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Air pollution - 353 entries found

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  • Air pollution

2005

CIS 05-722 Lignell U., Meklin T., Putus T., Vepsäläinen A., Roponen M., Torvinen E., Reeslev M., Pennanen S., Hirvonen M.R., Kalliokoski P., Nevalainen A.
Microbial exposure, symptoms and inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage fluid of kitchen and clerical personnel in schools
Microbial investigations were conducted in six moisture-damaged schools and two reference schools. The symptoms of kitchen personnel were investigated by questionnaire and by measurement of inflammatory responses in nasal lavage (NAL) fluid. Total concentrations of airborne microbes were lower in kitchens than in other facilities of the schools. However, the occurrence of moisture damage increased the airborne microbial concentrations both in kitchens and in other facilities. Bacterial concentrations were high on surfaces in the damaged kitchens. Symptoms were prevalent both among kitchen workers and clerical personnel in the moisture-damaged work environments. Median concentrations of inflammatory mediators were slightly higher in NAL samples of kitchen workers than among clerical personnel. It is concluded that kitchen facilities differ from other facilities of the school building and represent a specific type of environment that may affect the health status of the personnel.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.139-150. Illus. 51 ref.

2004

CIS 06-357 Flodin U., Jönsson P.
Non-sensitizing air pollution at workplaces and adult onset asthma
The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to non-sensitizing air pollution at workplaces increases the risk of adult onset asthma. 120 persons with asthma diagnosed by general practitioners were compared with 446 referents matched for age and gender and living in the same community as the cases. Information on occupation, exposure to specific allergens, smoking habits, dwellings and atopy was obtained from a postal questionnaire. It was found that three years or more of work in air-polluted workplaces resulted in an increased odds ratio of 1.7 for asthma. Working in buildings affected by dampness and mould brought a fourfold risk. It is concluded that occupational exposure to unspecific air pollution at workplaces is associated with an increased risk of adult-onset asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.77, No.1, p.17-22. 32 ref.

CIS 06-101 Concawe Review 13:2
Contents of this review of Concawe's activities: concepts of cost benefit analysis in the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme; cost-effectiveness of NOx abatement in oil refineries; monitoring and reporting of CO2 emissions from oil refineries; implications of EU chemicals control legislation (REACH); gasoline volatility and ethanol effects; motor vehicle emissions and fuel specifications; downstream oil industry safety statistics.
CONCAWE Review, Autumn 2004, Vol.13, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 05-167 Lavoie J., Massé D., Croteau F., Masse L.
Evaluation of the impact of liquid manure additives on workers' exposure and on odour attenuation
Evaluation de l'impact des additifs de lisier sur l'exposition des travailleurs et l'atténuation des odeurs [in French]
Various suppliers have developed additives for liquid manure claimed to be effective for reducing the level of smell and in lowering the emissions of toxic and dangerous gases such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and methane. These assertions are sometimes unfounded and may mislead users into a false sense of security. This report presents a protocol for examining the environmental impact of these liquid manure additives and for evaluating the health hazards of exposed workers. Four additives were evaluated over a period of one year in laboratory conditions simulating the collection and storage of manure in livestock farming. Gases were sampled at regular intervals and subjected to chemical and olfactometric analyses. It was found that the four additives tested had no effect on the physical and chemical properties of the gases and aerosols emitted or on their smell.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iii, 35p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-376.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1926 Hernández Calleja A.
Biological agents: Analysis of samples
Agentes biológicos: análisis de las muestras [in Spanish]
This information note describes the main methods used for analysing and identifying biological agents, applicable to different types of sampling (workplace air, surfaces, substances in powder or liquid form). Contents: selection of the analytical method; culture of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi); counting of colonies; identification of the microorganisms contained in the sample; microscopy (optical, scanning, fluorescent, electronic); bioassays (infectiousness, immunoassays, toxicity studies); genetic tests (hybridization, nucleic acids, PCR); chemical tests (HPLC chromatography, GC-MS). Two tables present methods for sampling and analysis applicable to various types of biological agents as well as diagnosis tests applicable to bacteria.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 10p. Illus. 14 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_611.htm [in Spanish]

2003

CIS 05-157 Concawe Review 40 - 1963-2003 - Celebrating 40 years of CONCAWE
On the occasion of CONCAWE's 40th anniversary, this issue is devoted to articles on each of the major fields of its activity. Contents: contributions to air quality; specifications on fuel quality and reduction of emissions; guidance on water and waste management; health aspects; classification, labelling and risk assessment of petroleum products; supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations; monitoring the performance of European cross-country oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2003, Vol.12, No.2. p.1-25. (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 03-1796 Walz A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Optimization of local exhaust systems - Enhanced insights on the thermally- influenced spread of pollutants
Optimierung von Einrichtungen zur Stofferfassung - Erweiterung der Erkenntnisse zur Stoffausbreitung durch Thermik [in German]
This report presents a methodology for designing local exhaust ventilation systems. Experimental and numerical methods for characterizing the interactions between the captured air volume flow, the spread of contaminants and unwanted air movements are reviewed. An exhaust test rig was developed, on which the numerical calculations were verified experimentally. The parameters studied included the velocity of the cross flow, the distance and vertical misalignment between exhaust system and contaminant source, the source intensity and the dimensions of the heat source. Overall eight heat and contaminant sources were investigated using up to six exhaust designs. Based on these tests, new design approaches are proposed. A practical example showing the application of this methodology is included.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 158p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.

CIS 03-1738 Gliński M.
Effectiveness of local exhaust systems
Skuteczność urządzeń wentylacji miejscowej wywiewnej [in Polish]
This article presents current standardization efforts for evaluating the parameters connected with the emission of airborne dust from machinery and devices and assessing the effectiveness of exhaust ventilation systems. It discusses methods used in Germany and Poland. The results of measurements of the emission of dust generated during machining using hand-held power tools and a bench grinder are presented, as well as results of testing the effectiveness of dust removal by local exhaust systems.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 2003, No.6, p.24-28. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1758 Majchrzycka K.
The protection factor - A basis for selecting respirators
Wskaźnik ochrony - podstawowe kryterium doboru sprzętu ochrony układu oddechowego [in Polish]
This article presents the concept of the "protection factor" and discusses its application for selecting respirators. It presents the results of studies conducted in the European Union and in the United States, as well as a method for determining the protection factor for different types of respirators.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.25-27. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 03-1740 Makhniashvili I.
Nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment
Nitrowe pochodne wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych w środowisku [in Polish]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro derivatives (nitro-PAHs) are present in the environment. They are derived from products of natural origin, and are also formed as a result of thermal processes. These compounds are classified as harmful, carcinogenic and mutagenic. They pollute the atmosphere, the workplace air and various other parts of the environment.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.17-20. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 03-1312 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (see CIS 90-955). Contents: updates of analytical methods and several laws, ordinances and technical rules on dangerous substances, biological substances and protection against immissions; directory of European standards for the implementation of directive 94/9/CE; national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (2001/81/CE).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 62. Ergänzungslieferung, May 2003. 236p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-808 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: updates of the ordinance on the prohibition of chemical substances and the ordinance on dangerous substances; overhaul of the following technical rules (TRGS): classification and labelling of substances, preparations and dangerous products (200); fumigation (512) and list of sensitizing agents (907); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): determination of dangerous substances and analytical methods for substitution products (440), list of maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work (900), biological limit values at the workplace (903) and list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances having reproductive toxicity (905).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 61. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb. 2003. 224p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-784 Piltingsrud H.V., Zimmer A.T., Rourke A.B.
The development of substitute inks and controls for reducing workplace concentrations of organic solvent vapors in a vinyl shower curtain printing plant
In order to comply with US regulations with respect to the discharge of volatile organic compounds, a PVC shower curtain printing company had installed a catalytic oxidizer. However, the low flow rates of the equipment resulted in high solvent concentrations within the workplace environment, causing worker discomfort. On investigation, solvent vapour concentrations were found to exceed NIOSH, OSHA and ACGIH acceptable exposure levels. The workers were required to wear organic vapour removing respirators full-time while printing. The company requested NIOSH assistance in finding methods to reduce solvent vapour concentrations. NIOSH recommendations included technical controls for the emissions and the use of substitute inks. The new ink system and controls allowed the removal of the requirement for the treatment of discharged air, and the substantial increases in dilution ventilation thus achievable reduced worker exposures and waived the requirements for respirator usage.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2003, Vol.18, No.8, p.597-619. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 03-737 El-Fadel M., El-Hougeiri N.
Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal
Assessment of indoor air quality was inestigated at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analysed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modelling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rate estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. It was found that carbon monoxide and suspended particulate concentrations generally exceeded recommended levels. Modelling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2003, Vol.18, No.7, p.513-522. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 03-736 Concawe Review 12:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to the limitation of CO2 emissions. Contents: the "well-to-wheels" study, aimed at establishing the energy and greenhouse-gas balances for a number of fuel and power train combinations; new technologies for sulfur-free fuels; emissions from modern gasoline-engine vehicles; update of the model of the European refining industry; establishing air quality limit values; oil in water analysis; exposure of asphalt workers to bitumen fumes; trends in the reduction of occupational exposure to gasoline vapours.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2003, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

2002

CIS 03-807 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: overhaul of the law on chemical substances; new technical instruction (TA) on air protection; introduction of Directive 1999/45/EC on the classification, labelling and packaging of dangerous preparations.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 60. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2002. 276p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-806 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of directive 67/548/EEC on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances and of directive 91/155/EEC on safety data sheets; update of four ordinances implementing the Federal Law on the control of atmospheric pollution (BImSchV); overhaul of the technical rules (TRGS) on safety data sheets (220); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): identification and evaluation of hazards due to dangerous substances at the workplace (420), list of maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work (900), biological limit values at the workplace (903) and list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances having reproductive toxicity (905); introduction of COM/2002/0118, a new community on health and safety and health at work 2002-2006.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 59. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2002. 270p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-735 Concawe Review 11:2
Contents of this review of CONCAWE's activities: report on progress on key issues in which CONCAWE is currently involved; research on road transport and alternative fuels; aromatics in automotive fuel specifications; AIRNET, a network of researchers and organizations working towards the improvement of air quality in Europe; trends in refinery sulfur emission in Europe; report on the 6th CONCAWE pipeline seminar.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2002, Vol.11, No.2, p.1-21. Illus.

CIS 03-734 Concawe Review 11:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emission reduction. Contents: economic aspects of biofuel production; SO2 emissions from ships in Europe; the refinery best available technique (BAT) reference document; emissions from modern diesel engines; specifications for non-road diesel fuel use; 30 years of spillage performance monitoring in Western European oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2002, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 02-1669 Kleinerman R.A., Wang Z., Wang L., Metayer C., Zhang S.Z., Brenner A.V., Zhang S.R., Xia Y., Shang B., Lubin J.H.
Lung cancer and indoor exposure to coal and biomass in rural China
Incomplete combustion of coal in homes has been linked with lung cancer in China. This article reports on a lung cancer case-control study in a rural area of China, where many residents live in underground dwellings and burn coal and unprocessed biomass (crop residues, wood, sticks and twigs) for heating and cooking. 846 patients with lung cancer (626 men and 220 women, aged 30 to 75) diagnosed between 1994 and 1998, and 1740 population-based controls were interviewed. The odds ratio for lung cancer associated with coal use compared with that for biomass in the house of longest residence was 1.29, adjusted for smoking and socioeconomic status. The risk for lung cancer increased relative to the percentage of time that coal was used over the past 30 years. The findings suggest that coal may contribute to the risk of lung cancer in this rural area of China.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.338-344. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1778 Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Lee E., Khan J.
Improving the use of mixing factors for dilution ventilation design
A safety factor is often used when specifying the dilution ventilation flow rate to compensate for uncertainties and health impact severity. The component of the safety factor accounting for imperfect mixing, Km, was studied for the purpose of developing more effective design procedures. Air flow and contaminant distribution were simulated for steady, isothermal conditions using computational fluid dynamics. A series of ten simulations explored factorial combinations of air exchange rate and inlet types. This work suggests that air quality data can be used to calculate dilution flow rate requirements. Also, dilution flow rate requirements may be reduced by enhancing room mixing with fans or altering air inlet configuration. However, mixing should not be increased if the altered room air currents could transport contaminants to an occupant's breathing zone or interfere with other control methods that depend on segregation of incoming air and contaminant.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.333-343. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1239 Martins L.C., do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre M., do Nascimento Saldiva P.H., Ferreira Braga A.L.
Air pollution and emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory diseases in the elderly: An ecological time-series study in São Paulo, Brazil
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of daily air pollution levels (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic profile <10µm) on morbidity by using the daily number of emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) in people older than 64 years of age in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1996 to 1998. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, adjusted for long-time trends and weather, day of the week, and daily number of non-respiratory admissions. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were the pollutants statistically associated with CLRD visits. Increases in the 6-day moving average of sulfur dioxide (17.82µg/m3) and in the 4-day moving average of ozone (35.87µg/m3) increased CLRD emergency room visits in 18% and 14%, respectively. These results reinforce the idea that air pollution may promote adverse health effects in the elderly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.622-627. Illus. 29 ref.

2001

CIS 03-798 Gliński M.
Pollution control on work premises
Ograniczanie emisji zanieczyszczeń w pomieszczeniach pracy [in Polish]
This publication describes the various types of ventilation and dust-removal systems. It is aimed at helping to select means of controlling internal air pollution in the work environment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 71p. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 03-733 Concawe Review 10:2
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to improvements of air quality. Contents: future EU air legislation; implications of the revised large combustion plant directive for the EU refining industry; automotive particulate emissions; impact of the use of hydrogen on CO2 emissions; comment on the "whole effluent assessment" concept; downstream industry safety statistics; CONCAWE's role in the reorganization of the European Union.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2001, Vol.10, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-732 Concawe Review 10:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to air quality. Contents: validity of model predictions for air quality confirmed by measurements in London; update of a report on motor vehicle emission regulations and fuel specifications; automotive emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; effect of tougher specifications on diesel supply; health issues of oil industry and products; hearing trends in noise-exposed oil refinery workers; dangerous preparations directive; integrity of pipelines in Western Europe.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2001, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-337 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of appendices I and II of the Law on Chemicals (BPL); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): determination and evaluation of hazards from dangerous substances at the place of work (440), general requirements for laboratories (526), maximum admissible concentrations at the place of work (900), values of tolerable concentrations of industrial substances in the body (903) and list of substances classified as being carcinogenic, mutagenic or having reproductive toxicity (905); update of the Law on the Safety of Equipment, the Law on the Protection from Emissions and the Law on Occupational Safety and Health; Directive 2000/69/EC which sets health-based limit values for carbon monoxide and benzene in breathing air; Directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 56. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2001. 238p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-336 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: list of ISO standards on controlling the quality of workplace air and workplaces; directory of European "air quality" standards CEN/TC 264; European directives concerning the accreditation for quality assurance; technical rules applicable to formaldehyde or ethylene oxide fumigations in sterilization or disinfection installations (TRGS 513); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): pollution clean-up and work in contaminated areas (524), handling of substances, preparations and products containing dibenzo-p-dioxines and polyhalogenated dibenzofuranes (557) and maximum admissible concentrations at the place of work (900); aerosols directive 75/324/EEC; Directive 89/655/EEC concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work; Directive 2000/39/EC establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values; Directive 1999/92/EC on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 55. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 2001. 238p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1775 De Berardis B., Paoletti L.
Characterization of the thoracic fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area and in an adjacent office building
Caratterizzazione della frazione toracica (PM10) del particolato aerodisperso in un sito urbano ed in un ambiente indoor limitrofo [in Italian]
Airborne particulate matter (PM10) was collected in an urban area (in Rome, Italy) and in an adjacent office building. Samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. A statistical analysis method allowed to identify seven groups of similar particles in the particulate matter and a seasonal trend was demonstrated with an increase in the aluminium-silicate particles and a minor increment in sulfate particles during summer. The results suggest that the characteristics of indoor PM10 depend mostly on the nature of outdoor particulates in the vicinity.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.206-214. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1040 Hazardous Substances (Classes 6,8 and 9) Controls) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]
These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It prescribes detailed control measures for the following classes of dangerous substances: 6 - Toxic substances; 8 - Corrosive substances; 9 - Ecotoxic substances.
Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.905-932.
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R117.PDF [in English]

CIS 02-342 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: addition of a new chapter on the quality of indoor air; analytical laboratories accredited under the provisions of the dangerous substances order; classification and labelling of substances, preparation and products; example of certification of the fumigation of goods holds; formaldehyde disinfection of premises; limit values for substances that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to the reproductive system; methods for the determination of airborne biological substances; European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No.761/2001 of 19 March 2001, enabling the participation of voluntary organizations in a community system of environmental management and audit system (EMAS).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 57. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2001. 248p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-224 Tomei Fr., Ortolani B., Renzoni S., Pascalizi N., Riservato R., Marcellini L., De Sio S., Marinucci F., Tomao E., Baccolo T.P., Anzelmo V., Iosue M., Tomei F., Paolucci M., Ruffino M.G.
Pathological risks incurred by urban police forces and their prevention
Rischi patologia e prevenzione dei vigili urbani [in Italian]
In this review the hazards that urban police forces in Italy are exposed to are evaluated. Atmospheric pollution is considered first among the risk factors of this generally outdoor work, focusing on respiratory systems diseases. Other consequences mentioned include immunotoxic effects, and those depending on continuous noise, neoplasms, cardiovascular disorders and stress factors.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.12-24. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 02-290 Jo W.K., Kim S.H.
Worker exposure to aromatic volatile organic compounds in dry cleaning stores
Results of a study of workers' exposure to aromatic compounds and tetrachloroethylene, contained in four different commercial solvents. For benzene and toluene, there was no significant difference among the indoor air concentrations of the four products. For ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene, the air concentrations were significantly higher in stores using 3 of these solvents than in those using a mixture of tetrachloroethylene. Similar results were obtained in breath concentrations measured prior to and immediately after work. The results indicate that dry cleaning workers working with aromatic compounds have higher exposures than those working with tetrachloroethylene. No difference was observed in the health effects of these exposures.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.466-471. Illus. 13 ref.

2000

CIS 03-731 Concawe Review 9:2
This review covers a wide range of topics highlighting the diversity of CONCAWE's work in the areas of environment, safety and health. Contents: emission control at marine terminals; regional ozone levels in Europe; research on automotive particulate matter; CONCAWE's position on a 10ppm sulfur limit on road fuels; disposal of used lubricating oils; downstream oil industry safety statistics; aquatic toxicity testing for petroleum substances.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2000, Vol.9, No.2, p.1-27. Illus.

CIS 03-730 Concawe Review 9:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emissions of petroleum products and their possible adverse effects on human health and the environment. Contents: the complexity of legislation on refineries; carbon, sulfur and hydrogen in oil refineries; estimating the implications of road fuel quality changes on the EU refining industry; the impact of Auto/Oil I and II on refinery costs and global CO2 emissions; trends in European air quality; personal exposure to air pollutants; global harmonized system of hazard communication for chemicals; MTBE in gasoline.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2000, Vol.9, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-335 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of the summary table on NIOSH analytical methods and new published analytical methods; update of the Law on Chemicals, of the Ordinance on prohibited chemicals and the Law on Dangerous Substances; updates of the following technical rules (TRGS): criteria applicable to certain specific processes and substances aimed at ensuring admissible levels in air over the long term (420) and fumigations (512); update of the Law on Protection against Immissions and corresponding Ordinances; update of Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances; Directive 91/155/EEC defining and laying down the detailed arrangements for the system of specific information relating to dangerous preparations; Directive 96/56/EC on the elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 54. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2000. 264p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-334 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: new NIOSH analytical methods; updates of the Ordinances on chemicals, on prohibited chemicals and on biological substances; Ordinance on major hazards; Directive for writing safety data sheets for dangerous substances and preparations; update of the following technical rules (TRGS): disinfection of premises using formaldehyde (TRSG 522) and sensitizers (TRSG 540); appendices I and II of Directive 88/379/EEC on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 53. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2000. 246p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-333 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of the Ordinance on dangerous substances; Directive 67/548/EEC on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances; Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations; update of the following technical rules (TRGS): list of maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work (900), list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances having reproductive toxicity (905) and list of sensitizers (907).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 52. Ergänzungslieferung, May 2000. 256p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-576 Off to the laundry - How to avoid hygiene problems with fermenting dough cloth
Ab in die Wäsche - Wie bei Gärgut-Tüchern Hygieneprobleme vermieden werden können [in German]
Scientists of the German Employers' Liability Insurance Association found that the concentrations of germs (bacteria and moulds) on cotton cloth that had been used for 41 days in bakeries for fermenting dough were 1000 times higher than those found on unwashed strawberries and lettuce. Sprinkling the cloth with wheat flour, rice flour or starch did not lead to any reduction. It is recommended that the cotton cloth be laundered at least once a month at a temperature of 60°C or higher, and that it be stored under dry conditions. For the hygienic storage of dough for fermentation, a plastic basket lined with cloth that can be easily removed for washing is presented.
Zeitschrift für Backbetriebe, Mar. 2000, No.1, p.4-5. Illus.

CIS 01-537 von Kempski D., Zieger H.R.
Addition of fragrances to indoor air and indoor air quality
REZ Raumluft-Essenzen-Zugabe und Raumluftqualität [in German]
Removing odours and contaminants from indoor air in order to satisfy technical standards is not enough to ensure worker satisfaction. The addition of fragrances is required for providing olfactory comfort. The main features of a fragrance addition system are outlined. Fragrance is placed in a bypass of a building's ventilation air stream. Concentrations of the fragrance between the thresholds of perception and recognition are required for the air to be perceived as fresh and pleasant. Humidity, temperature, air flow and the ratio of air intake and re-circulation are measured to control the system. An experimental test with a specific fragrance mix revealed an optimum at 1.7ppm of the mix in the air when the temperature was 19°C and the relative humidity 38%.
HLH - Heizung Lüftung/Klima Haustechnik, Feb. 2000, Vol.51, No.2, p.68, 70-74. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 01-504 Zagury E., Le Moullec Y., Momas I.
Exposure of Paris taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants within their vehicles
In a cross-sectional study of the exposure of Parisian taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants, measurements were made in the vehicles of 29 randomly selected drivers. Carbon monoxide (CO), fine suspended particles according to the black smoke index (BS) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) were measured. Results show exposure to relatively high concentrations of pollutants: CO (3.8ppm), BS (168µ/m3), NO (625µ/m3) and NO2 (139µ/m3). For CO, the concentrations were clearly lower than the WHO-recommended threshold values. However, the situation is less satisfactory for the other pollutants, especially for the BS index. All concentrations of pollutants recorded were noticeably higher than concentrations in air recorded by the ambient Parisian air-monitoring network and were close to, or slightly exceeded, the concentrations measured at the fixed stations close to automobile traffic. Results justify a medical follow up of this occupational group.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.406-410. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 00-1407 Personal exposure to air pollutants
Health effects of atmospheric pollutants result from personal exposure. The air quality limits fixed by the European Commission are based on ambient air. However, personal exposure is the result of different sources of pollution in air that people actually breathe, of which ambient air is only one. One also needs to take into account indoor exposure levels to pollutants, which are often higher. Knowledge of personal exposure to atmospheric pollutants is essential for understanding the relationships between health effects and air quality. Many studies confirm the diversity of sources and factors that contribute to, or modify, personal exposure. Therefore, the health benefits achievable from the reduction of pollutants in ambient air alone are questionable, and should be balanced against the cost of implementing stringent air quality limit values.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2000, Vol.9, No.1, p.17-18. Illus.

1999

CIS 03-1314 Kalina A., Krochmal D.
Determination of air pollution by using passive dosimeters
Oznaczanie gazowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza za pomocą dozymetrów pasywnych [in Polish]
This monograph describes passive methods of sampling pollutants in air. It contains general and theoretical data concerning the processes and mechanisms involved in the propagation and the level of chemical pollution.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 181p. Illus. 261 ref.

CIS 01-1127 Martin P., Brand F., Servais M.
Correlation of the exposure to a pollutant with a task-related action or workplace: The CAPTIV¿ system
When measuring workplace pollution, the information usually obtained corresponds to the average levels of worker exposures over the sampling period. The use of specific sensors for chemicals can give complementary information, namely continuous exposure information. The CAPTIV system enables the centralization and storage of this information, and is used together with a video system which restores the images of the workplace. The stored video sequences, correlated to specified exposures, can be searched and retrieved automatically. The system allows the correlation of occupational activity with the exposure level. The analysis of collected information may lead to advice on good practice at the workplace or to proposals for modification of existing equipment and processes. An example of using CAPTIV to study a stone-cutting work station is included.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 1999, Vol.43, No.4, p.221-233. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 01-1141 Jedrychowski W.
Ambient air pollution and respiratory health in the east Baltic region
Air pollutants of primary concern to human health in the east Baltic region include particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. Exposure to elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide and ozone is also widespread. Coal-fired power and heavy industrial plants constitute major sources of air pollution. Domestic heating with coal causes high local levels in some areas. The rapid growth of motor vehicle traffic results in increased emissions. Several epidemiologic studies performed in the east Baltic region, mainly in Poland, have documented an association between air pollution exposure and adverse health effects, primarily in the respiratory tract. The associations were mainly seen for particulates or sulfur dioxide, and thus they confirmed the findings from other parts of Europe and the United States.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.5-16. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 01-852 Berenguer Subils M.J.
Indoor air quality: Emissions from materials used for building, interior decoration and maintenance
Calidad del aire interior: emisiones de materiales utilizados en la construcción, decoración y mantenimiento de edificios [in Spanish]
This information note examines the materials most commonly used during the construction, interior decoration and maintenance of buildings in order to assess the impact of these activities on ambient air quality. Contents include: effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on building occupants; various types of emissions (humid or dry products, absorbent materials, cleaning and maintenance products); various elements that could give rise to emissions (furniture, wall-coverings, curtains, walls, ceilings, floors); emissions due to products used for maintenance (cleaning products, interior fragrances, insecticides, rat poison); factors that need to be taken into consideration when carrying out an evaluation of interior air quality; tables listing the chemicals emitted by various maintenance products.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 4 ref.

CIS 01-508 Teufel D., Bauer P., Voigt S., Wagner T.
New medical findings concerning the health effects of summer smog - Computation of the number of deaths caused by summer smog in Germany
Neue medizinische Erkenntnisse über die gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Sommersmog - Berechnung der durch Sommersmog verursachten Todesfälle in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland [in German]
Epidemiological studies conducted in recent years in major cities of 10 countries around the world have attributed an increase in mortality rates to high ozone concentrations. Medical threshold values for ozone as an indicator of summer smog are 90 to 100mg/m3. It was estimated that for 50mg/m3 of additional ozone as a one-hour average, the mortality increases overall by 2.8%, and mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases by 2.1% and 4.0%, respectively. For the same ozone increment, but as an eight-hour average, the corresponding figures are 4.6%, 2.6% and 4.9%. Applying these estimates to the ozone levels measured at 300 stations in Germany between 1990 and 1995, 23,500 deaths were attributable to summer smog during these years. It is recommended to reinforce the current European Union limit of 120mg/m3 and revise it down to 90mg/m3. The current US limit of 240mg/m3 is considered inadequate.
UPI-Institut, Handschuhsheimer Landstr. 118a, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany, July 1999. 29p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: DEM 10.00.

CIS 01-168 Environmental exposure to benzene
This report provides a review of health risks from environmental exposure to benzene. A method is described that allows the estimation of the daily absorbed dose of benzene for a range of individuals representative of different life-styles and occupations. The current understanding of the relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurence of leukaemia is summarized.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 1999. iv, 34p. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 01-145 Ewers U., Krause C., Schulz C., Wilhelm M.
Reference values and human biological monitoring values for environmental toxins - Report on the work and recommendations of the Commission on Human Biological Monitoring of the German Federal Environmental Agency
The working principles and working procedures of the Commission on Human Biological Monitoring in Germany are described. One of its main tasks is to develop scientifically based criteria for the application of human biological monitoring and for the evaluation of human monitoring data in environmental medicine. Two kinds of criteria are recommended: reference values and human biological monitoring values (HBM values). Reference values are intended to indicate the upper margin of the current background exposure of the general population to a given environmental toxin at a given time. HBM values are derived from human toxicology and epidemiology studies and are intended to be used as a basis for a health-related evaluation of human biological monitoring data. At present, reference and HBM values are available for lead in blood, for cadmium and mercury in blood and urine, and for pentachlorophenol in plasma/serum and urine. Reference values have been established for some polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and plasma as well as for hexachlorocyclohexane and hexacholorobenzene in blood as well as for some organochlorines in human milk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1999, Vol.72, No.4, p.255-260. 23 ref.

CIS 00-1665 Baraza Peregrín A.
Ozone: A cure or a hazard?
El ozono, ¿solución o problema? [in Spanish]
Topics: air purification; atmospheric pollution; ozone; disinfection of air; health hazards; limitation of exposure; odour threshold; organic compounds; threshold limit values; water treatment.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.75, p.15-21. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 00-1159 Mücke H.W.
Microorganic emissions from composting and digestion plants
Keimemissionen aus Kompostierungs- und Vergärungsanlagen [in German]
Concentrations of moulds and bacteria were determined in air samples taken in and near 3 aerobic garbage composting plants and 2 anaerobic sewage digestion plants. In 2 of the plants composting occurred in wind rows. One of the composting plants used drums. The measured concentrations of moulds and bacteria ranged from about 100 to 10,000 colony forming units per m3. No increased concentrations of moulds and bacteria were measured at distances of 100 to 200m from covered plants equipped with a ventilation system with air purifying filters. Open-air plants were found to create higher concentrations up to 500m distance. Recommendations for studying the influence of garbage composting and anaerobic sewage digestion plants on the environment are presented.
M. & D. Gräbner, Gotenstrasse 3, 96146 Altendorf bei Bamberg, Germany, Jan. 1999. 499p. Illus. 173 ref.

CIS 00-1127 Menzies D., Pasztor J., Rand T., Bourbeau J.
Germicidal ultraviolet irradiation in air conditioning systems: Effect on office worker health and well-being - A pilot study
The objectives of this study were to test whether installation and operation of gernimicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lights in central ventilation systems would be feasible, without adverse effects, undetected by building occupants, and effective in eliminating microbial contamination. 104 workers participated; their environmental satisfaction ratings were not different whether GUV lights were on or off. Headache, difficulty concentrating and eye irritation occurred less often with GUV lights on whereas skin rash or irritation was more common. Overall, the average number of work-related symptoms reported was 1.1 with GUV lights off compared with 0.9 with GUV lights on. Installation and operation of GUV lights in central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of office buildings is feasible, cannot be detected by workers, and does not seem to result in any adverse effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.397-402. 34 ref.

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