to STS-55
Analysis of spacecraft respirable air during 28 space shuttle missions indicated that the major contaminants were relatively nontoxic alcohols, ketones, alkanes, halocarbons and siloxanes. Occasionally more toxic contaminants such as methanol, acetaldehyde and tetrachloroethene were present at low concentrations. Toxicity assessments showed that air quality was consistently in line with current guidelines. While the usual airborne load of volatile organic contaminants poses little risk to crew health, accidental contamination of the air, especially through pyrolysis of polymeric material, is a recurring problem.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.65, No.9, Section I, p.851-857. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 95-342 Smoragiewicz W., Bouchard G., Cossette B., Boutard A.
Inhibition of mould growth by the application of propionic acid and sodium propionate
Contrôle des moisissures par l'action de l'acide propionique et du propionate de sodium [in French]
The efficiency of propionic acid and sodium propionate was tested on various species of pathogenic moulds originating in dust samples taken in buildings where cases of "office building syndrome" had been reported. A 3% solution of propionic acid was sufficient to prevent mould growth (from spores) for 60% of the species and to inhibit mould growth for 70% of the species (spores and mycelium). In the case of propionate, at the same concentration, 60% of the species were inhibited but only if the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3; 7% of solutions are 100% efficient. The effects of propionic acid were tested on Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Stachybotrys atra and Trichoderma viride. The action of sodium propionate with adjusted pH was tested only on Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma viride. These moulds were shown to offer the most resistance to the action of the two fungicides.
Travail et santé, Dec.1994, Vol.10, No.4, p.S25-S27. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 95-239 Malmberg P.
Coking to death?
This brief commentary considers the possible influence of awareness bias in the debate about the health hazards of living near coke ovens. In a dispute involving residents living near a coking works in the north east of England in the 1980s, while there was no hard evidence for an environmental impact on health, replies to questionnaires showed a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms near the coke works. Epidemiological methods need to be devised to study subtle health effects that remove any uncertainty about awareness bias.
Lancet, 3 Sep. 1994, Vol.344, No.8923. p.632. 4 ref.

CIS 94-2020 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Updates to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. These installments follow those abstracted under CIS 94-651. Supplement 28 includes a model air quality report, the fifth ordinance implementing the Federal Exposure Control Law (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz), updates of a number of directives on dangerous substances (TRGS) and ILO Convention 148 (1977), incorporated into German law on 12 January 1993. Supplement 29 includes the Ordinance on Prohibition of Chemicals, directives on safety engineering (TRGS 300) and hazardous waste collection (TRGS 520), amendments of other directives, updates of the list of analytical methods recognized by the Federation of Mutual Accident Insurance Associations and a recommendation on quality in occupational safety. Supplement 30 includes the June 1994 issue of the official exposure limit (MAK, BAT and TRK) lists and updates on analysis of air pollutants.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 27.-30. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb., May, Sep. 1994. 260, 248, 246p. Illus. Bibl.ref.


CIS 98-863 Turmo Sierra E., Cuscó Vidal J.M.
Dispersion models for gases and/or vapours in the atmosphere: Continuous point sources
Modelos de dispersión de gases y/o vapores en la atmósfera: fuentes puntuales continuas [in Spanish]
For information note on dispersion models for gases and vapours in the atmosphere from instantaneous point sources, see CIS 00-201. Topics: atmospheric pollution; data sheet; gases; mathematical models; Spain; toxic gases; vapour clouds.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. 3 ref. Illus.

CIS 96-1080 Lavoie J.
Microbiological decontamination of ventilation systems
La décontamination microbienne des systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this article: origin of bioaerosols in indoor air; contribution of bioaerosols to indoor air quality; effects on health; decontamination techniques; case study of an industrial-scale laundry serving about 30 Quebec hospitals.
Objectif prévention, Winter 1993, Vol.16, No.4, p.30-32. 15 ref.

CIS 95-2274 Smoragiewicz W., Cossette B., Boutard A., Krzystyniak K.
Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings
The presence of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust samples from the air conditioning systems of four office buildings in Montreal, Canada, was determined. The buildings were known to cause sick building syndrome among their occupants. Analyses of the dust samples by thin-layer chromatography yielded four kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins. The results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This method appeared to be more sensitive while positive colour reaction on thin-layer chromatography plates using 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine proved less costly and less time-consuming. It was found suitable for qualitative detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust extracts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.2, p.113-117. 25 ref.

CIS 94-1235 Greer J.R., Abbey D.E., Burchette R.J.
Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in non smokers
To determine the association of occupational and general air pollutant exposure with the development of adult asthma, a standardized respiratory questionnaire was administered to a cohort of 3914 non-smoking adults in 1977 and again in 1987. Ambient air pollution levels at place of work and residence over a 20-year period were established by interpolation from concentrations measured at fixed monitoring stations. Second-hand smoke exposure was significantly associated with the development of asthma. Airway obstructive disease before age 16 was related to marked increased risk. An increased risk of asthma in men was significantly associated with increased exposure to ozone.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.909-915. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 94-1358 Kukkonen J., Savolainen A.L., Valkama I., Juntto S., Vesala T.
Long-range transport of ammonia released in a major chemical accident at Ionava, Lithuania
An estimate is made of the atmospheric dispersion of ammonia released in a major chemical accident in Lithuania in 1989. Emphasis is placed on possible long-range effects. The computations were made using trajectory and dispersion models based on gradient-transfer diffusion theory and using actual meteorological data. The computer concentrations were compared with available observations obtained from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme stations. Results indicate that most of the ammonia escaped the monitoring stations in Finland.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-16. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-985 Pope A.M., Patterson R., Burge H.
Institute of Medicine
Indoor allergens: Assessing and controlling adverse health effects
This report evaluates current knowledge of allergic diseases as they relate to indoor airborne allergens, along with methods for their control. Contents: introduction to allergens and the indoor environment, concepts and definitions; magnitude and dimensions of sensitization and disease caused by indoor allergens; agents, sources, source controls and diseases; mechanisms of immune function; medical testing methods; assessing exposure and risk; engineering control strategies; the role of education. Glossary. A number of priority recommendations and research topics are included.
National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20055, USA, 1993. x, 308p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 94-627 Bord B.S.
Clean air at work
Questions to be addressed by those with responsibilities for dealing with airborne contamination in the workplace are considered. These include: monitoring by means of relevant and valid measurements of airborne concentrations of contaminants; carrying out risk assessments; selection of effective technical and managerial corrective actions from a hierarchy of control options; the impact of the EC Machinery Directive, which specifies essential health and safety requirements for machinery.
Industrial Safety Data File, Oct. 1993, p.H:16:1-H:16:4.

CIS 94-215 Becher H., Jedrychowski W., Wahrendorf J., Basa-Cierpialek Z., Flak E., Gomola K.
Effects of occupational air pollutants on various histological types of lung cancer: A population based case-control study
A population-based case-control study was performed in Cracow (Poland), to determine the effect of occupational air pollutants on various histological types of lung cancer. The case group included 343 subjects with squamous cell carcinomas, 151 with small cell carcinomas, 106 with adenocarcinomas and 27 with other histological types. Long-term (>20yrs) exposure to mineral dust and metal dust was a significant risk factor for small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. The highest relative risk (RR=2.45, 95% CI=1.43-4.19) due to occupational exposures was for squamous cell carcinoma and exposure to mineral dust for >20yrs. RR for small cell carcinoma (2.29) and adenocarcinoma (2.04) and exposure to mineral dust was smaller. No specific agent could be identified as particularly important for a specific histological type.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.136-142. 27 ref.

CIS 94-255 Vinzents P., Laursen B.
A national cross-sectional study of the working environment in the Danish wood and furniture industry - Air pollution and noise
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Danish wood and furniture industry at 200 factories. Representative estimates of employees' full-shift exposures to wood dust, vapours from organic solvents, formaldehyde and noise dose were calculated using a model for two-stage cluster designs. Exposures to air pollutants were generally below the occupational exposure limits (OELs), while noise doses were at the same level as the OEL. The overall exposure to wood dust was 0.90mg/m3, exposure to vapours from organic solvents was 0.13C/OEL and noise dose, Leq (8h), was 90.5dB(A).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1993, Vol.37, No.1, p.25-34. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1983 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 93-1642. It presents: testing of carbon monoxide and methane warning devices; random sampling in emission measurements according to German industry (VDI) guidelines; reporting of odour pollution; updated portions of technical rules TRGS 002 and TRGS 102; the full text of the Federal Exposure Protection Law (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz) with commentaries and rules of application; European Community Directive 88/609 on the control of air pollution by large fired industrial installations, with a draft amendment.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Leibig-Str. 1, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 26. Ergänzungslieferung, Sep. 1993. 202p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1642 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 93-943. It presents: test certificates for various Dräger detector tubes; updates of the Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances (TRGS), including changes in the official German exposure limit lists; guidelines on the detection and evaluation of olfactory pollution; an ordinance on the reporting of air pollutants; two draft European Commission Directives (promotion of standardisation, compilation of environmental statistics); a discussion of European quality assurance standards (EN 29 000 and 45 000).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Leibig-Str. 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 24. Ergänzungslieferung, May. 1993. 340p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1379 Hendry K.M., Cole E.C.
A review of mycotoxins in indoor air
The literature on mycotoxins is reviewed with emphasis on mycotoxins in indoor air. Consideration is given to specific mycotoxins identified in indoor air, indoor sources of the mycotoxins, factors affecting mycotoxin production, potential health effects indicated by animal laboratory studies, and case studies of possible human inhalation health effects. Historically, mycotoxicoses have been associated with consumption of mouldy grain and recently attention has been given to mycotoxins in agricultural dusts. The few available indoor studies suggest that mycotoxicoses may occur in some indoor environments.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Feb. 1993, Vol.38, No.2, p.183-198. 48 ref.

CIS 93-943 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 93-264. It includes the texts of the Equipment Safety Law (Gerätesicherheitsgesetz), of Technical Rule TRGS 102, giving Technical Indicative Concentrations (Technische Richtkonzentrationen, TRK) for substances that have no official Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAK), of European Directive 92/32/EEC (CIS 92-726), which amends for the seventh time the Directive on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances, 67/548/EEC, and of a policy statement on European standardisation in the area of occupational safety and health that has been adopted jointly by the German Federal Ministry of Labour, the competent authorities in the States, insurers, the social partners and the German Standards Institute (DIN).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Leibig-Str. 1, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 26. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb. 1993. 200p. Illus. Bibl.ref.


CIS 95-1777 Lebowitz M.D., Walkinshaw D.S.
A selection of papers from INDOOR AIR '90 concerning health effects associated with indoor air contaminants
Selected papers are presented from the Fifth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate held in Toronto, Canada, 29 July - 3 August 1990. Papers include: study of the effect of air humidification on symptoms and perception of indoor air quality in office workers; sick building syndrome in a new air-conditioned building; studies of the effects on humans of exposure to a volatile organic mixture; sensitivity of the eyes to airborne irritants; effects of particulate matter exposure and medication use on asthmatics; multipollutant exposures and health responses to particulate matter; the health significance of environmental odour pollution.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1992, Vol.47, No.1, p.6-91. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1022 Leinster P., Mitchell E.
Commission of the European Communities
A review of indoor air quality and its impact on the health and well-being of office workers
A review of the literature concerning problems related to indoor air quality and other factors which affect the indoor environment in offices is presented. Topics covered: symptoms associated with problem buildings; psychological aspects; perceptions and sensory effects; common features of buildings with problems; scale of the problem; costs; evaluation criteria; building investigation protocols; airborne contaminants; physical factors; other considerations (odour, lighting, noise and vibration; ions, electrostatic charge); building design and services; activities within the European Communities and the USA.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1992. ix, 109p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 12.00.

CIS 94-229 Société française de médecine du travail - 25 January 1992 Meeting
Société française de médecine du travail - Séance du 25 janvier 1992 [in French]
Summary of papers presented at the 25 Jan. 1992 Meeting of the Société française de médecine du travail. Themes studied: acquired sensitivity to solvents; syndrome of acquired sensitivity to chemical odours; pleural plaques without associated asbestosis and respiratory function; epidemiologic survey of mortality in a lead foundry: methodology and results; Health Commission of the CINDEX (Centre inter-entreprise de l'expatriation) or how to ensure the safeness and comfort of travels and life abroad; prevention of AIDS risk among hospital workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.195-199.

CIS 93-1981 Olander L.
Laser printers and air contaminants. A review
This review, which is a translation of report Arbete och hälsa 1990:23 (CIS 91-998), considers the substances which may occur in emissions from laser printers. Such printers generate ozone and other air contaminants (corona discharges, toner particles, vapours from toner particles, paper dust). They also emit heat capable of affecting the room temperature. The amount of ozone generated varies with printer size and frequency of use and concentrations around threshold limit value could arise when a printer is used heavily in a room with inadequate ventilation. Health risks could develop in a room with poor ventilation and a large printer could pose a health hazard in rooms with good ventilation. Summary in Swedish.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 38p. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 93-1991 Leslie G.B., Lunau F.W.
Indoor air pollution. Problems and priorities
Contents of this manual: introduction to indoor air pollution problems; the perception of indoor air quality; legionella; bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms; the oxides of nitrogen; mineral fibres; radon; formaldehyde; hazards from solvents, pesticides and PCBs; vegetable dusts and lung disease; danders, etc. from domestic and laboratory animals; environmental tobacco smoke; industrial environments; extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation; contributions from outdoor pollutants; ventilation for control of airborne pollutants. Each chapter covers exposure levels, sources of pollution and routes of uptake, health effects, control measures and regulatory guidelines.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1992. xi, 329p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 45.00; USD 84.95.

CIS 93-1570 Biava P.M., Audisio R., Centonze A., Barbieri A., Bisanti L., Duca G.
Cross-sectional study on the health status of traffic wardens exposed to urban air pollution
Indagine epidemiologica sulle condizioni di salute dei vigili urbani di Milano in rapporto all'inquinamento da traffico veicolare [in Italian]
An investigation on the health effects of occupational exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and environmental pollutants was carried out on traffic wardens in Milan (Italy). Randomised samples of 292 traffic wardens and 60 controls underwent a physical examination and laboratory tests. No significant difference was observed between the exposed and control groups as regards general morbidity, apart from musculo-skeletal disorders in females. The mean blood lead level (PbB) among traffic wardens was 15.2µg/dL compared with 11.7 in controls (p<0.01). The carboxyhaemoglobin concentration (COHb) in traffic wardens decreased from 2.8% (smokers) and 1.2% (non-smokers) at the beginning of the shift to 4.3% (smokers) and 2.5% (non-smokers) (p<0.01) at the end of the shift. PbB was significantly correlated (r=0.17) with Median Nerve Motor Conduction Velocity (NCV) and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) (r=-0.24) in the exposed group. COHb was significantly correlated with HDL cholesterol (r=-0.20) in the exposed group. It is questionable whether very low PbB levels can affect NCV and SBP directly or rather whether PbB, as well as COHb, should be regarded as tracers of exposure to those urban pollutants leading also to cardiovascular and nervous disorders.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1992, Vol.83, No.3, p.249-258. 30 ref.

CIS 93-1628 Tucker W.G., Leaderer B.P., Molhave L., Cain W.S.
Sources of indoor contaminants - Characterizing emissions and health impacts
Proceedings of a conference held in New Haven (CT, USA), 22-24 October 1990. Papers include: lessons from field studies (personal and indoor exposures to environmental pollutants; sick building syndrome; risk assessment of acute health and comfort effects of indoor air pollution); chemical and physical characterisation (characterising material sources and sinks; combustion sources; modelling indoor concentrations and exposure; sampling and analytical issues; material and product evaluation); assessing irritation (sensory irritation and its relation to indoor air pollution; eye, nose and respiratory tract irritation); assessing odour and neurobehavioural responses.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 30 Apr. 1992, Vol.641, x, 327p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-948 Brown R.H., Curtis M., Saunders K.J., Vandendriessche S.
Clean air at work: New trends in assessment and measurement for the 1990s
Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Air at Work - New Trends in Assessment and Measurement for the 1990s held in Luxembourg, 9-13 September 1991. Papers are presented under the following headings: legal background and standards; measurement methodology (practical and changing needs, gases and vapours, aerosols); data and information management; indoor air; measurement quality; future needs. A summary report with conclusions and recommendations for further action is included.
Royal Society of Chemistry, Turpin Distribution Services Ltd., Blackhorse Road, Letchworth SG6 1HN, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, 1992. xvi, 507p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 65.00.

CIS 93-576 Górski P., Tarkowski M.
Non specific environmental factors and asthma development
Environmental pollutants seem to be responsible for the dramatic increase in allergic disorders that have been observed lately. The best documented environmental factors facilitating allergy development are: ozone, diesel-exhaust particulate matter and tobacco smoke. Formaldehyde and SO2 seem to be very important but still are not sufficiently documented. Mechanisms involved in allergy promotion include: better penetration of allergens across respiratory mucosa and direct modulation of immunological responses.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.3, p.227-236. 95 ref.

CIS 93-264 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 93-262. It includes new or revised chapters on: abbreviations in international use; determination of certain substances; guidelines for work in contaminated areas from the Tiefbau Berufsgenossenschaft; the ISO compressed air standard; detector tube technique; technical rules for determining hydrocarbon vapours; relevant articles of the Maastricht Treaty; European Community directives on trade in chemicals and on product safety; organisation of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Liebig Strasse 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 23. Ergänzungslieferung, Dec. 1992. 170p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-262 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 92-1288, and includes new or revised chapters on: criteria of the International Organisation for Legal Metrology; the German standard on the testing of detector-tube-based measuring equipment; the German Technical Rules on Dangerous Substances; a draft European Community (EC) guideline on explosion-proof equipment; existing and proposed EC regulations on the exchange of ecological information and on "ecology audits".
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Leibig-Str. 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 22. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 1992. 230p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-1291 Rentel K.H., Gmehling J., Lehmann E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Chemical exposures in the rubber industry
Stoffbelastungen in der Gummiindustrie [in German]
A check list was used to collect data on production processes, chemical substances used and working conditions in 11 German factories producing tires and soft rubber articles. Total dust concentrations at selected workplaces varied from undetectable to 74mg/m3 for personal sampling and from undetectable to 13.3mg/m3 for area sampling. The cyclohexane-soluble fraction of total dust usually exceeded the 0.25mg/m3 limit recommended by the British Rubber Manufacturers' Association. Average exposures were higher in compounding than in extruding, calendering or curing. Engineering controls, such as local exhaust, were usually installed on balances and mixers, but were often missing on mills, extruders and other machines working at temperatures up to 100°C.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaften GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 98p. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 92-1373 Sick building syndrome
In this editorial studies aimed at validating the syndrome of sick building syndrome and investigating the environmental conditions thought to cause them are briefly reviewed. Results show that symptoms are more common in those lower down the office hierarchy than in managers, women have more symptoms than men and, in general, air-conditioned buildings are sicker than naturally ventilated buildings. Recommendations include returning control of the environment to individual workers and providing better training, careers and supervision for building services workers.
Lancet, 14 Dec. 1991, Vol.338, No.8781, p.1493-1494. 23 ref.

CIS 92-423 Building air quality - A guide for building owners and facility managers
This manual prepared jointly by the US EPA and NIOSH provides guidance on preventing, identifying and correcting indoor air quality problems. Contents: factors affecting indoor air quality (IAQ); importance of effective communication; preventing IAQ problems (developing a profile of the building conditions from the perspective of indoor air quality, managing buildings for good IAQ); resolving IAQ problems (diagnosing and mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance). Appendices provide: a general guide to IAQ measurements; basic information on HAVAC system design; indoor moisture and growth of mould and mildew; brief discussions of asbestos and radon concerns.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Air Division (ANR-445 W), 401 M Street West, Washington D.C., 20277-1663; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Clearinghouse for Occupational Safety and Health Information, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1991. 229p. Illus.

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